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1854 -Gazetteer of India -Vol 4 [343] 


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realpatidar.com A 

GAZETTEER 


THE TERRITORIES UNDER THE GOVERNMENT 

OF 

IC&jSt-UnDiia 

AUD or TBB 

NATIVE STATES ON THE CONTINENT OP INDIA. 


QQlfP TT.Kn BY THE AUTHORITY OP THE HON. CJOURT OP DmEOTOES, 
AlfU OEtIHFLY PBOM DOCITMBNT8 IN THBIB POSSBBSION, 

BY 

EDWARD THORNTON, ESQ., 

AUTBOB or 3-Hl "HISTORY OF TBR BRITISH BMFIBR IN INDIA.'* 


IN FOUR VOLUMES* 

VOL. IV. 


LONDON : 

Wm. H. ALLEN & CO. 

7. LBADENHALL 3TREBT. 

1854. 


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1854 -Gazetteer of India -Vol 4 [343] 



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1854 -Gazetteer of India -Vol 4 [343] 



OMINVS 




MEA'r 




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* 

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realpatidar.com A 

GAZETTEER 


THE TERRITORIES UNDER THE GOVERNMENT 

OF 

IC&jSt-UnDiia 

AUD or TBB 

NATIVE STATES ON THE CONTINENT OP INDIA. 


QQlfP TT.Kn BY THE AUTHORITY OP THE HON. CJOURT OP DmEOTOES, 
AlfU OEtIHFLY PBOM DOCITMBNT8 IN THBIB POSSBBSION, 

BY 

EDWARD THORNTON, ESQ., 

AUTBOB or 3-Hl "HISTORY OF TBR BRITISH BMFIBR IN INDIA.'* 


IN FOUR VOLUMES* 

VOL. IV. 


LONDON : 

Wm. H. ALLEN & CO. 

7 . £.EAJ>BNHALL 3TREBT. realpatidar.com 

1854. 


Is; -Sb, Google 


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P¥ 

COK CSiiOK.; AND WTHAN# SRIAT ftUHN 
l^INCOLN'S tNH PIMLDA. 


f>0, 

Ji 

■T ■ 





: - 

■m 

^T| 

■-si I 
■sicrr 

^pie. 


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A GAZETTBEE, 


OOJ, 


OOJAL, — A river of Katfcywarj rising in lat. 21° 31, long. 
70° 51', and flowing in a circuitous, but generalljr westerly 
direction, for 75 miles, falls into the Bbader river, near the 
town of Nurvee Bunder, in lat. 21° 27', long. 69° 69'. 

OOJBANEE,^ in the British district of Etawab, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route &om Calpee to the cantonment of Etawa, and X7^ 
miles S.E. of the latter. The road in this part of the route is 
indifferent, the country level and cultivated. Lat. 26^ 38', 
long. 79° 17'. 

OOJEIN,^ • in the territory of Gwalior, or possessions of the 
Scindia family, a city on the right bank of the river Seepra. It^ 
is of oblong outline, six miles in circumference, surrounded by 
a stone wall with round towers. Though there is some waste 
ground within this inclosure, much the greater part is densely 
populated. The houses, which are much crowded together, are 
ioine of brick, some of wood ; but in the construction of the 
former, a frame-work of wood is first made, and the intervals 
then filled up with bricks. They are covered either with tiles 
or lime terraces. The principal bazar is a spacious street, with 
houses of two stories j the lower of which is built of stone, 
and occupied by shops ; the upper, of brick or wood, furnishes 
t^e habitation of the owner and his ikmily. There are four 

* CJjjen GfTaMBin ; UJjiijuni of WiUon ;* Anjm of Jai Singh f Ujjaia of 
Oojom of Brtggs*a Index ; Owjxiii of A jeen Akboiy / Oojeln 
^ Baaawun 1 a 1 f Uj&in and Ujjajaoa of Piiaiep* (Jamen) * Ougoio of 
lEeimeli- 

e B ^ 


t B.t.C. Ml Dp«. 


■ Gmnlen. Tables 
of Vk 


I E-IjO. Ml. Doc. 

* Am. Rci.tI. 
Hitntrr. Narrat- 
of Joun»T fnm 
Afim to OuJelD. 


I Snniorlt Diet. 

199 . 

* Am. Rm. V. 1^. 

* Diet col. 41. 

* Jl, fiO. 

t l^crn. nf AoMCr , , 

Kiiio, 97. ealpatidar.com 

« India TalilH, 

Ik. 109 , lOS. 


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OOJEIN- 


* PHntirpp UfldM 

IL ei. 


• Af, R««. T. IM 
— Attpuu. Lalxiurt 
of Jftf ft Slfttift. 

* Joum. Ai, So*** 
Bent. mT, p, iii? 
— CSonntljr* Con- 
dition of Oojeln* 


• Hunter, at 
iuprft, ao. 


mosques, and a great number of Hindoo temples. The city U 
well supplied with water both from the river and fi:*om two 
large tanks, one of which is very handsome* The head of the 
Scindia family has a palace here, apaciotia and commodioufi, 
but with little of exterior magnificence* Near it is an antique 
gate, said to have originally belonged to a fort built bj 
Vikramaditya, whose reign is placed by chronologists® more 
than half a century prior to the commencement of the Christian 
era* At the southern extremity of the town is an observatory, 
constructed'* by jai Singh, the scientific rajah of Jeypoor or 
Amber, and minister of Mahomed Shah, emperor of Helhi, who 
reigned from 1719 to 1748* Oojein,” says a recent observer,^ 
is surrounded on evety side but the south with an almost 
uninterrupted belt of groves and gardens* Their names, had 
I room for them, would be a history of the place and of its 
manners* On on© side lies the garden of Dowlut-Bao, on the 
other that of bis carpenter ; here is the garden of Bajah Mai, 
whose name has outlived bis history ; while near, and in contrast 
to it, is another, which, but a few days ago, gloried in the name 
of the Baizi Bai, now publishes, by a change of title, the 
fickleness of fortune* The Maharaj Bagh (Dowlut-Bso’s) was 
formerly the pride of five proprietors i but the modemJAhab 
coveted his neighbour's vineyard, out of five small gardens 
made a large one, and deprived the owners of the inheritance 
of their fathers. The best of the gardens seem to have been 
planted by Mussulmans, who, we leam from Baber, introduced 
the fashion into India/' About a mOe to the north of the 
present city are the ruins of the ancient capital of Malwa, 
which, according to Brah mini cal* tradition, connected with a 
ridiculous feble, was overwhelmed by a shower of earth 
poured down upon it as a divinely-inflicted punishment* 

On the cause of the destruction of the ancient city, dif- 
ferent opinions have been advanced. It has been suggested 
that an inundation of the river might have produced the 
disastrous efiect ; and the suggestion is countenanced by the 
fact, that in modem times the river has been known to overflow 
a great part of the present town, and cause much damage, not- 
withstanding the shortness of its course, and its comparatively 
inconsiderable volume of water. Another conjecture p has ir.com 
ascribed the catastrophe to an earthquake; but the alleged 

a 



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■oundneas of the walls is presumed to offer an obstacle to the 
reception of this view. A thii^ hypothesis assigns as the 
cause, the operation of a violent wind, canying with it showers 
of loose earth or sand. To this, however, the nature of the 
soil seems opposed. The first of these conjectures is embraced 
by Malcolm,^ the last by Hunter.® Other® writers, however, 
consider that no extraordinary cause is required to account for 
the state of the ancient city, which, as they believe, presents 
only the usual appearances of ruined walls throughout Hin- 
dostan ; the earth, which in some instances is found to cover 
fragments of masonry, being but the accumulation of the 
rubbish from other buildings in different stages of decay. 

Five* miles north of the city, the river separates into two 
channels, and surrounds an oval-shaped rocky eminence, 
crowned by a palace never finished, and now in a state of ruin, 
though, from the excellence of the materials used in its con- 
struction, its decay is far lees rapid than might be looked for. 
It is believed to have been erected on the site, and with the 
materials, of an ancient Hindoo temple. The island was con- 
nected with the left bank of the river by two bridges ; one of 
which has been nearly swept away ; the other is little, if at all, 
impaired. Close to this latter bridge are some curious works, 
by which the stream has been diverted to purposes of pleasure 
and ornament. The vicinity of these works is adorned by an 
arcade, and a walled inclosure at a short distance is suspected 
to have been once a garden. 

The principal trade of Oojein is in cotton fabrics, the wares of 
Europe and China, imported by way of Surat, pearls, diamonds, 
and especially opium, the growth of the surrounding country. 

Oojein is one of the seven sacred® cities of the Hindoos, and 
the first meridian of their geographers.* It appears to be 
mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of Ozoana.t Its 
period of chief grandeur has been supposed to date from the 
era of Vikramajit ; but previously, it is believed to have been 

^ ThoM who wish for information in regard to the enperetitione con- 
nected with the place, may consult the lively paper, by Lieut. Edward 
Oonolly, in the Journal of the Aaiatic Society of Bengal, 1837, page 818, 
already referred to. 

t Not Oaene, as it is given by Danville,' and copied by Rennell,* 
Hamilton, and others. 

B 2 ® 


V Centra] India, 

I. 10. 

• At. Rtt. v1. *0. 

* Hamilton. 
OaxotUar, 11. S41. 


' Conollj. Jonm. 
At. Soc. Benfsl, 
lSt7, p. SIS. 


* Wilton, Santcrit 
Diet. ISO. 


* EclaJre ia ttmtnt 

aur la Carta da , . , 

rinde, 77. realpatidar.com 

* Mem. Map of 
Hindoatan. 147. 


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OOJHANEE. 


* Journ. Aa. 8 «>c. 
Benf. iaA7.p. lOAT 
— Tumour, on 
lnacrl|itloDt on 
lh« Columns at 
D«lhi. 


* Jour. R 07 . Aa. 
80 c. Tl. 914 — 

87 kea, Noi«a on I ha 
RaMicioua, Moral, 
and Political Siala 
of Ancient India. 


• Prfoarp, India 
Tablet, II 81. 
Elplilnalona. Hitt, 
of India, I. 278. 

* PrinMp, Tablet, 
11 . 100 . 


^ Perlalita, rol. I. 
p. Isisl. 

• Id. Ir. 108. 


* Id. II. 200. 


* InHfa Pol. DIsp. 
16 Auf. 1840. 


• Id. 


, 1888. 


I lla7. 

* Malcolm, Cen« 
trmi India, 11. 840. 

* Oardon, Tablet 
of Routea. 


* S.I.C. M a. Doe. 


populouo and wealthy. According* to the Mahawanao, a 
Ceylonese record, Piyadaso, or Asoka, or Dhanmasoko, grand- 
son of the renowned Chandragupta, was in the year b.o. 825 
viceroy of Oojein, being sent thither, as into honourable 
banishment, by his father Bindusaro, king of Patilipura or 
Patna, who dreaded his sanguinary and turbulent disposition. 
The same document states, **that* b.c. 157 the Buddhist 
high-priest Dhammarahkito took with him 40,000 disciples 
from the Dakkbinagiri temple at Oojein to Ceylon, to assist 
in laying the foundation-stone of the great temple at 
Anuradhapura.” Later, Yikramaditya,* or Yikramajit, king 
of Oojein, was so renowned, that the Saravat era, 57 B.c., 
universally used throughout Hindustan to this day, dates* 
from the commencement of his reigpi. His son Cbandrasen 
is represented* to have possessed himself of all Hindustan. 
At the commencement of the eleventh century, when Mahmud 
of Qhuznee invaded India, Oojein was the seat of an in- 
dependent rajah ruling^ Malwa. It appears to have fallen 
into the hands* of the Mussulmans in the year 1310 ; and after 
the assumption of independence in 1887 by the Dilawar 
Ghori, the viceroy of the Patan sovereign of Delhi, the 
seat of the government of Malwa was transferred first to 
Dhar, and subsequently to Mandu. In 1561 it was with the 
rest of Malwa subjugated* by Akbar. It fell into the hands 
of the Mahrattas about the middle of the last century, and 
was regarded as the capital of Scindia's possessions, until 
Doulut Bao, in 1810, fixed his residence at Gwalior. Oojein, 
with its annexed lands, was assessed at 1,40,000 rupees annually 
to Scindia’s government ; but by a recent arrangement,^ the 
town and territory have been assigned to the Baiza Baee, 
formerly regent* of Gwalior, at the same annual rent. Eleva- 
tion above the sea 1,698 feet.* The city is sometimes called 
Avanti and Yisala. Distance* S.W. from Goonah 152 miles, 
from Gwalior 260, S.W. from Allahabad, by Saugor, 598. Lat. 
23'' 10', long. 75" 47'. 

OOJHANEE,^ in the British district of Budaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 


^ The diffuse and obscure Puranio lore respecting Vikramaditja, 
be consulted in WUford, As. Res. viii. 268, 269 ; 117 — 241 ; z. 41 — 209. 

4 


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realpatidar.com OOJ— OOM. 

route from Budaou to AUjgurh, eight miles W. by S. of the 
former. Population 6,361.* Lat. 28°, long. 79° 4'. 

OO JK£ CHOEBEI,^ in the British district of Mirzapoor, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from the city of Benares to that of Allahabad, 
42* miles W. of the former, 33 S.E. of the latter. Water can 
be obtained but from one well ; but within a mile of the 
village is a jhil or pond, where it may always be had. The 
road in this part of the route is excellent the country low, 
level, and partially cultivated. Lat. 25° 19^, long. 82° 25'. 

OOKEE MUTH,^ in the British district of Kumaon, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
having a Hindoo temple, and lying on the route from Srinugur 
to Kedamath Temple, 18 miles S. of the latter. It is situate 
on an eminence of gneiss* rock, on the left bank of the 
Mandakini, here crossed by a jhula or rope bridge. Elevation 
above the sea, of the temple, 4,339 feet ; of the jhula, 3,464. 
Lat. 30P 31', long. 79° 8'. 

OOKLEE. — A town in the British district of Sholapoor, 
presidency of Bombay, 66 miles S. of Sholapoor. Lat. 16° 42', 
long. 75° 56'. 

OOLAH. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or the 
Nizam's dominions, 129 miles N.N.W. from Hyderabad, and 
144 miles S. by E. from Ellichpoor. Lat. 19° KX, long. 78° 9'. 

OOL AUL. — A town in the British district of South Canara, 
presidency of Madras, three miles S. of Mangalore. Lat. 
12° Sfy, long. 74° 54'. 

OOLOOE. — A town in the native state of Travancore, 55 
miles N.W. by W. from Cape Comorin, and five miles N.W. 
by N. from Trivandrum. Lat. 8° 32', long. 76° 58'. 

OOLOWTEES, a river of Guzerat, rises in lat. 22° 13', long. 
71° 33', and, flowing in an easterly direction through the 
British district of Ahmedabad for fifty miles, fails into the 
Gulf of Cambay, in lat. 21° 58', long. 72° 14'. 

OOLPAR,^ in the British district of Surat, presidency of 
Bombay, a town situate on a small river, which, eight miles 
farther west, falls into the Gulf of Cambay. Population* 
3,500. Distance N. from Surat 12 miles. Lat. 21° 17', long. 
72° 47'. 

OOMDEB. — A town in the British province of Sattara, 


• 8Utl*tS«i of 
N.W. Prow. S3. 

I E.l.C. M*. Doe. 


* Oordrn, Tables 
of Routes, 107. 

» Von Orllch, 
Travels In India, 
II. ISO. 

Garden. Tables of 
Route*, ut lupm. 
I B.I.O. M*. Doe. 
B.I.O. Trifoa. 
Bare. 


* Jonrfi. At. Soe. 
Beng. 1S4S. iWII. 
•^Herbert Mlae- 
mloflcal Survey 
of the Himalaya. 


B.I.C. Me. Doe. 


B.I.C. Me. Doe. 


E.IA;. Me. Doe. 


I E.I.C. Me. Doe. 


* Tranancte. of 
Mrd. and Hhye. 

Soe. of Bombay, 

1 . 4c—oibeon. ealpatidar.com 

Sketch of Ouierat. 

B.I.C. Me. Doe. 


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OOM. 


presidency of Bombay, 108 miles E. by S. of Sattara. Lat. 

17° 14', long. 75° SO'. 

OOMERKOTE. — See Omercotb. 

B.i.c. Ma. Doc. OOMNEE. — A town in the native state of Oude, 12G miles 

N. from Lucknow, and 60 miles E. from Pilleebheet. Lat. 

28° 40', long. 80° 61'. 

• B.I.O. Mt. Doo. OOMRAIR,^ in the recently lapsed territory of Nagpore, a 

town on the right bank of the river Amb, a tributary of the 

* Jenkins, Report Weingunga. Iron-ore* is found in its vicinity. Distance from 

on Nafpore, ifl. 8.E., 24 miles. Lat. 20° 50', long. 79° 22'. 

B.I.C. Me, Doe. OOMRAIT. — A town in the recently escheated territory of 

Nagpore or Berar, situate 72 miles N.N.W. from Nagpore, 
and 66 miles E.N.E. from Baitool. Lat. 22° 7', long. 78° 46'. 

Garden. Tebiae of OOMRAWAH, in the British district of Shahjehanpoor, 

Roiitea, 1.7. lieutenant-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from Futtehgurh to the cantonment of Shahje- 
hanpoor, and 16 miles S.W. of the latter. The road in this 
part of the route is indifferent ; the country level, open, and 
partially cultivated. Lat. 27° 46', long. 79° 50'. 

OOMRAWTJTTEE. — A town situate on the route from 
Nagpore to Aurungabad, and in one of the districts of Hyder- 
abad which has been recently transferred to the British govern- 
ment. It is a place of great commercial importance ; several 
considerable firms are established here, and most of the influ- 
ential merchants of Upper India, as well as those of Bombay 
of any note, have either correspondents or branch houses at 
this place. The subordinates of some of these firms spread 
themselves over the cotton-growing districts, and make 
advances to the cultivators, or assist them in paying their 
kists, on the agreement that the produce shall be at the disposal 
of their employer. When the crop is ready for picking, the 
cultivator for the most part has nothing farther to do with it, the 
speculating capitalists being apprehensive that if the cultivator 
were permitted to gather it, much would be purloined by him. 

When picked, it is transferred to Oomrawuttee, where are 
large warehouses appropriated to its reception, and where it is 
cleaned and repacked for exportation, either from Bombay or 
from Calcutta. The capricious and oppressive transit-duties 
levied in the Nizam’s territories, in which Oomrawuttee Tjip-aafi dar.com 

situate, formerly rendered the transport to either place both 

0 


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realpatidar.com OOMKAWUTTEB. 

expensiye ftnd unoertoin ; and it required very considerable care 
and skill in the management of the journey to effect it other- 
wise than at a ruinous rate. The duties on the yarious roads 
were let to contractors ; and an association of persons at 
Oomrawuttee, called Hoondakurs, annually sent out messengers 
to those holding the contracts for the yarious roads, to ascer- 
tain the terms on which merchandise could be passed. This 
was not a matter of easy arrangement, the country being 
parcelled out into small districts, and the reyenue fiumed to 
yarious persons. If the terms demanded by one contractor 
appeared extrayagant, the applicant had recourse to another ; 
and one consequence was, that, instead of proceeding by the 
best and most direct route, the cotton was often carried by a 
circuitous one, to the great injury of the article, fiom protracted 
exposure to the weather, and to other deteriorating influences. 
But eyen when the demands of the goyemment claimants were 
settled, the arrangement was not completed ; for if the com- 
modities in transit had to pass through any jaghire yillages 
(and jaghires are in many parts numerous), duty was to be paid 
to the jaghiredar, in addition to the amount leyied in the name 
of the goyemment. If indeed it were thought desirable to 
embarrass the operations of commerce, and discourage the 
interchange of commodities, a more effectiye mode of accom- 
plishing these objects could scarcely be deyised than the system 
of transit-duties adopted in the territories of the Nizam. 
The Hoondakurs haying at length selected a route, and arranged 
the terms of transit with the yarious claimants of toll thereon, 
were in a condition to enter into engagements with the holders 
of merchandise for passing it to the required point. The 
brinjarries or carriers were bound to take the road prescribed 
by the Hoondakurs, because the arrangements made in regard 
to the transit-duties applied to no other. For this reason 
probably, among others, the brinjarries inyariably refused to 
make any engagement as to time, being compelled to follow 
routes which would not haye been chosen but for the absurd 
and mischieyous fiscal arrangements which preyailed. From 
this cause, bad roads were often preferred to good ones, and 
routes which greatly diyerge from the direct course to such as 
follow it. The adyantages of Oomrawuttee as an erUrepSt for 
cotton, and the facilities of the districts within a moderate dis- 

7 


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OOM. 


* B.I.C. M •. Doe. 


* Qardra, Tablet 
of Rout«t.'98. 


S.I.O. lit. Doe. 


> B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


* Oardtn, Tablet 
of Routet. 31. 


I B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


* aarden. Table* 
of Routt^ 7. 


tance for producing that article, may be estimated from the 
fact that, in the teeth of all the impediments which tended so 
greatly to check and cripple the operations of the trade, it still 
flourished. A single merchant, in the season of 1842, despatched 
100,000 bullock-loads to Calcutta. Beads hare been spoken 
of as forming the great essential for fully dereloping the 
cotton-producing powers of India. To a great extent this 
view is just ; and Oomrawuttee has considerable advantages in 
this respect, a large portion of the lines both to Calcutta and 
Bombay being of the best description ; but as was observed by 
a witness before a committee of the House of Commons in 
1848, ** unless you do away with your transit-duties, your roads 
are of no use whatever.” Happily, as to Oomrawuttee, these 
mistaken and ruinous imposts no longer intercept the prog^ss 
of commerce. This place being within one of the districta 
recently ceded by the Nizam to the British government in 
satisfaction of arrears of subsidy, it now partakes of all the 
advantages enjoyed by the dominions of that government in 
India, and among them, that of freedom from the baleful effects 
of transit-duties. Distance from Aurungabad, N.B., 170 miles ; 
from Nagpore, W., 90 ; from Bombay, N.E., 860 ; from Hyder- 
abad, N., 246. Lat. 20° 50^, long. 77^ 49'. 

OOIVIBEE,^ in the British district of Allahabad, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route by Bajapoor ferry from the cantonment of Allahabad to 
Banda, &nd nine^ miles W. of the former. The road in this 
part of the route is bad, the country level and well cultivated. 

Lat. 26° 27', long. 81° 48'. 

OOIdBEIT. — A town in the British district of Elaira, pre- 
sidency of Bombay, 32 miles E. by S. of Kaira. Lat. 22° 40', 
long. 73° lO. 

OOMBOWBEE,^ in the British district of Futtehpoor, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Cawnpore to Futtehpore, and 14 miles* N.W. 
of the latter. The road in this part of the route is indifferent, 
the country level and partially cultivated. Lat. 26° 3', long. 
80^43'. 

OOMUfiEE in the British district of Mynpooree, lieu- 

- * i3r com 

tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from the city of Agra to Etawah, and 28* miles 

s 


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realpatidar.com OOM— OON. 

N. W. of the latter. The road in this part of the route is good ; 
the country cultivated, and studded with small villages. Lat. 
2r 4', long. 78^ 44'. 

OOMXJKQIIRH, in the British district of Muttra, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small 
town on the route from the cantonment of Allygurh to that of 
Btawah, and 44 miles S.E. of the former. It has a market, 
and is supplied with water from wells. The surrounding 
country is open, with a clayey soil, well cultivated. Liat. 
27^ 22', long. 78° 26'. 

OOMURKBIB. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, 
or the Nizam’s dominions, situate on the left bank of the Payne 
Gunga river, and 161 miles N.N.W. firom Hyderabad. Lat. 
19° 83', long. 77° 45'. 

OON A. — A town in the peninsula of Kattywar, province of 
Ouzerat, situate 102 miles 8. from Bajkote, and 06 miles S.E. 
by E. from Poorbunder. Lat. 20° 50', long. 71° 2'. 

OONCHADEH,* in the British district of Allahabad, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route by the Xutra Pass from Allahabad to Eewa, and 28’ 
milee S.E. of the former. The road in this part of the route is 
rather good ; the country level, well cultivated, and studded 
with small villages. Lat. 25° 14', long. 82° 12'. 

OONCHADEH, in the British district of Allahabad, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Allahabad to Palamow, 38 miles S.E. of the 
former. Lat. 25° 1', long. 82° 17'. 

OONCHOD. — A town in the native state of Gwalior, or 
territory of Scindia’s family, situate 52 miles S.E. by E. from 
Oojein, and 71 miles S.W. by W. from Bhopal. The united 
pergunnabs of Sonkach and of Oonchod, yielding^ an annual 
revenue of 90,000 rupees, were, by the treaty of Gwalior in 
1844, placed under British management, and allocated for the 
maintenance of the augmented Gwalior contingent. Lat. 
22° 44', long. 76° 28'. 

OONDA. — A town in the British district of Bancoora, pre- 
sidency of Bengal, 87 miles N.W. by W. of Calcutta. Lat. 
23° 7', long. 87° 14'. 

OONDBACONDAH. — A town in the native state of 
Hydrabad, or the Nizam’s dominions, 82 miles E. by S. from 

9 


E.I.e. Mt. Doe. 


E.I.C. III. Doc. 

1 E.I.e. Ms. Doc. 

• 0«Hen. Table* 
of Routes, 94. 

E.I.e. M*. Doe. 


* Furiber Owiillor 
Papers presented 
to Pwrllameiit, 

April, 1844. p. 94. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

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OON. 


> E.l.C. If*. Doe. 


* Jacob. Report 
on Katlcawar, IS, 
70. 


B.I.e. Mt. Doe. 


> B.I.e. Ma. Doe. 
Buchanan. Sur- 
ety of Eaatam 
ludia, II. 8. 


* Report of Com- 
mittee on Raj' 
mahl Canal, 91. 


• Thoraton, Hitt, 
of Brltltb India, 

1. 44S. 


* Scott, Hitt, of 
Doocal, In App. to 
Hi«t. of Deccan, 

II. 49S. 


Hjdrabad, and 75 miles N.W. £ix>m Guntoor. Lat. 17^ 
long. 79° 44'. 

OOND SURWEYA,' in the peninsula of Kattywar, pro- 
vince of Guzerat, a small praut or district. It is bounded on 
the west by the prant of Kattywar, and on all other sides by 
that of Gohilwar ; lies between lat. 21° 18' — 21° 8(y, long. 

71° 38' — 71° 55' ; is twenty-six miles in length from north-east 
to south-west, and thirteen in extreme breadth. No official 
return has been made of the area, but, according to a probable 
approximation, it may be stated at 174 square miles. It is a 
level, low district, extending on each side of the river Setronjee, 
and on the north side of the WuUak hills, and contains fifty* 
three villages,^ and a population of 11,878 persons, and held 
chiefly by Rajpoots. They pay collectively a tribute of 12,878 
rupees annually to the Guicowar. 

OONDURGAON. — A town in the British district of 
Sholapoor, presidency of Bombay, 82 miles N.W. of Sholapoor. 

Bat. 18° 1', long. 75° 89'. 

OONDWA NULLAH,^ in the British district of Bhaugul- 
poor, presidency of Bengal, a small stream, discharging itself 
into the Ganges on the right side. It drains an extensive jhil 
or shallow lake, becoming a morass during the dry season, and in 
the periodical rains having a great^ body of water. It gives name 
to a village with an antique fort, to which, in 1763, the army of 
Meer Cossim Ali, subahdar of Bengal, then engaged in hosti- 
lities with the East-India Company, fled, after being defeated 
in a general engagement near Sootee. On the intrenchments 
were mounted about 100 pieces of artillery, and they were 
manned by a force estimated at 60,000 men.* It was, how- 
ever, taken by the British in September, by a night attack 
from two different points ; one of these movements being 
intended to divert the attention of the enemy from the other, 
which, it is stated, was undertaken upon the information of a 
soldier, who, having deserted from the British army to that of 
Meer Cossim, had become tired of the latter service, and made 
his peace with his former employers by afibrding this assist- 
ance.^ The slaughter of the garrison is represented as great ; 
the surprise having rendered them incapable of defending 
themselves with effect, though the number of the assailants ar.com 
did not exceed 8,000 men of all arms. Ooondwa Nullah is on 

10 


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realpatidar.com OON OOB. 

the route from Burhampoor to Bajmahal, 70 miles^ N. of 
former, eight S. of latter, 188 N. of Calcutta, by Burhampoor. 
I^t. 24° 68', long. 87° 63'. 

OONIABA,^ in the Bajpoot state of Jeypore, a considerable 
town, the principal place of the small raj or state^ held by a 
junior branch of the reigning family of Jeypore. The rajah 
resides here, in a fort of masonry. The town* is surrounded 
by a wall, with ditch. Distant S. of Jeypore 70 miles. L»at. 
26° 66', long. 76° 10'. 

OONTABEE. — A town in the British district of Palamow, 
presidency of Bengal, 46 miles N.W. of Palamow. Lat. 24° 16', 
long. 83° 30'. 

- OONYENEE, in the British district of Bareilly, division of 
Pilleebheet, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Pro- 
vinces, a village on the left bank of the Bhagul river, on the 
route from the town of Pilleebheet to Nugeena, and 16 miles 
N.W. of the former. Lat. 28° 46', long. 79° 41'. 

OOPIN UNQADY. — A town in the British district of 
South Canara, presidency of Madras, 30 miles E. of Mangalore. 
Lat. 12° 60', long. 76° 20'. 

OOPLANA. — A town in the British district of Hydrabad, 
in the province of Scinde, presidency of Bombay, 66 miles 
S.S.W. of Hydrabad. Lat. 24° 30', long. 68° 6'. 

OOBAGHUM. — A town in the native state of Cochin, pre- 
sidency of Madras, 33 miles N. from Cochin, and nine miles S. 
from Trichoor. Lat. 10° 26', long. 76° 17'. 

OOBALWADA. — A town in the British district of Cud- 
dapah, presidency of Madras, 62 miles N. of Cuddapah. Lat. 
15° 14', long. 78° 67'. 

OOBCHA,' • in Bundelcund, a town, the principal place of a 
raj or principality knowm by the name of Oorcha or Tehree. It 
lies three or four miles to the right or south-west of the route 
from Agra to Saugor, 142 miles* S.E. of the former, 131 N. of 
the latter, and on the left or west side of the river Betwa. 
TieflTenthaler,* writing eighty years ago, describes it as situate 
on a rocky eminence ; as being about three miles in circuit, 
surrounded by a wall of unhewn stones piled one upon the 
other without cement, with three lofty gateways. The fortress, 

^ UrchA of Tmsid ; Orcha of Brigga's Index ; Oncha of Renoell;' Orcha 
of Elphtnstone ;* Orcha or Uchcha of Franklin.* 

II 


* Garden, Table* 
of RouIm, 07, 09. 


I E.I.C. M*. Doe. 

* BrouKhton, 
Letter* from a 
Mabratta Caanp, 
77, ns. 

* A*. Rea. rl. 07 
— -Huoter, Narrat. 
of Joum. from 
A|rra to OtOein. 
E.I.C. M*. Doc. 


B.I.C. Mi. Doc! 


B.I.O. Mi. Doe. 


B.I C. Mi. Doc. 


.B.I.C. Mi. Doc. 


E.I.C. Mi. Doc. 


I E.I.C. Mi. Doe. 


* Garden, Tablaa 
of Route*, 09. 

a L 199. 


I In Index to Map 
In Mem. of Hln- 
dooitan, 410. 

• Hi*i. of india,)atidar.com 

11. 071. 

• Tran*. Roy. A«. 

Soo.l OSS^Mem. 
of Bundelcund. 


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OOKCHA. 


* Mundj, 
Skmtk—, N. IfS. 

* ircni«, Pont. 
Rttellout, S4. 


• Elliott, Supt )e> 
mmt toOloMaiy, 
N.W P. 370. 

Tod, Annal* of 

I. ltd. 

7 Klltott, ut aupr*, 
W. 


* Ul tupro, 08. 


* Traniactt. Roj. 
A*. 8oc. 1. U02. 


nituate within the town, is represented as a fine structure, 
containing the handsome residence of the rajah, as well as a 
splendid palace built for the accommodation of the Padshah 
Jehang^r. The communication with the rest of the town the 
writer states to be by means of a wooden bridge, the fortress 
during the periodical rains being insulated by a branch of the 
flooded Betwa. In the town is a temple ornamented^ with 
lofty spires. 

The raj of which this town is the capital ** was^ estimated, 
in 1832, to contain 2,160 square miles, 640 villages, with a 
population of 192,000 souls ; yielding a revenue of 10,00,000 
rupees (100,000/.), and maintaining a force of 1,200 cavalry 
and 4,000 infantry.” The revenue appears to be on the 
decline, as in 1837 it was estimated at only 6,00,000 rupees 
(60,000/.) ; while the military force in 1847 was computed at 
between 7,000 and 8,000 men, of whom more than 7,000 were 
infantry. The rajah pays to the Jhansi chief, through the 
British government, 3,000 rupees per annum, as quit-rent for 
the jaghire of Terhowlee. 

The rajah of Oorcha is considered the head of the Boon- 
dela race, of Bajpoot origin, being descended from a spurious 
branch® of the Guhurwars. According to a recent authority,^ 
Hurdeo, one of the Qurhwar family, came into the country 
with a slave-girl, and took up his abode at Gurh Kurar, in the 
neighbourhood of Oorcha. He was there invited to give his 
daughter in marriage to the rajah of Oorcha, but refused, on 
account of objection to his caste or descent. After much 
importunity, however, he gave his consent, on condition that 
the rajah should at the marriage feast partake of the prepared 
viands, and thus lose all distinction of caste. The rajah con- 
sented, was poisoned with all his family, and the Gurhwar 
obtained possession of the country. His son was called 
Boondela, because he was the ofispring of a bandee or slave- 
girl ; and this name has been given to his descendants. This 
origin of the family is assigned by Elliott® to the beginning of 
the thirteenth century ; but Franklin is of opinion that the event 
occurred® os late as the close of the fourteenth century. The 
town® of Oorcha was built in 1531, by Pretap Hrad, the chief 
of the Bundelas. Madhikar Sah, his grandson, appear^ 

have advanced his raj to considerable prosperity by gaining the 

la 


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realpatidar.com OOBCHA. 

favour of Akbar. Birsing Deo,* tbe son and successor of the 
last-mentioned rajah, was a notorious freebooter, and thence 
called Dang,^ a name equivalent to robber ; from which circum- 
stance Bundelcund is also called Dangaya.^ The desperate 
character of Birsing Deo pointed him out to Selim, son and 
declared heir of Akbar, as a proper instrument to cut off the 
celebrated Abulfazl, his father's favourite and minister, and 
who was thought unfavourable to the prince's views. Birsing 
Deo accordingly laid an ambuscade^ for Abulfazl, at Berkeh 
Sarae, as he proceeded towards Gwalior in his return from the 
Deccan, and, notwithstanding a valorous defence, the obnoxious 
minister was killed,t and his head sent to Selim, by whom the 
murderer was amply rewarded.^ Jajhar Singh, son and suc- 
cessor of Birsing Deo, revolted* against the sovereign of Delhi, 
but was overpowered, driven to take refuge in Gondwana, and 
bis country seized by the conqueror. Pehar Singh, however, 
his brother, was reinstated, and the Oorcha rajahs continued 
feudatories of the padshahs of Delhi until the dissolution of the 
empire. The raj or principality has been, however, much 
reduced, Dutteea being formed out of it, probably by partition 
arising out of family arrangements, as its chief is of the same 
lineage® as the rajah of Oorcha. The territory of Jhansee was 
wrested from Oorcha in 1733, by the Mabrattos ; the small 
raj of Sumpter^ was also severed from Oorcha, but the time 
and cause of the event are unascertained. The rajah, though 
he received® assistance from the Peishwa in 1733, at no time 
acknowledged that potentate as his' sovereign and in the 
treaty concluded^ between the East-India Company and him, 
in 1812, it is set forth, that by him ** and his ancestors his pre- 
sent possessions have been held during a long course of years, 
without paying tribute or acknowledging vassalage to any 
other power." By the terms of this treaty, the rajah professed 
obedience and attachment to the British government, which 

• Bira Sinha Dava, called NaiaiDg Deo by Elliott ;* Naraing Deo by 
Elphinatone.* 

f Selim, snbeeqoently padthab onder tbe name of Jebangir, acknow- 
ledgee* tbe mnrder. Feriebta merely statee,* **Tbat learned man was 
unfortunately attacked and cut off in tbe district of Nurwur, by banditti, 
near Oreba.'* But as this bistorian was at one time ambassador’ at tbe 
court of Jebangir, be might not deem it advisable to be explicit respecting 
the share tbe prinoe bad in the murder of Abuliasl. 


* RllloU. 00. 

* Tlefln»n thaler. 
St’srhrelbuns voo 
HinduaUn, I. ITS. 


’ Oladwin. Hiat. 
of HlodooaUo 
durloff the Relirna 
of Jehansir Shah- 
jehan aod Arung- 
teba. I. 7. 

* BIphInatone, 
Hilt, of India, 

11. 871. 

* Traniacli. Roy. 
Ai. 9oc. I. 803 — 
Prankiin, Mem. 
oo Buodelcund. 


• Tielfcntlialer, 

I. 131. 

7 Franklin, at 
aupra, 1^830. 804. 

• Traiiaacti. of 
Roy. Ai. Soc I. 
967— Franklin. 
Mem. on Bundet- 
cund 

OufT, Hilt, of the 
Mahmttoi. I 013. 

» D’Crui. Pol. 
Ralatloni, 34. 
Sutherland. 
Sketchei of Rala- 
tlnna. 144. 

• Treatica with 
Natlva Prineea, 
printed by order 
of Houm of Ooro- 
mom, ISIS. p. 43. 
D’Crui, Political 
Relatlom, 834. 

• Oloaaary, 00. 

• Hilt, of India, 

II. 971. 


* Memoln by 
blmialf. tramlated 
by Price, 38. 

*’T«n-cu.».j?atidar.com 
At. Soc. 


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OORCHA. 


» D’Cn«, Pol. 
Relstiooa, t7. 


* Raa* 

biM *nd Rocollre- 
tiom, I. 179. 

* Oafden, Tabl«« 
of Routa*, 119, 74, 
98. 170. 


* Llojd and 
Oormrd, Tuura In 
IlimalaTa, U. 08, 
UO, 100. 


* Qenifd, Koona- 
wur, 13 : 1 . 


guaranteed his possessions to bim free of tribute, and under- 
took to protect his territories from foreign aggression; the 
rajah abstaining from collision with any powers in alliance 
with the British government, or dependent on it. In 1842 
Oorcha assumed such a refractory attitude, that a military 
demonstration^ on the part of the British authorities was 
found necessary. 

The rajah for the most part residing at Tehree, one of his 
towns, forty miles south-east of Oorcha,^ has of late years 
generally styled himself rajah of Tehree.® The town of Oorcha^ 
is distant 100 miles S.W. of Calpee, 187 W. of Banda, 248 
W. of Allahabad, 743 N.W. of Calcutta. Lat. 26® 2T, long. 
78® 42'. 

OOBCHA,^* in Bussahir, a village and halting-place for 
travellers in Koonawur, is situate on a mountain-side near the 
right band of the Taglakhar river, a considerable feeder of the 
Sutluj. The vicinity is remarkable for the great number of 
manes, or peculiar structures devoted to the purposes of the 
Lamaic religion. These are low tumuli or mounds, of lengths 
varying from ten to 200 feet, two feet broad, and three or four 
feet high, constructed of loose uncemented stones, and covered 
at top with numerous pieces of slate of all shapes and sizes, 
with sentences carved in the Oochen or sacred character, the 
most common being the mystic exclamation, Oom mane paemee 
oom. There is always a path on each side of these erections, 
and the devotees invariably pass them on the right hand, even 
though this observance should entail the necessity of taking a 
circuit of a quarter of a mile, as Gerard^ has sometimes known 
to be the case. The road and country are dreary in the extreme, 
presenting nothing but a rugged surface of rock, bare, and 
formed generally of the jagged edges of slate strata. A few 
dwarf deodars spring from crevices, and are almost the last trees 
in the journey eastward from central Koonawur to the Tartarian 
table-land, the parching and freezing gusts of which check the 
growth of all trees, except a few scantily-distributed birches. 
Here, at the end of J uly, the thermometer rose in a tent to 


* An Indian journal of recent date notioes the demise of the rajah of 
• Prirnd of lodJe, Oorcha without issue,' and suggests that his territory will consequently 
p? iw! lapse to the paramount power ; but no intimation upon these points has itidar.COrn 

been yet officially received in this country. 

14 


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realpatidar.com OOB — OOS. 

99®, and in the open air to 79®, a high temperature for a spot 
having an elevation of 11,296® feet above the sea. Lat. 31® 88', 
long. 78® 87'. 

OOBCHAN. — A town in one of the recently sequestrated 
districts of the native state of Hyderabad, or dominions of the 
Nizam, 85 miles S.E. by 8. from Sholapoor, and 155 miles W. 
from Hyderabad. Lat. 17® 13', long. 76® 14'. 

OOBJUAH,^ in the British district of Etawa, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town, the prin- 
cipal place of the pergunnah of the same name, situate on the 
route from Allahabad to Etawa, and 89® miles S.E. of the 
latter. It has a bazar, and is abundantly supplied with water. 
The road is rather good in dry weather, but during rain is in 
many places laid under water, and the soft soil converted into 
a deep slough. Population 5,645. Lat. 26® 28', long. 79® 85'. 

OOBMEL, or UBMAL,' a river rising in Bundelcund,® 
and in lat. 24® 50', long. 79® 86'. Its course is first northerly, 
then sweeps round nearly in a semicircle north-easterly, easterly, 
and south-easterly. Having run sixty miles, it fftUs into the 
river Cane on the left bank, in lat. 24® 56', long. 80® O'. 

OOBNEE, in Koon^wur, a district of Bussahir, is a village 
near the right bank of the Joola, which about a mile below 
falls into the Sutluj, on the right side. It is situate in a rugged 
and barren country, amidst huge masses and precipices of 
gneiss. Lat. 81® 82', long. 78® 10'. 

OOBOOLEE. — A town in the British district of Poonah, 
presidency of Bombay, 20 miles E. of Poonah. Lat. 18® 80', 
long. 74® 11'. 

OOBUN. — A town in the British district of Tannah, pre- 
sidency of Bombay, 10 miles E.S.E. from Bombay. Lat. 
18® 58', long. 73® 1'. 

OOSAINEE,^ in the British district of Agra, a village on 
the route from the city of Agra to Mynpoorie, and 21® miles 
E. of the former. The road in this part of the route is good, 
the country cultivated. Lat. 27® 12', long. 78° 24'. 

OOSCO'TTA. — See Hobkotb. 

OOSEITH, in the British district of Budaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town, the prin- 
cipal place of the pergunnah of the same name. Lat. 27® 48', 
long. 79® 18'. 

15 


* 0«rmrd, Koonm- 
wur, Map. 


I E.I.C. M*. Doc. 


* 0«fd«n, Table* 
of fUmtaa, 8S. 


* E.I.C. M*. Doc. 

* TransacU. of 
Roy. Aa. Soc. I. 
STS— Franklin. 
Mem. of BuiuleN 
rund. 


Trigon. 

Burr. 

Lloyd and Oerard, 
Tour* in Hima- 
laya. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doo. 


E.I.C. M a. Doc. 


' E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 

* Oardao, Tabic* 
of Route*, 15. 


E.X.C. Ma. Doc. 


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OOS— OOT. 


> B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


• Med. MU. DItp. 
80 M«7. 1840. 

• E.I.C. M*. Doe. 


• Oochterlouf, 
Nailgherry Moon* 
tains 0. 


* Mod. Topot;. of 
MftdrtM Pml- 
dencj. 

* DMUie. on Neii- 
gherric*. t, 

* Mwdrmii Ecclrc. 
Dl«p. 1 July, 1882. 

* Mfidnu Public 
DUp. 90 Jmly, 
IH48. 


B.l.C. Mr Doe. 


MsMon, BmI. Aff. 
P8nj. I. 99. 
Burnet, Bokh. 


OOSSOOB.^ — A town in the British district of Salem, 
presidency of Madras, 82 miles N.N.W. of Salem. A stud 
establishment is maintained at this place by the government . 
and it appears from an official statement, showing the average 
cost of horses passed for the service from the breeding depart- 
ment, that the expense at Oossoor contrasts favourably with the 
cost of horses purchased at Bombay.* Lat. 12® 46 ', long. 77® 61'. 

OOTAKAMUND,^ a town in the British district of Coim* 
batoor, presidency of Madras, and the principal sanitary station 
on the Neilgherry Hills, has an elevation of 7,300* feet above 
the level of the sea, and Ls 1,300 feet higher than the minor 
stations of Kotageri and Coonoor. It is situated in an 
open valley almost in the centre of the hills, protected by the 
Dodabetta range on the north-east and south, but open to 
the westward. According to the authority already quoted, 

^*the only town on the hills properly so called, is Ootacamund; 
and even this term can only be applied legitimately to the 
native portion of the settlement, since the residences of 
Europeans are too widely dispersed along the slopes ^f the 
valley to admit at present of its further extension. So rapidly, 
however, is the number of houses increasing, that before long 
the term town will not be inappropriately applied to the whole 
settlement.’* The site of Ootakamund was first occupied in 
1822.* The mean annual temperature^ is 58®: the rain-faU, 
on an average of four years, was found to amount to forty-four 
inches. An elegant church, which has been recently enlarged,* 
is one of the greatest ornaments of the settlement. There are 
also public gardens, and the site has been selected for one of 
the meteorological stations of the Madras presidency.* Oota- 
kamund is 32 miles N.W. by N. of Coimbatoor. Lat. 11® 24', 
long. 76® 47'. 

OOTALOOR. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, 
or the territory of the Nizam, situate six miles S.W. from the 
left bank of the Manjera river, and 60 miles N. W. from Hyder- 
abad. Lat. 18® 2', long. 78®. 

OOTAMPOLLIAM. — A town in the British district of 
Madura, presidency of Madras, 54 miles W. by S. of Madura. 

Lat. 9® 49', long. 77® 23'. 

OOTCH, in Bahawulpoor, a city situate four miles from Qom 

left bank of the Punjnud river, amidst beautiful groves. It is 

16 


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formed of three distinct towns, a few hundred yards apart, and 
each surrounded by a ruinous brick wall. The streets are 
narrow and meanly built, but the bazars are large, and well 
supplied with wares, and there is considerable general traffic. 
These towns are built on mounds, formed by the materials of 
great cities formerly existing here. In the immediate vicinity 
are prodigious quantities of ruins, still in such preservation 
that they could be easily rendered habitable. Ootch is regarded 
with veneration by Mahometans, in consequence of containing 
five shrines of deceased pirM or saints, Maipids, reputed de- 
scendants from Mahomet. Lat. 29° 18', long. 71° 

OOTEBPABA, in the British district of the Twenty-four 
Pergunnahs, presidency of Bengal, a town situate on the right 
hank of the river Hooghly. In this town an income-tax has 
been imposed upon the inhabitants for the production of 
funds for municipal purposes.^ Lat. 22° 35', long. 88° 28'. 

OOTGIB, or DEOQUBH. — A town in the Bajpoot state of 
Kerowly, situate on the left bank of the Chumbul river, and 
28 miles S.S.W. from Kerowly. Lat. 26° 6', long. 77°. 

OOTHA,^ in the British district of Allahabad, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route by the Kutra Pass from Allahabad to Bewa, and 30^ 
miles S.E. of the former. The road in this part of the route 
is rather good ; the country level, well cultivated, and studded 
with small villages. Lat. 25° 13', long. 82° 14'. 

OOTBACH, or TUBOCH,^ a district in the lower or 
southern mountains of the Himalayas, is bounded on the north 
h)' Bussahir ; on the east by Boeen and Bussahir ; on the south 
hy Joobul (of which state indeed it now forms part) ; and on 
the west by Poondur and Kothkaee; and has an area probably 
of between sixty and seventy square miles. It lies between lat. 
8(f SB* — 81° S', long. 77° 42' — 77°_ 54'. It consists almost 
entirely of a portion of the crest and declivities of a lofty 
range proceeding from Wartoo Mountain in a south-west 
direction to the river Tons. The general elevation is probably 
very considerable, as the summit of Tungru Peak, a little above 
the north-western frontier, is 10,102* feet. The population of 
Ootrach is estimated by De Cruz® at 2,600 ; the annual 
revenue at 300/. ; of which amount, the sum of 28/. was paid 
hy the ran nee as tribute to the E:tst-lndia Company. The 
« o 


III. 00. 

Soileau, 

08. 

Wood, OxoA, 78. 


* Friend of Indln 
Journal, IbSS, 

p. 08. 

B.I.C. Me. Doe. 


I B I.C. Me. Doe. 

* Onrden, Tnbire 
of Routes, 84. 


I B.I.e. Ms. Doc. 
R.I.e. Trigoo. 
Siirr. 

Fmser, Tour In 
Hirosisjrse, A8. 


* As. Rrs. sir. 
83S. 


* Ful. RcUtiuns, . , 

184 . realpatidar.com 



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OOT—ORA. 


E.I.O. Mt. Doe. 


B.I.C Ml. Doe. 


■ B.I.C. Ml. Doo. 


* Oerden, Tiblei 
of RottUi, 191. 

B.I.C. Ml. Doo. 


* B.I.C. Ml. Doe. 

* Oirdeti. Tiblei 
of Routei, 76. 


B.l.a Ml. Doc. 


> E.I.C. Ml. Doc. 

> OwdM. TeblM 
of Rowtei, 119. 


B.I.C. Ml. Doc. 


armed followers of the chief were computed at about 100. On 
the expulsion of the Ghoorkaa in 1815, this state was granted 
to a claimant alleged to be the heir of the rana dispossessed by 
those invaders. It was, however, subsequently ascertained 
that the claim was fraudulently made, to the prejudice of an 
elder brother, and he was compelled to abdicate in favour 
of bis son, a pecuniary allowance being at the same time 
assigned to hie nephew. But the mal-administration of this 
petty state subsequently rendered it necessary to depose this 
prince also ; and on account of the insignificance of Ootrach, 
and the small amount of its revenue, it was deemed advisable 
to incorporate it with Joobul. 

OOTRA DROOG. — A town in the native state of Mjrsore, 

47 miles N.£. by N. from Seringapatam, and 82 miles W. 
from Bangalore. Lat. 12® 58', long. 77® ICy. 

OOTUNCURRAY. — A town in the British district of 
Scdem, presidency of Madras, 49 miles N.£. by N. of Salem. 

Lat. 12® 16', long. 78® 35'. 

OOTTJRHEE,^ in the British district of Cawnpore, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the cantonment of Futtehgurh to that of 
Cawnpore, and 28* miles N.W. of the latter. The road in 
this part of the route is indifierent. Lat. 26® 46', long. 80^ 9'. 

OPAH. — A town in the British district of Chota Nagpoor, 
presidency of Bengal, 17 miles E.N.E. of Lohadugga. Lat. 

23® 82', long. 85®. 

OPERAI,^ in Bundelcund, in the territory of Dutteah, a 
town on the route from Banda to Gwalior, 160* miles W. of 
the former. It has a basar, and water is plentiful. Lat. 25® 46', 
long. 78® 27'. 

OPERBUNDA. — A town in the British district of Beer- 
bhoom, presidency of Bengal, 150 miles N.W. of Calcutta. Lat. 

24® 10', long. 86® 56'. 

ORAI,^ in Bundelcund, in the British territory of Jaloun, 
a small town on the route from Calpee* to Jbansee, 22 miles 
S.W. of the former. It has a bazar, and adequate supply of 
water. Lat. 25® 59', long. 79® 81'. 

ORAYE. — A town in the British district of Balaaore, 
province of Cuttack, presidency of Bengal, 61 miles S.W. by SJ'dar.com 
of Balasore. Lat. 20® 45', long. 86® 30'. 

18 


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realpatidar.com ORISSA. 

‘ ORISSA.^* — Ajd extensive tract of India, oomprising the 
British district of Cuttack, part of the British district of 
Midnapoor,^ and the wild and unsettled region lying to the 
westward of those, and between them and the territory of 
Nagpore. It lies between lat. 17° 16' — 22° 28', long. 81° 36' — 
87° 2Qf. The area, according to official report, is 52,996 1 

square miles.^ It is bounded on the north by the British 

district of Mirzapoor ; on the north-east by the British districts 
Palamow, Pacbete, Ramgurh, and Midnapoor ; on the south- 
east by the Bay of Bengal and the Northern Circars ; on the 
west by Nagpore or the territory of Borar, and the British 

districts denominated the Ceded Territory of Saugor and 

Nerbudda. The maritime part of Orissa, forming the Brirish 
district of Cuttack, is described under that name in the 
alphabetical arrangement. 

The scanty notices which we have respecting this extensive 
tract, represent it as consisting of an extensive range of 
mountains, the oontiuuation of the Eastern Ghauts. Some of 
the summits of these attain an elevation considerably exceeding 
2,000^^ feet ; and one summit has been estimated by an intelli- 
gent traveller to have an elevation of 4,000 feet^ above the 
level of the sea. Timber abounds in the vast® forest, which 
extends uninterruptedly from the banks of the Gk)davery to 
those of the Ganges, a distance of nearly 600 miles. The 
geological character of the mountains is primary,^ being 
granite, gneiss in larg^ quantities, and mica-slate ; and through- 
out the rocks garnets are interspersed in surprising abundance. 
In many places the gneiss has a strongly-marked porphyritic 
character, and elsewhere passes by imperceptible transition 
into sandstone, or is overlaid with laterite. In the northern 
part there is much primary limestone,® intermixed with quartz 
and mica-slate. Iron-ore is very abundant in many places ; 
and in the midland parts, in the vicinity of the town of 
Sumbhulpore, diamonds, gold, and rubies are found® in the 
detritus of rocks ; and there is reason to conclude that they 
exist in situ in the neighbouring mountains. It has been 
stated that promising indications of coal have been observed ; 

* Oriaa of Briggs's Index ; TJrijah of KichardsoD; Urisa of Wilson.* 

•f Inclnding Sirgooja Josh pore, and other tracts ceded by the rajah of 
Berar io 1826 . 

c 2 


* E.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


* Rrfootd*, Hap. 


• Parilmncntarx 
Return, April, 
ISdl. 


* Maepharaon, 
Report on the 
Khoodt, 19. 

Ai. Baa. xr. 177 
— Stirling, Ace. 
of Ofitaa. 

Joum. At. 8oc. 
Beng. 1899— 
Kittoa, Joiimej 
through Foreau 
of OrlM. 

* Id. 008. 

* Macphenon, ut 
supra, 10. 

7 Id. 08, 00, 100. 

* Joum. As. 8oc. 
Beng. 1840, p. 701 
— Tick«ll, Mam. 
on the Hodesum. 

* As. Ann. Reg. I. 
Mitcelleneous 
Trmcu, 70, 77 — 
Alotte, Narrat. of 
Juurn. In Orissa. 
Joum. As. Soc. 
Beng. 1840, p. 701 
— Tlekell, Aec. 
of the Hod«f«uin ; 
and 18S0, p. 10^7 
— Uuselej, on 
Gold-Dust and 
DHmunds of 
lieera Khoond. 

* Senscrlt 


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OEISSA. 


’ Juam. A*. Sor. 
Bene laaw, p. 9 ?] 
— Klltofp Jauni. 
ttifwiilL Ponti* 
of Orlftm. 

* Molt*, Ut HipAf 
07 . TP* 

Jinini* A*- 8oe. 
Beni . 189% p. 007 
— Journ. 
throiifh Pomta 
of OrluK* 

■ KUtDOp pi luprtp 

era 

* As* Pn* iVp ISO 
' — Oilirllnf, Aee. 
of Urhju, 


* At.. App. Rpf* 
ul fupra, 99, 


but it has not yet been found in any part of the district* The 
climate during the hot season, in the close of spring and earl j 
part of Bammer^ is ea^tremelj sultry, the thermometer reaching 
in the shade; and this Tery high temperature acting on 
decayed vegetation, saturated with moisture, is productive of 
deadly malaria,^ rendering the climate one of the most un- 
healthy in India. This unfavourable circumstance, more than 
any other, prevents the settlement and adequate cultivation of 
a country having a vast extent of well-watered and fertile soil, 
suited for the successfully raising most of the valuable inter- 
tropical products. Wild beasts are numerous: there are the 
wild elephant,* the gayal, a huge bovine quadruped,* wild 
buffalo, nylgau (Antilope picta), wild swine, deer of varions 
kinds, the antelope, porcupine, hare, monkey, squirrel, tiger, 
leopard, bear, wolf, hj-mna, jackal, foi, and wild dog* The 
dhanesa (Buceros indica) or rhinoceros-bird is common ; but 
in general the ornithology of the district has been neglected* 
Bnormous snakes infest every jungle and ravine* Motte, a 
traveller who visited the country in the latter part of the last 
century, mentions* having seen near Sumbhulpore an immense 
snake, worshipped as a deity, and alleged to be coeval with the 
world. It was lodged in a cavern at the foot of a rock, and 
came out once a week to take his food ; consisting of a kid and 
some fowls, offered to him by bis votaries, and picketed on a 
small plain before his den. After the monster had gone back 
to its den, the traveller examined its traces in the muddy soil, 
and concluded its diameter to be about two feet. Kittoe, who 
visited this locality in 1838 , or sixty years later than Motte, 
states that be waS informed that this monstrous snake was still 
living, and able to enjoy the offerings of his votaries. The boa 
lurks in every jungle, and attains enormous slse ; venomous 
snakes are also very numerous, as are scorpions and centipedes, 
ib'ish swarm in the Bumerous streams and tanks, and form a 
considerable portion of the food of the population. 

The general slope of the surface is eastward, except in the 
extreme southern part, where a few feeders flow southward to 
the Qodaveiy* At the northern extremity also, some small 
rivers flow northwards, and discharge themselves into the Son, 
a large feeder of the Ganges* The rest of the rivers ilflow a r. com 
esatward, and discharge themselves into the Bay of Bengal. 



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Of these the Mahanuddee, bj far the greatest, passing eastward 
from the territory of Nagpore or of Berar, touches the western 
boundary of Orissa in lat. 20^ 86', long. 82^ dO^, and, flowing 
generally south-eastward by the town of Sumbbulpore for 320 
miles, through the unsettled tract of Orissa, crosses the 
western boundary of the British district of Cuttack, when it 
separates into numerous branches, by which it flows for about 
100 miles into the Bay of Bengal. During the periodical 
rains, at the close of summer and commencement of autumn, 
its channel throughout the whole of this distance is navigable^ 
for rirer-craft of considerable burthen. Next in importance is 
the Brahminy, rising in the northern part of Orissa, about 
lat. 23^ 25', long. 84^ 13', and flowing for about 240^ miles 
through it in a south-easterly direction, to lat. 20° 50', long. 
86° 1', where it crosses the western frontier of the British 
district of Cuttack, through which it flows for about 110 miles 
to the Bay of Bengal. There are a great number of rapid and 
large torrents, which, during the rainy season, fall either into 
the greater streams or into the Bay of Bengal. 

The population is estimated at 4,534,813.^ There are four 
principal divisions of the population ; — 1. The Urias, Orias, or 
Odras, being Brahminists, and inhabiting principally the plains 
and valleys, more especially in the western tracts, towards the 
British district of Cuttack ; 2. the Coles, in the northern part, 
a race^ also called Hos, semibarbarous, yet not sunk in the 
lowest stage of savage brutality ; 3. the Khonds, in the middle 
part ; and 4. the Saurias or Sauras,* in the south. These 
three last races are considered the aborigines of the tracts 
which they now inhabit, and of others much more extensive, of 
which they have been dispossessed by the encroachments of 
the more recent population, generally denominated Hindoo. 
The Coles are rather favourably delineated by a recent writer,^ 
who commends their love of truth, honesty, obliging willing- 
ness, and happy, ingenuous disposition, the more striking as 
contrasted with the trickery and falsehood of the wily Hindoo. 
He represents them as hospitable to strangers, and ready to 
relieve the indigent ; altogether a lighthearted, kind people. 


^ Maopberson ■tatas' the Saurias to iobabii ibe south ; Stirling,* per 
baps erroneously, rather north. 


21 


* Jrnkint, Report 
cMi Nsfpors. 10. 
IS. 


* Stlrllnf. ul 
Miprm, 817. 


* Psrilsmsalarj 
Return, April, 
1851. 


* Joum. At. Soc. 
Benf. 1840. pp. 
000-700. 788 808 
— Ttckrll, Mstn. 
on lh« Hodsturo. 


» Tirkell. ut 
tupra, 800, 507. 


realpatidar.com 

I p. IS. 

• p- 


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ORISSA. 


• MarphenoOf mt 
•upra, 49. 


' p. 48. 


but very irascible, and so prone to feel deeply injuries, 
whether real or imaginary, that they frequently vent their 
resentment or grief in suicide, to which they are frightfully 
addicted. In occasional collision with British troops, they 
s Bacon, First 1 in- hsve not shown thcmselves remarkable^ for courage. These 
prMaons, . ruds people have been won over by proselytizing Brahminists 
to a certain observance of their rites and festivals, and are 
besides polytheists, worshipping several imaginaiy deities, 
whom they strive to propitiate by sacritices ; they, however, 
say, that as they have never seen those deities, they cannot 
assign them shapes. The Khonds, who inhabit the central 
part of Orissa, are represented as having made some progress 
in civilization. ** Agriculture^ is practised by them with a 
degree of skill and energy which is rarely surpassed in India, 
and which has produced a degree of rural affluence rarely 
paralleled.” The same writer, however, represents^ the popu- 
lation to be so scanty as to suggest grave doubts of hia 
accuracy, either as to the numbers of the people, or to their 
alleged proficiency in agriculture. As to physical constitution, 
the Khonds are of the average stature of the Hindoos, muscular, 
robust, symmetrical, and active. The skin varies in hue in 
different individuals, from deep copper-colour to yellowish 
olive. The face is rather handsome, with high expanded fore- 
head, prominent cheek-bones, nose aquiline in some instances, 
though not in all, but generally broad at the top ; lips full, but 
not thick ; mouth rather large. The whole physiognomy is 
generally indicative of intelligence and determinatioD, blended 
with good humour. They fight with bows and arrows, slings, 
and battle-axes, and are considered to be brave, neither giving 
nor taking quarter. Their good qualities are stated to be love 
of independence, bravery, hospitality, and industry ; but they 
are dreadfully vindictive, and addicted to drunkenness. They 
are polytheists, believing in the existence of various imaginary 
divinities, and worshipping the earth, the moon, the god of 
war, and many other objects, beside the Hindoo goddess Kali» 
The god of the earth is, however, the most revered, and, under 
the influence of a detestable superstition, his votaries seek to 
propitiate him by the sacrifice of human victims, generally 
children, bought for the purpose from those who steal them 
from neighbouring people. It appears to be a rule, that no 

2J 


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Elhond shoxild be sacrificed, and no viotim is considered to be 
acceptable unless bought with a price. This horrible rite is 
intended to induoe the god of earth to favour them with 
plentiful crops. At the time appointed by their priests, a 
feast is held, and after it baa continued for two days and two 
nights, a scene of drunken and obscene revelling, the victim is 
brought out on the third day, and bound to a stake. Its limbs 
are then broken, and the priest having struck it with an axe, 
the crowd set upon it, and crying aloud, ** We bought you 
with a |»ice, no sin rests on us,*’ hew the living body into 
pieces, each carrying away a bloody morsel, which they throw 
on the earth in some part of their grounds. The number of 
human beings yearly murdered in this manner was formerly 
very great. Macpherson states that he found seven victims 
held in readiness for immediate sacrifice in a valley two miles 
long, and lees than three-quarters of a mile wide. The British 
goveniment has made strenuous efforts to check the practice, 
but the Khonds adhere to the sanguinary rite with dreadful 
pertinacity, and with unflinching ferocity defend their fast* 
n oo s es , where, for the greater part, malaria would inevitably 
destroy an invading foroe. There is reason, however, to hope 
that ere long the country will be purged from these fearful 
crimes. By an act^ of the government of India, passed in 
September, 1845, the Governor- General is empowered' with- 
draw the distrkte where they prevail from the jurisdiction of 
the ordinary authorities, and to place them under a special 
officer, called ** the agent for the suppression of Meriah sacri- 
fices,” who is of course selected vrith particular regard to 
vigilance, energy, firmness, and discretion. The Saurias are 
slaves to the same superstitions as are the Khonds, but are 
considered much more savage and barbarous. They are repre- 
sented* "as in general a harmless, peaceable race, but so 
entirely destitute of all moral sense, that they will as readily 
and unscrupulously deprive a human being of life as any wild 
beast of the woods, at the orders of a chief, or for the most 
trifling remuneration.” The language of the Urias is a dialect* 
of Sanscrit, closely resembling the Bengalee ; and the basis of 
the alphabet is the Nagari. The Gond language is spoken in 
some parts towards the western frontier. The Khonds use 
two dktinct dialects, each containing many words of Tamul 

23 


^ Act of Oort, of 
Indio, ssl. of 
IMS. 


• Stlrilof. ot 
•upro, 904. 


• Id. 903. 


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OSI— OUD. 


^ Oftleatta 

X. 917. 


* ParUamanlorj 
Reiuin, April, 
1S31. 

* B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


* Oxrdro, Table* 
ot RoutM, 4. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


> B.I.C. M*. Doe. 


and Teloogoo. Of the dialects of the Coles, we have no 
information. 

Sumbulpoor, the only considerable town in the country, 
Boad, and Sohnpoor, are described under their respective 
names in the alphabetical arrangement. 

The principal routes are, 1. From north-east to south-west, 
from Calcutta, through Midnapore, to Sumbulpoor ; 2. from 
east to west, from Cuttack, through Sumbulpoor, to Nagpore 
and Kamptee. 

The decline of the ancient royal house of Orissa dates from 
the death, in 1524, of Bajah Pertab Budra Deo, an event which 
the Hindoo monarchy was not destined long to survive. Its 
downfall may be regarded as consummated in 1692,^ when a 
lieutenant-governor arrived from the Mahomedan kingdom of 
Bengal to assume charge of the administration of Cuttack. 
With the exception of this province, and a portion of Midna- 
pore, Orissa was acquired by the East-India Company in 1765, 
by virtue of the firman of Shah Alum, emperor of Delhi, 
granting the Dewanny of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. 

OSIMLEE. — One of the Cossyabill states : it is surrounded 
entirely by the other hill states, and extends from lat. 26° 2(y 
— 25° 69^, long. 91° 26' — 91° 41'. It is forty-three miles in 
length from north to south, and sixteen in breadth, and has an 
area of 350 square miles.^ 

OSMANPOOB,^ in the British district of Agra, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the city of Agra to Bareilly, by Khasgunj, and 14^ 
miles N.E. of the former. The road in this part of the route 
is bad ; the country much cut up by ravines, and very partially 
cultivated. Lat. 27° 19', long. 78° 11'. 

OSSOOB. — See Oossoob. 

OTTAPUDABUM. — A town in the British district of 
Tinnevelly, presidency of Madras, 28 miles N.E. by E. of 
Tinnevelly. Lat. 8° 56', long. 78° 5'. 

OUDANDLLA. — See Oondwa Nullah. 

OUDE,^ a kingdom so called from the ancient city of the 
same name, is bounded on the north and north-east by the 
territory of Nepaul ; on the east by the British district j Of^.^^^ 
Goruckpore ; on the south-east by the British districts Azim- 
gurh and Jounpoor; on the south by the British district 

24 


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Allahabad; on the south-west by the Doab, indudiog the 
British districts Futtehpoor, Cawnpore, and Furrukhabad ; and 
on the north-west by Shahjehanpoor. It lies between lat. 
26 ® a4'— 29® long. 79® 45'— 83® 11' ; is 270 mUes in length 
from south-east to north-west, and 160 in breadth. The area 
is 23,788 square miles.^ * The north and north-eastern part, 
lying along the base of the Sub-Himalaya, or continuation of 
the Sewalik range, has not been well explored by Europeans ; 
it forms part of the Terrai or wooded marsh stretching through 
that part of Hindostan, and, suffering from a deadly malaria, is 
scarcely habitable. Tieffenthaler, who penetrated into this tract, 
states^ it to be generally a forest, impassable on account of the 
close growth of trees, underwood, and reeds, and giving shelter 
to the elephant, rhinoceros, bear, wild kine, wild hog, and 
deer. The general surface of the Oude country is a plain, 
declining from north-west to south-east, according to Butter^ 
at the rate of seven inches per mile ; and hence in that direc- 
tion is the course of the principal rivers, the Baptee, Suijoo or 
Ghog^ Goomtee, and Saee. The elevation of Birimdeo guard- 
house, at the north-western angle, is estimated by Webb^ at 
798 feet above the sea ; that of the left bank of the Ganges,t 
at the south-eastern point, may be concluded to be 346^. The 
only irregularities in the surface ore caused by the various 
degrees of resistance opposed to the abrasive effect of water by 
the different consistence of the soils. Some patches of kunkur^ 
or calcareous conglomerate undergo abrasion very slowly, and 
stand seventy or eighty feet above the neighbouring country, 
which, consisting of softer materials, has been washed away by 
the agency of water. In consequence of the abundance of this 
indurated conglomerate, the rivers, however winding, have 
permanent channels, which the current gradually deepens, and 
in general perfectly drains the soil, though there are some 

* Hamilton estimatoa* it at 20,000 sqaare miles ; Sutherland* at 
23,923. 

i* The distance of this point by the river's course above Benares, is, 
according to Garden,* 153 miles, and according to Prinsep (G. A.), the 
slope of the waterway in this part of its course is six inches* per mile. 
Prinsep (J.) estimates* the elevation of Benares above Calcutta at 246 feet, 
or about 270 above the sea. Consequently, the elevation of the south- 
eastern pari of Oode may be assumed at 270 feet'i> 76|, or 346^. 

25 


* R.I.C. Mt. Doc. 
Trigofi. Sunrej 
Report. 


* Betchreibuns 
ton lllndtutsn, 
i. 901. 


< Topocrsphj of 
Oudh, a. 


« Ple)d<B.>ok. 
E.I.C. MaDoe. 


* Batter, Topog. 
of Oudh, S. 


* Ostetteer,!! S&9. 

* Priniiep, India 
Tnblcs, 11. IM. 

Joum. Aa. Soc. 

Bcnf. 1899, p.400. 

I Tslilet of 
Routes, 102. 

* Steam Narlsm- 
tlon In British 
India, 06. 

» Aa. Rea. svfealpatidar.coiTi 

Append, p. 

Meteor. Joum. at 
Benares. 


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extenBive pools or mArshes ; but theae are for the most part 
exhauBted of water during the dry season, either bj evapora- 
tion or irrigation. The most extensive of these pools is near 
the town of Betagano, in the south-eastern extremity of the 
territory. It is sixteen miles in length and eight in breadth, 
and was originally formed in the deserted bed of the Ganges. 
Its exhalations are productive of great mortality, many of the 
permanent inhabitants dying of intennittents, and immigrants 
from other parts rarely surviving a year. 

The climate of Oude is dry during the greater part of the 
year, and subject to wide extremes, the temperature sometimes 
t itouer. IS. rising^ to 11^, and at others sinking to 28^. The cool season 
extends through November, December, January, and February, 
and is pleasant and salubrious, though occasionally rather chilly, 
sometimes to such an extent that thin ice appears on shallow 
water ; but in sheltered spots the sun has considerable power 
throughout the season. March, April, May, and June, are the 
hot months ; noon daily bringing a westerly wind, loaded with 
fine light greyish sand, which obscures the horizon, gives a 
sombre hue to the entire atmosphere, and is so sultry and 
drying as to cause woodwork to crack. The temperature, how- 
ever, generally diminishes towards sunset, and rarely continues 
oppressive throughout the night. Occasionally the wind blows 
from the east all day, and is loaded with oppressive vapour from 
the swamps of Bengal, or Assam. The power of the hots winds 
is observed to be steadily on the increase. Sometimes hurri- 
canes, accompanied by thunder, lightning, and rain, set in, and 
• Lftfd v«irnti«, (io extensive damage.^ The annual fall of rain varies greatlv 

Tr»YeU, I. l«l. , ® . . 1 . » 

in amount, as the rains sometimes commence in the middle of 
June and terminate in October, while at other times they last 
only two montlis. The consequence is, that in some years 
» Hotur. Topof. eighty* inches fall, in others not more than thirty. 

^ ’ The soil in general is light, there being a preponderance of 

siliceous and calcareous earth, especially in the form of kunkur 
or calcareous conglomerate. With the exception of this latter, 
no portion of rock larger than a grain of sand is to be found in 
the original soil ; but the beds of the rivers contain small 
fragments of felspar, hornblende, quartz, and mica, brought 
down from the northern mountains. The Goomtee and the 
Tons (North-eastern) abound in shells, which yield a fine 


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mortar, and might be converted into excellent manure, but the 
natives neglect this portion of rural economj. The richest 
soils are towards the left bank of the Ghinges, in the south- 
eastern part of the territ<Mr7. Oude being altogether an allu- 
vial countrj, ita mineralogy is very scanty and uninteresting ; 
carbonate of soda, muriate of soda, sulphate of soda, nitrate of 
potash, and carbonate of lime, being its only mineral produc- 
tions worth notice. 

Besides the huge quadrupeds which haunt the marshy forests 
of the Terrai, the following wild animals^ are found in the i outtor, vs. 
country : — the tiger, wolf, hysena, jackal, fox, hare, deer, nylgau 
or blue antelope, wild hog, porcupine, otter, mongoose, squirrel, 
rat, musk rat, wild cat, bat, and flying fox.* Tigers are so 
numerous, that, during the visit of Yon Orlich^ to Lucknow, a « Travel* in inui*, 
hunting-party killed forty of them, some of great sise, the skin 
of one having measured nine feet from the head to the tail. 

Wolves are very abundant, and destroy many persons, espe- 
cially children, whom they carry off even from the bazars of the 
towns. These ferocious animals are often spared when in the 
power of the natives, from a mischievous superstition that their 
death causes the destruction of the slayer’s house. Wolvee 
are not the only devourera of children : hyasnas carry off many. 

Porpoises are seen in the Goomtee during the rainy season. 

The most remarkable birds are the adjutant, vulture, hawk, 
kite, crow, raven, jay, parrot, partridge, paddy-bird, quail, 
dove, cuckoo, lark, kingflsher, wild goose, wild duck, and wood- 
pecker ; besides a great variety of singing-birds. Two species 
of alligator infest the great rivers at all seasons, but venture 
into the small rivers only during the rains. Lizards abound, os 
well as snakes : among the latter are the deadly karait and the 
cobra di capello. Of the crustaoeous classes may be mentioned 
the crab, prawn, scorpion, and centipede. Insectsf are in great 
numbers and variety. The botany, which is rich and varied, is 
copiously treated of by Butter,* to whom reference must be * pp. 31.47. 
made, as the necessary limits of the present article do not 

* Butter does uot mention the monkey tribe, which, however, ae well mm 
wild peafowl, are very numerous,' as might be expected from the number ' Lord Vsicntls, 
of the woods and groves, the cKmate, and other circumstances. *’ realpatidar.COm 

Batter' states, ''The cochineal insect is sometimes seen on the prickly- ' p. 31. 
pear bush.’* 

i7 


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^ ut topra, 

«7. 


* II. 40. 


• ButUr, 01, 81. 


admit, consiatentlj with a due regard to other topics, of bestow- 
ing upon this the degree of attention which is requisite to 
render it of any value. 

Manufactures are destined exclusively for home consump- 
tion ; and the demand for the raw materials for their fabrica- 
tion being thus contracted, the rural economy of the country 
is principally directed to the management of alimentary crops. 
Irrigation is extensively practised for the rubbee, or crop sown 
in the autumn and reaped in spring. The water in con- 
siderable proportion is raised either from wells, tanks, or 
rivers. The wells are in some places sixty or seventy feet 
deep ; and from such the water is generally raised in a bucket 
or leathern bag, brought up by a rope, passing over a pulley or 
roller at the top, and worked by cattle ; but where the poverty 
of the cultivator precludes him from this assistance, he and his 
family must themselves work the well-rope. The Persian 
w’heel^ is not in use in Oude. Such irrigation is, however, 
becoming continually more difficult and precarious. The 
entire surface of the country is increasing in aridity ; tanks 
replenished during the rainy season are now sooner exhausted 
than formerly, and wells must be dug much deeper than here- 
tofore to yield the accustomed supply of water. 

The principal alimentary articles of the rubbee crop are 
wheat, barley, gram, called also cbana (Cicer arietinum), masur 
(Ervum lens), mustard, and some other oil-plants. Kusum 
(Carthamus tiuctorius), grown for dye-stuff, is also an article of 
this crop. Of the kurreef, or crop reaped in autumn, the prin- 
cipal article is rice, sown in those parts liable to inundation. 
In the Ayeen Akbery* the rice of Oude is stated to be “ incom- 
parable for whiteness, delicacy, odour, and digestiveness.’* The 
other principal articles of this crop are millet of various sorts, 
maise, makra (Cynosurus corocanus), joar (Holcus sorghum), 
bajra (Holcus stativus), urdh (Phased us maximus), kodu 
(Paspalum frumentaceum), moth (Phaseolus aconitifolius), 
urhur (Cajanus flavus), and til (Sesamuro orientale). The 
cultivation of the sugarcane is very circumscribed,^ and the 
produce, from mismanagement, execrable; though soil and 
climate appear rather well adapted for its growth. Potatoes 
have been introduced, and their cultivation is on the 
but rather slowly. The growth of opium receives some atten- 

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tioD, and might be immensely extended ; but the drug, from 
the slovenly and injudicious manner in which it is prepared, 
and its bad character from adulteration, scarcely commands a 
remunerating sale. Hemp is cultivated for the sake of its 
products in the shape of bang, ganjha, cbaras, and similar 
powerful inebriants. Generally each village has a patch of 
ground under tobacco. Most of the esculent vegetables of 
temperate climates succeed in the cool season. Little attention 
appears to be given to fruit-trees, though no doubt they might 
be cultivated in considerable number aud variety : the most 
important are the mango, citron, jak (Artocarpus integrifolia), 
bair or jujube (Zizyphus jujuba), sharifa or custard-apple 
(Annona squamosa), jamaui (Eugenia jam bolina). The mahua 
(Bassia latifolia) is now extensively planted; the fleshy^ 
berry-like flowers are either eaten raw or are dried (when they 
are described as tasting like dried grapes) and then roasted 
thejr nre moreover subjected to fermentation, and a powerful 
and cheap spirit is distilled from them, which is that principally 
driink in some parts of Northern India ; the seeds also yield 
oil on expression. Great destruction is, however, going on 
among the groves and woods of this country ; and the natives 
attribute to this cause, and most probably with justice, its 
increasing aridity. Cotton® is raised in many places through- 
out the country, and is of good quality, though inferior to that 
of Bundlecund. The quantity, however, is not sufficient for 
the demand, and much is imported from Bundlecund and the 
Hoab. The inodes of tillage are extremely rude and inefficient, 
the operation of ploughing being so feebly and unskilfully per- 
formed, that it must be repeated between thirty and forty times 
for a wheat crop, and afterwards harrowing must be performed 
as often as seven or eight. Oxen and bufialoes are the only 
cattle employed for agricultural purposes, and they are gene- 
rally stunted, broken-down, and miserable animals. From mid- 
winter to the commencement of the rains in June, provender 
for them is very scarce ; but a resource is found in the oily 
seeds of cotton, which, steeped in water, afford good food for 
milch- cattle, causing a great quantity of milk, which yields a 
large proportion of butter. The price of farming-stock is very 
low ; that of a pair of oxen varies from 10 to 20 rupees. 
Large numbers of sheep and goats are kept, but on very 

29 


^ Royl^, Bol. of 
Hlfualajft. SUS. 


• Butter, 01. 


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scanty fare, being allowed to roam about and pick up whatever 
tbey can find, and in the dry season supplied with a few leaves 
and twigs : a small sheep may be bought for about a shilling ; 
the largest does not cost more than double that sum. 

The operations of manufacturing industry, as has been said, 
are not numerous. One of the most important is the extract- 
ing of soda, saltpetre, and culinaiy salt, by washing the soils in 
which they respectively abound, and evaporating the saturated 
• Butter, Toj«f. liquid. Much culinary salt is also made* by evaporating brine 
^ * drawn up from wells, sunk for the purpose in various parts of 

the country. The quality is considered to be not inferior to 
that of any in India. Gunpowder is everywhere made ; the 
price is low, but the quality inferior. Matchlocks, blunder- 
busses, spear-heads, and swords are manufactured in all the 
towns ; and bows of bamboo are made throughout the country, 
being in much request among the poorer classes of travellers, 
who use them in self-defence. The best steel bows ore made 
in Lucknow and its vicinity ; those of horn are imported from 
the Doab. Cotton cloths and coarse woollen blankets are 
made everywhere ; coarse paper is manufactured at Bahraieh 
and Lucknow ; bottles, and other simple works in glass, are 
made in those parts where the soil abounds in soda. Such 
dyeing as is required by the simple habits of the natives is 
carried on in every village. 

The weights and measures vary in different places : the more 
usual linear measure is according to the following scale : — 

1 Gut =2 Hath (of 19^ or 20 in. each) =89 or 40 in. 

1 Hath =6 Muthees (Si inches each) =19} in. 

1 Muthi=4 Anguls (of about } in. each) =8 in. 

The silver currency consists of the Lucknow rupee, coined 
at that city, and the Company's and Fumickabad rupeee. 

The copper coin is the Madhosahy paisa, of 270 grains ; and of 
which 82, 88, or 84 go to the Company’s rupee. Gk>ld coin ia 
seldom seen ; that which enters the country speedily disap- 
pears, being in great demand for hoarding. Those who have 
spMtre cash convert it into the coin of least bulk and greatest 
value, and bury it under the floors of their houses. 

I p. 09 . According to Butter, Oude^ has no superfluity for export but 

salt and saltpetre. It imports matchlocks from Lahore, swords^^'^-^^'^ 
from the same place, and from Guzerat and Marwar. We are 

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told’ these blades possess a keenness of edge, which is some* * Batter, m. 
times such as to cat through a matchlock barrel.” This 
oertamlj indicates a rery remarkable degree of keenness. 

Oade also imports shields of rhinoceros and of bofTalo-kide from 
Sjihst, paper from Calpee, reeds for writing from Calcutta, 
soap from various places, iron from Saugor and Nepaul, and 
eoffee from Kumaon and Nepaul. A few fine shawls are im- 
ported from Cashmere ; kimkhwah (brocade) and other fine 
Ditife and European wares, spices, dye-stuflfs, drugs, coral, 
pearls, and various gems, from the Company’s territory and 
other parts of Hindostan ; horses from the Punjab, from 
Csubtil, and from Turkistan ; ponies from the Himalaya tracts ; 
riq>bante from Nepaul and Chittagong. Since there are 
■csroely any exports, the return for the imports must he made 
in specie brought or remitted into the country by some means 
not readily explainable. The distressed state of the holders 
sod cultivators of land gives scope for the operations of many 
■mall mahajans or capitalists, who make advances either in 
OKmey, wares, or grain, both for subsistence and seed, and 
■tipolate for an interest, rendered enormous by the necessities 
of the borrowers. Not unfrequently, however, the distressed 
governor, or some powerful landowner, compels tho capitalist 
to disgorge largely ; and thus a contest is carried on between 
extortionate cupidity and reckless violence. The principal 
Bierchanta and capitalists are of the Bain tribe of Bajpoots, 
who extend their commercial operations over every part of 
Hindostan. Much of the internal commerce of the country is 
oondneted at xnelas or fairs, frequently held at the principal 
mirts. At these fairs the amount of business done is repre- 
MQted as very small in proportion tp the number of people 
who flock to them. At Surajpore, for instance, 200,000 are 
mid to assemble, though the value of the property* transferred * m. so. 
does not exceed 10,000/. or 15,000/. 

Throughout Southern Oude there is scarcely an edifice 
deserving the name of a bridge. One at Sahganj, over the 
Tons (North-eastern) ; another at Mohan, over the Sai, on the 
only metalled road, being that connecting Cawnpore with 
I^icknow ; and a long low bridge, or perforated causeway, 

Mth of Tanda, are the only ones of which Butter* had any « p. ss. 
^wledge. Lucknow has an ancient bridge of stone, and a 

31 


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modern one of iron ; but Northern, like Southern Oude, is by 
no means rich in such erections. The roads, with the excep- 
tion of that just mentioned, are mere tracks, so difficult for 
wheeled carriages of any kind, that the native population prefer 
transport on the backs of bullocks. Little advantage is taken 
of the inland navigation, in consequence of the ruinous ex- 
actions of the zemindars along the course of the rivers. Its 
extent, however, in proportion to the size of the country, 
must be great, as will be apparent from an enumeration of the 
more important rivers by which it is traversed. These are, the 
Qhagra, Goomtee, Sai, Bapti, Chouka, Ganges, Itamgunga 
(Western), and Gurra. 

Though Oude appears to have ceased to be an independent 
realm at a very remote period, the population have a highly 
warlike character ; the territory, in proportion to its extent, 
supplying a surprising number of soldiers^ to the army of the 
East-India^ Company, and to those of Gwalior, Hyderabad, 
Nagpore, and Alwur. Most of the troops of the last-mentioned 
power are said to be natives of Oude.^ Though the kingdom 
has been for several centuries under Mussulman sway, much 
the greater portion of its inhabitants are Hindoos. If a judg- 
ment may be formed on the relative amount of the different 
classes stated by Butter^ in the enumeration of the population 
of the towns, the Mussulman proportion forms a very insig- 
nificant part. The first class of Hindoos, in number and 
influence, are the Brahmins, who are divided into sub-castea, 
too numerous and intricate to be here enumerated. The next 
in numbers and importance are the Chhatris, or military caste, 
in which the Rajpoots rank first, and are divided into a great 
number of sub-castea. The Brahmins have numerous and 
preposterously strict regulations respecting intermarriages ; 
the Chhatris, on the contrary, admit intermarriages between 
all tribes of their own caste. The proposal of marriage is 
made by the girFs father, who, in proportion to his means, 
incurs a large expenditure, less in the way of dower than in 
presents to the youth and his relations, and in feasting the 
families and acquaintances on both sides. Among most 
Brahmin tribes, however humble the station of the parties, no 
marriage® can take place w ithout an expenditure of 700 rupees qq^ 
of which 100 are laid out in trinkets for the bride; fifty for 


• Butter, Topoff. 
of Oudh, 88. IM. 

* L/>nl Vmletiiie, 
i. 184. 

V Jaequemont. 
Vojrac**!, vi. 804. 


■ Topocraphj of 
Oudh, 114, 148. 


* Butler, 140. 


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culinary ntensila ; OHy for clothes ; 100 as a present to the 
jouth from the head of the girl’s family ; 100 similarly pre- 
sented by the same person to the youth’s father ; a sum, 
eometimes amounting to 150 rupees, distributed in presents of 
four rupees each to the youth’s relatives ; the remainder being 
expended in feasting, which continues five days. The matri- 
monial ** ceremony* is performed when the parties chiefly 
concerned are about thirteen years of age, sometimes later; 
but never until they are past the age of nine. Cohabitation 
commences at fourteen ; and there is then a repetition of the 
same merry-making, but at half the expense.” Important 
characters in society are the Bhats,* hereditary bards or 
minstrels, who perambulate from bouse to house, sing the praises 
of the inmates, and are rewarded with presents of money, 
horses, arms, and clothing. The Mussulmans, probably, are 
for the most part Shias, or those who reject from the Khalifate 
the first three successors of Mahommed, revering exclusively 
his grandson Ali. The king is of that persuasion, being of 
Persian descent, and in consequence commemorates the 
Muharram, or anniversary of the slaughter of Hussain, son of 
Ali, with great solemnity^ and funeral pomp. Besides the 
great Hindoo festival held at the approach of the vernal 
equinox, the Bam Sila, or mask and mummery to represent^ 
the story of Bama and his monkey ally Honuman, is celebrated 
in various places during the month Koar, or part of September 
and of October. It attracts great numbers, in some places ex- 
ceeding 50,000 persons, who attend generally during the day, and 
return to their homes at night. During the ten days for which 
it lasts, alms in various forms are extensively distributed by 
the Brahmins and Chhatris. A festival, called the Gurui,^ is 
also annually held in all parts of the country, at which 
wrestling, single-stick, and sword-exercise are practised ; and 
the elderly men employ their evenings throughout the year in 
preparing the younger for the display of skill and activity on 
these occasions. 

The entire population of Oude is understood to be 2,070,000, 
affording an average of 125i to the square mile. The dwelling- 

^ Wilford remarks' that the name is Dot SaDScrit, but a oomption from 
H. Ad account of these persons will be found in that writer, in Tod,* 
in Macmurdo,* and in the Ayeen Akbery.* 


' Butter, ut suprs, 
163 


* Robert*, Scenes 
and Characters In 
UlDdoatan, I. 370*, 
SJl. 

• Ileber, Joum. 
in India, 1. 330, 
338 . 


* Butter, ut tuprn, 
163. 


> As. Mfs la. 78 
on Anu- 
Rangoin. 

* Annals of Rid***' 

Ibnn, 1.702; 11.621. 

• Tramacii. L***i|patidar.com 

Soc. Bombay, 1. ^ 

281. 283. 

« 11 . 86 . 


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* Cautley, lUport 
on th« CmtrmI 
Domb Canal, 17. 
Buttar, Topof. 
of Oodh, 140. 


^ p. 10B. 


^ Jouni. In India, 

4S4. 


• llabrr, 1. 87S. 


^ p. 144. 


hoases of the people are generallj built either of unbumed 
brick, or of layers* of mud, each about three foet in breadth 
and one foot high. The roofs are made of square beams, placed 
a foot apart, and covered above with planks laid crosswise ; 
over which are mats and a covering of wet clay, well rammed 
down, and a foot and a half in thickness. The walls are carried 
up to six or seven feet above the upper surface of the roof, to 
afford a concealed place of recreation for the females of the 
family ; and during the rains this small elevated court is 
covered with a slight roof of bamboos and grass. These thick 
mud-covered roofs are very durable. Around the houses 
there are usually verandas, covered with pentroofs of tiles. 
Inside, the beams and covering are exposed to view, without 
any ceiling ; the floors are of earth, well beaten down and 
smoothed ; and are partially covered with mats, or, on great 
occasions, with cotton car[>ets. In the front of the house is a 
chabutra, or raised platform of earth, open to the air at the 
sides, and having a roof of tiles or grass supported on pillars. 
Here the neighbours meet and chat in the evenings. 

Butter, a medical authority,* considers the climate of the 
southern districts of Oude superior in salubrity to any other 
part of the great dangetic plain and adds, ** every town can 
show* inhabitants who have numbered 100 years.” The 
people are in general tall, well-proportioned, and athletic ; and 
many may be observed among them who would be considered 
very fine men* in any country in Europe. Notwithstanding 
the state of misrule in this country, and the disorganisation in 
the social system, amounting almost to total anarchy, the 
character of the people is represented favourably by Butter,* 
whose prolonged residence among them must have afforded 
him sufficient opportunities for observation. He says, 
** Keeping then in view the nearly absolute privation of the 
principle of government in its protective and judicial functions 
throughout the provinces of Oude, and the scope, unbounded 
save by the courageous resistance of the individuals aggressed, 
and the moderation of the aggressing party, thus given to the 
exercise of cupidity, personal dislike, envy, vindictiveness, and 
all the worst passions of human nature, the limited amount 
of crime attributable to private and individual motive 
* Heb«r met in Oude with a man 109 years of age. 

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occurs in this country must be considered as highly creditable 
to the natural humanity, love of justice, and forbearance of its 
inhabitants.” The appalling frequency of the frightful prac- 
tice of thuggee, coolly premeditated, and treacherous aasas- 
tiaation, succeeded by robbery, exhibits a gloomy contrast to 
this flattering portrait. In a note on a map of the part of the 
kingdom south-east of Lucknow, comprising less than a half of 
its area, and laid down by Mr. James Paton,^ assistant- 
resident at Lucknow, in 1838, after close judicial research, 
274 bails, or scenes of murder by thugs, are marked. That 
jodidous and indefatigable inquirer observes,^ This map has 
been prepared to show the fearful extent of murders perpe- 
trated by those diabolical associations. The field of their 
remorseless operations in the kingdom of Oude alone will be 
found in the map to extend over the space of 1,406 miles ; and 
the number of their ascertained, well-known, and bloody hails 
to be no less than 274, being on an average of one bail for 
miles ; and from the greater number of which the skulls and 
skeletons of their unhappy victims may still be dug up, and 
fmm their gnLvea or wells, bones in abundance be produced.” 
** Every bail on the map may be considered to have been with 
fisUl certainty in existence, and the scene of many murders.” 
^ The number of murders perpetrated by some of those mis- 
creants, or in which they have assisted, appears almost in- 
credible ; but it must be remembered that they are professional 
asaaasins, who support themselves from youth to age by 
murder; and that the average of the greatest part of them, — 
namely, by Buhram, 931 murders in forty years of actual 
thuggee ; and Futtykhan, 508 in twenty years of actual 
thuggee, is about two murders monthly for each of them.” 

The language in use in Oude is Hindustanee or Urdu, with a 
greater admixture of Persian and Arabic, and less of Hindee, 
than hi places more eastward. The education of the rising 
Hindoo generation is conducted by pundits, or learned 
Brahmins, who are usually maintained by a grant of rent-free 
ground from the zemindar or landholder. In such case the 
pupils are instructed gratis ; otherwise each is charged^ at the 
rate of from 6J. to la. (four to eight annas) annually. The 
course of instruction is confined to reading, writing, and 
elementary arithmetic. 

D 2 


* SiMman, Rap.oo 
the ThoK Oang*. 
120, ISI. Its, 104, 
too, las. 100, 180, 

141, 142, 147, 140, 
161, 162, 164. 1M ; 
and Map, 126. 

* In not# In oorner 
of Map, at p. 126. 


* Butter, 166. 

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* Butter, 00. 


* Id. lU 


* Butter, 109. 
Heber, Joura. in 
India, I. 379. 


* Relations be- 
tween the British 
Ooremment and 
Native States, 40. 


The government is a pnre despotism, unchecked, except bj 
the apprehension of giving offence to the British government, 
and perhaps but little restrained even hj that fear. The pro- 
tection of that government has no doubt in some instances 
enabled the rulers of Oude to venture on steps not unlikelj 
to provoke resistance and eventuate in rebeUion. Until the 
demise of Nasir Uddin Hjder AH Khan, in 1837, the chaprasis, 
or messengers of the king, used to go with palkis or litters to 
the houses of persons of all ranks, and bj force carry off women 
and girls, whether married or unmarried.^ This most flagitious 
violation of the dearest rights of human nature was perpetrated 
during the presence of an over^’helming British military force, 
distributed throughout the provinces to preserve peace. The 
state of the country in 1837 is thus characterised from the 
personal observation of a European^ observer : — “ The admi- 
nistrative state of the country at that time may be summed 
up in a few words: a sovereign regardless of his kingdom, 
except in so far as it supplied him with the means of personal 
indulgence ; a minister incapable or unwilling to stay the ruin 
of the country ; local governors, or, more properly speaking, 
farmers of the revenue, invested with virtually despotic power, 
left almost unchecked to gratify their resentment and private 
enmities ; a local army, ill paid, and therefore licentious, undis- 
ciplined, and habituated to defeat ; an almost absolute denial 
of justice in all matters, civil or criminal.” Such was Oude 
under the protection of a just and humane government, not 
unconscious of the existing evils, but feeling the trammels of 
diplomatic arrangement as a restraint from all eflective inter- 
ference. The army of Oude, or at least the body so caUed, 
but which is, in fact, an ill-paid, disorderly multitude, employed 
in coercing the zemindars under the orders of the chakledars, 
or collectors of revenue, in conveying the realized revenue to 
Lucknow, or in making demonstrations against the gangs* of 
plunderers which often harass the country, ostensibly consists 
of forty-five pal tans or regiments, each containing 1,200 men ; 
thus giving an aggregate of 54,000 men. Sutherland states^ 
the number in 1814 to have amounted to 60,000. In 1845, a 
police force was organized, and is still maintained, of 
strength of 560 men. This force was specially designed 
the protection of the Goruckpore and Shahjehanpore frontiers. 



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The force maintained hj the British goyemment in Oude in 
1849 amounted to nearly 5,600. Of these, nearly 2,000 were 
local infantry, the remainder was composed of the Company's 
regular troops, chiefly infantry, but including a small body of 
artillery. 

A mode of collecting revenue, not unusual, resembles rather 
the levying of tribute in a hostile country, than the enforce- 
ment of the claims of a lawful sovereign upon his own subjects. 

The cliakledar, or ^mer of the revenue, takes the field at the 
bead of a oonaiderable force, and should a zemindar not comply 
with his demands, he proceeds to urge them by the aid of 
artillery, using sometimes balls of hammered iron, but more 
frequently cylindrical billets of wood, which make a great 
noise ^ by whizzing in their course through the air. The kml 

cannonading on such occasions has frequently been heard for 
several days together at Sultaopore cantonment. Be venue is 
the only object of the government. The chakledars, the only 
persons considered as at all responsible for the peace of the 
country, regard nothing but the collection ; no courts of justice 
are held ; no law administered, and the people, where not pro- 
tected by some powerful zemindar, are subjected to pillage, 
and to every other outrage, from gangs of robbers, roaming the 
country in great numbers, and whose audacity is encouraged 
by the comparative impunity with which they exercise their 
lawless avocation. Accurate returns of the amount of revenue 
are not to be expected in this misgoverned country. A few 
years since, when measures of financial reform were urgently 
pressed by the British government, and promised by the 
minister, it was proposed to restrict the expenditure to one 
crore and fourteen lacs (1,140,0001.), which sum was stated to 
fyi within the amount of revenue that might be derived under 
a moderate assessment. The principal routes are — 1. That® ■ On-dwii 
from Cawnpore, north-east, to Lucknow, being the only ***' 

regularly- made road^ in the kingdom. From Lucknow, a route • Top**, 
proceeds* north-west to Seetapore cantoDmeut, and there vo»*ornft^ 
diverges, one branch continuing its former direction to 3hahje- 
hanpoor cantonment, the other proceeding north by Xhairigarh, » omniLn, 
and thence up the valley of the G-hogra into Kumaon. 2. A realpatidar.com 

much-frequented route proceeds from Mynpooree, being joined 
by that from Futtehgurh across the Ganges, at Nanamow 

SI 


T by C3‘ 


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* Oardrn. 174. 

Ghat, in lat. 26° 52^, and thence* in a direction from west to 
east to Lucknow ; 3. from Lucknow, a route lies in a north- 

* Id. iS8. 

eaaterlj direction to Sekrora cantonment,* and thence to 
Buraech, and on to Tulsipore, in the Ticinitj of the Terai or 
marshj forest at the southern base of the first range of moun- 
tains ; 4. from Lucknow also a road proceeds eastward to 
Fjzabad and the city of Oude, and crossing there the frontier 

« Id. \H7, 186. 

by ferry over the Ghogra, continues* to hold an easterly course 
through the British district of Goruckpore to the cantonment 
and town of that name ; 5. a route proceeds in a north-westerly 

• Id. 180. 

direction from Fy wibad to Sekrora* cantonment ; 6. a route 
proceeds in a north-easterly direction from Sultanpore canton- 
ment, crossing the Ghogra by ferry near Kusba-Tanda, and 
thence proceeding to Goruckpore cantonment ; 7. from Allah- 

* Id 9U. 

f Id. 8081 

* Id. 87. 

* Id. 1«. 

abad* a route lies northward to Pertabgurh, and thence in the 
same direction^ to Sultanpore ; 8. a route leads* from Allah- 
abad north-west to Lucknow ; 0. a route runs* in a direction 

1 Id. 189. 

first north-easterly then south-easterly, from Cawnpore to 
Sultanpore ; 10. another proceeds^ in a south-easterly direction 
from Cawnpore to Pertabghur ; 11. a much-frequented route 

* Id. 98J. 

• Id. 900. 

proceeds from Lucknow south-easterly to Sultanpore* canton- 
ment, and thence into the British district of Juanpore,* and to 
the cantonment of that name ; 18. another leads from east to 

* Id. lU 

west, from Jounpoor* cantonment to Pertabgurh. With the 
exception of the military road from Cawnpore to Lucknow, 

* Butter. Tor op. 
of Oudh, «8. 

the ways* are wretched tracks, in many places scarcely passable 
for wheels ; but in militaf^y operations, extensive and important 
use might be made of the rivers as channels of transport and 
communication. 

The kingdom contains the following divisions and sub- 
divisions : — I. Chakla Sultanpore, containing pergunnahs : 

1. Sultanpore, 2. Jagdispore, 8. Chanda, 4. Isauli, 6. Tappa 

Asl, 6. Bilahri. II. Chakla Aldemau, containing pergunnahs : 

1. AJdemau, 2. Akbarpore, 3. Dostpore, 4. Berhar, 6. Tanda. 

III. Chakla Pertabgurh, containing pergunnahs: 1. Pertabgurh, 

2. Amethi, 3. Dalipore Palti. IV. Chakla Pachhamrat, con- 
taining pergunnahs : 1. Manglasi, 2. Hat Haveli or Faizabad, 

3. Ham pore. V. Chakla Bainswara, containing perguaikahaj^ 3 p qq^-i 
1. Hanjitpurua, 2. Harha, 3. Ateha, 4. Mauhranwa, 6. Kum- 
ranwa, 6. Daundiakhera, 7. Hasng^nj, 8. Majranw, 9. Haidar- 

as 


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guhy 10. Bae Bareli, 11. Dalamau, 12. Sarendi, 18. Bardar. 
YL Cbakla Salon, oontaining pergunnaha : 1. Salon Khaa, 
2. Panadipore, 3. Jajia, 4. Ateha. YII. Chakla Ahladganj, 
cootaining pergonnaha: 1. Ahladganj, 2. Bihar, 8. ^lanikpur, 
A Baropore. YIII. Chakla donda Bahraieh, containing per- 
goonaha : 1. Bahraieh, 2. GK>nda Khaa, 3. Muhammadabad, 
A Bari, 5. Atraula. IX. Cbakla Sarkar Khairabad, containing 
pergonnaha : 1. Khairabad, 2. Nimkharmiarik, 8. Khirilahrpur, 

4. Bangar, 6. Muhemdi, 6. Bilgiram, 7. Fattehpur Biawa, 
8. Sandila, 9. Malihahad, 10. Kakori, 11. Bijnaur, 12. Kaa- 
mandi, 13. Malanwa. X. Chakla Sandi, containing pergonnaha: 
1. Sandi, 2. Pali, 8. Saromnagar, 4. Shahabad. XI. Chakla 
Baeulabad, containing pergonnaha: 1. Safipur, 2. Baaulabad 
or Mijanganj, 8. Aaixnan, 4. Unnaw or Onaw, 5. Mohan. 
XII. Cbakla Locknow, containing pergunnaha : 1. Bodaoli 
Dtryabad, 2. Qoahaenganj, 8. Dewe-Jahangirabad, 4. Korai, 

5. Sidhaor. 

Locknow, the capital, aa well aa the towna of Fyaabad, 
Ajodha or Oude, Boy Bareilly, Shahabad, Kbyreegorh, Manik- 
pore, Bobraech, Sahganj, Banjit, Piirwa, Tanda, and aome 
othera of lesa importance, will be foond noticed in their 
reapectiTe places onder the alphabetical arrangement. 

In natoral adrantagea. Code may be joatly considered to 
•orpaaa most parta of India. ^ The defence of its south-western 
frontier is facilitated for a long distance by the line of the 
Ganges, fordable only in very few places, and in those but for a 
abort period of the year. The soil of the country ia amongst 
the most fertile its climate, though rather warm, is favourable 
both to animal and vegetfible life ; its means of irrigation and 
of water-carriage are very extensive, and conveniently dis- 
tributed for the welfare of every quarter. Accordingly, it need 
excite no surprise that the most judicious and laborious 
inquiries should have pointed out this tract, the primitive 
Kosala,^ as one of the earliest* seats of Indian government 
tnd civilization. Buchanan^ conjectures the settlement to have 
taken place 1,366 years before the Christian era ; the reign of 
Bams, so celebrated in Hindoo romance and mythology, 775 

* Trestiog of ihia obscure period of Indiaa history, BlpbinstoDe eppesrs 
*0 ftcfMidei * Dude mm the moet early settled pert of India. Bocbanan* 
giws the precedence, in point of time, to Vithom or Bithuim, in the Doab. 


* Report of Solort 
OrnifoiltM of 
lloow of Com- 
mons, S8. 


^ Bnchonon, Ssr- 
of Esst^ni 
India, 11. atftpMS, 
SSO. 

• 11. m. 


I Hisc.of iDdJs, ^‘alpatidar.com 

I. sue. 

• Ut supra, U. SflP, 

S80. 


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OUDE. 


* Buchanan, ut 
supra, 11. SS4. 


1 Id. 11. W7. 


* Bird, Prefaca to 
fihkt. of Goojfmt. 
B5. 


* Ifemolra, S37, 
414. 4‘iO 


* India 
II. lOd. 


’ Oriental Bfaf. 
June, 18*f<l, p. 973 
— Mamolr of 
Maer M<K>liuin- 
mud Amem. 

« Pranklln, HlaU 
of Raiffn of Stiah 
Aulum. 04. 
Foratar, Trarelt, 
Bancal lo Eng. 

I. 139. 

* Scult. HUt. of 
Succraaora of 
Aurunasaba, 11. 
179, 103. 

« Piirater, L IM. 
Scott, 11. 100. 
Oriental Mag. 978. 

• Hht. of India, 

H. 608 . 

* Quoted by For- 
alar, ui aiipra, 

I. IM, l.SS. 

^ Poriter, U IfiO. 
8<-ott, II. 900, 917. 

• Scott, II. 994. 

• Id. IL 940. 

* BIpblnatona, 

IL M. 


jean ; and the restoration of the kingdom destroyed by hostile 
aggression, he attributes to Vikraroaditya,^ king of Oojein, 
anno 57 B.c. It is probable tliat the independence of Oude 
was^ lost, and no further separate notice appears to be made of 
it in Indian record. At the close of the twelfth century, after 
the conquest of Canouj by the Mussulmans, Oude was subdued* 
by Mohammed Bakhtiar Khilzi, an officer sent for the purpose 
by Kutbuddin Aibuk, viceroy of India, for Mohammed Ghori, 
sultan of Ghuxnee. It thenceforward became an integral part 
of the realm of the sovereigns of Delhi, and on the conquest 
of the empire by Baber, was easily subdued.* On the dis- 
memberment of the Mogul empire, it was about 1750 seized by 
Shuja-ud-dowlah,* the vizier of the empire and also viceroy of 
Oude. The following is the table of the sovereigns of Oude, 
according to Prinsep — 

A.D. Saadat AH Khan. 

Sefdaijang. 

1756. Shuja-ud-dowlah. 

1775. Asoph-ud-dowlah. 

^ Shuja-od-dowUih was son of Sefdaijang, Tirier (the second name in 
the list). Sefdaijang was a native of Ninhabur, a town of Khorasan, and 
claimed to be a Syud, or descendant of Mahomet, and also of Abbas tbe 
Great, Shah of Persia. His original name was Abulmansnr* Mohammed 
Mukhi, whioh, on commencing his career of greatoees, he changed to 
Sefdaijang. A brother of his mother, also a native of Nishabor, had pre- 
viously been established in India, where be had attained the high poet of 
vizier of the empire, and nawaub* of Oude. This was Saadut Ali Khan, 
the first on the list. Sefdaijang repaired to India about 1735, in the 
reign of Muhammed Shah, and received in marriage* the daughter oC 
his uncle. Elphinstone* states that Sefdaijang was the eon of Saadmi 
Khan, but he only became so marriage with that potentate's daughter. 

Dow, the historian, styles ■ Sefdaijang the ** infamous* son of a more 
infamous Persian pedlar;" but Forster conversed in Persian with soiim» 
inhabitants of Nishabur, who, he says, bore indisputable testimony to 
the ancient rank of the family of" the Persian adventurer. Saadat Khan 
held a command in the army of Muhammed Shah when it was defeated by 
Nadir Shah of Persia, and being taken prisoner, died a few weeks after- 
wards at Delhi. Sefdaijang succeeded his &tber-in-law in the government'’ 
of Oude, and subsequently, in 1747, became vizier.* Sefdaijang dyin^ 

1756, was succeeded in his command of Oude by his son Shajs-ud-dowlah, 
who, in 1761, was made* vizier by Shah Alum II., and having previously a f. CO m 
established himself ss the actual sovereign* of Oude, was thenceforth 
known by the name of the Nawaub Visier. 

40 


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▲•D. 1797. Yisier All, spurious, and displaced in 
favour of Saadat. 

1798. Saadat Ali, brother of Sbuja-ud-dowlah. 

1814. Ghazee»ood-Deen Hjder. 

1827. Nusseer-ood-Deen Hyder. 

1887. Mahomed Ali Shah, succeeded in 1842 
by his son Soorya Jah. 

8huja*ud-4lowlah baring in 1768 made* common cause with 
Meer Coesim in resisting the arms of the East^India Company, 
was, May 18t}r, 1764, repulsed in an attack on the British army 
at Patna, and on the 22Dd of the same month was totally 
routed at the battle of Buxar. In the following year, 1765, 
the British army entering Oude, occupied Lucknow, and again 
defeated Sbuja-ud>dowlah, who in the same year was glad to 
make peace, putting* Shah Alum, the titular emperor of 
Hindostan, or Great Mogul, in possession of the districts of 
Allahabad and Corah. In 1768 reports reached the govern- 
ment that the Nawaub Yisier was making extensive military 
preparations with a view to obtain possession of the provinces 
of Corah and Allahabad. A reduction of his military force 
was considered necessary ; and by the treaty of ^ November, 
1768, the Nawaub Vizier stipulated not to “ entertain a number 
of forces exceeding 85,000 men.*' Of this number, there were 
to be — cavalry 10,000 ; ten battalions of sepoys, not to exceed 
10,000; the Nujib regiment, consisting of 5,000 men with 
matchlocks ; 500 artillery ; and the remaining 9,500 were to 
be irregulars, neither to be clothed, armed, nor disciplined after 
the manner of the English sepoys or Nujib regiment. The 
ill-advised Shah Alum having transferred his claim to the 
provinces of Corah and Allahabad to the Mahrattas, was con- 
sidered to have forfeited those possessions; and by the treaty® 
of 1773, they were transferred to the Nawaub Vizier, in consider- 
ation of the sum of 50,00,000 rupees. In 1774 the British troops, 
auxiliary to the Nawaub Vizier, having overthrown the Kohilla 
power, the greater part of Bohilcund became subject to that 
potentate. Shuja-ud dowlah died in January, 1775, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son Asoph-ud-dowlah, who, at bis acces- 
sion, ceded by treaty* to the East-India Company Benares, 
Jounpore, and some contiguous districts ; and in return, 
the English engaged ‘^to defend^ the soubah of Oude at all 

41 


* nut. of Bvtifaf* 
tramUted In 
Scott, HUt. of 
Dvkknn, II. 441. 


• TrcnllM with 
NntU« PrIncM, 
Calcutta, 1S46, 
p. 07. 


^ TrcaClaa, nt 
•upra. Oil. 


• Id. 74. 


• Id. 75. realpatidar.com 

* Id. 70. 


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times.*’ It was also stipulated that a brigade of British troops. 


• TrMllM, at 
•upra, 7S. 

consisting of two battalions of Europeans, one company of 
artillery, and six battalions of sepoys, should be stationed in 

Oude whenever required by the vizier ; for the support of 
which he engaged to pay monthly 2,60,000 rupees, an annual 
amount of about 812,000/. By agreement, 1781, one* regiment 
of sepoys was added, for the purpose of protecting the office, 
treasury, and person of the resident at Lucknow, at an expense 
of 30,000/. annually ; and it was provided that FaisuUah Khan, 
the Bohilla chief, having forfeited his independenee, the Nawaub 

Vizier should occupy his dominions, and pay him a moneyed 
income. In 1787 the Nawaub Vizier agreed to fix his subsidy 
at 500,000/. per annum ; in which sum was included the 
additional expense on account of troops, the allowanoe to 

Saadut Ali Khan, the Bohilla stipend, and the expenses of 
the British residency. In 1707, a great increase of the 
Company’s military establishment having taken place, the 
vizier consented to defray the expenses of two regiments of 
cavalry, one European and one native, the additional charge 
not exceeding 55,000/. per annum ; making the total subsidy 
555,000/. per annum. In 1707 the vizier Asoph-ud-dowlah 
died, and the British government recognised the succession of 
his supposed son. Vizier Ali. The spuriousness of Vizier Ali’a 
birth being, however, soon after established, Saadut Ali, the 
brother of the late vizier, was placed on the musnud. 

By existing treaties, the Company were bound to defend the 
territories of Oude against all enemies. In order to enable 
them to fulfil this engagement, and at the same time to provide 
for the protection of their own dominions, they had largely 
increased their military establishment, by the addition of new- 
levied regiments both of infantry and cavalry ; and, in con- 
sequence thereof, Saadut Ali agreed, in 1798, to increase the 

• Id. fS. WJ, 

subsidy to 760,000/. per annum.* The Nawaub Vizier also 
ceded the fortress of Allahabad, and gave 80,000/. to the Com- 
pany for its repairs, and 80,000/. for those of Futtehgurh. The 

British troops in Oude were not to consist of less than 10,000 
men, including Europeans and natives, cavalry, iufantry, and 
artillery ; and should it become necessary to augment thiv 
Company’s troops beyond the number of 13,000 meu^' the 
vizier agreed to pay the actual difference occasioned by the 

42 


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exoem abore that nnmber. The threatened invasion of 
Zeman Shah attracted the attention of the Marquis Wellesley 
(then earl of Momington) to the state of Oude. It was 
desirable to substitute efficient troops for the unskilful and 
undisciplined force maintained by the vizier, and to place the 
defence of the Oude frontier against foreign invasion upon a 
more substantial basis. To accompliBh these objects, the 
pecuniary subsidy was commuted for a territorial cession ; and 
by treaty,^ 10th November, 1801, the Nawaub Vizier ceded the 
Southern Doab, and the districts of Allahabad, Azirog^rh, 
Western Ooruckpore, and some others, estimated to yield in 
the agg^gate an annual revenue of 1,36,28,474 rupees, or 
1,352,847/. In July, 1814, Saadut Ali Khan died, and was 
succeeded by his son Qhazree-ood>Deen Hyder. In the month 
of October of that year, the government of Oude lent the East« 
India Company 1,000,000/. A second loan of like amount was 
obtained in the following year,* in aid of the war against 
Nepaul ; and on its successful termination in the beginning of 
1816, the British authorities transferred to Oude the whole 
of the Terrai, or marshy forest stretching along the north- 
eastern frontier of that country. This tract had been ceded 
by the government of Nepaul, and the subsequent transfer to 
Oude was in liquidation of one million sterling of the loan 
made by the Nabob Vizier. In 1819, the Nabob Vizier formally 
renounced his dependence on the Oreat Mogul, or titular 
emperor of Uindostan, and assumed the title* of king of Oude, 
the assumption being recognised by the British authorities. 
The financial exigencies occasioned by the Burmese and 
Bhurtpore wars led the British government, in 1825, to apply 
to the ruler of Oude for aid, and another crore of rupees (a 
million sterling) was obtained as a loan in perpetuity, at an 
unvarying interest of five per cent.^ Nusseer-ood-Deen Hyder 
ascended the musnud in 1827, on the death of his father, 
Ghazee-ood-Deen. In 1829, the British government agreed 
to receive as a special loan the sum of 624,000/., the interest 
of which was to form a provision for certain members of his 
majesty’s family ; and in 1833, at the request of the king, the 
British government consented to receive 30,000/., and to 
guarantee the appropriation of the interest thereof to the 
relief of the poor of Lucknow. In 1837 Nusseer-ood-Deen 

43 


* nt 

supra, lot. 

Oud« Papers, as. 
Utirlian in. Survey 
of Rastem India, 
II. 344. 

Malcolm. Pollt. 
HUt. of India, 

I. 978. 


* Treaties, ut 
supra, 118. 

Oude Papers, 714, 
723. 

Prinsep, Trans. In 
India, I. 923, 997. 
Malcolm Pollt. 
Hist. 1. 43S. 
Siitbrrlaotl, Pul. 
Ri'lallons, 40. 


* Treaties, ut 
supra, 190. 
Malcolm, ut 
supra, I. 530. 

Von Orlich, li. 80. 


’ Treaties, ut 
supra, 190, 193, 
194. 


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OUDE. 


• Trp«ilr», itt 

Miprtt, 180 . 


* PolllicHl l)i»p. 
to India, datinl 
10 Jan. 1800. 

Id. dated 10 July, 
IdOl. 

CalcutU Itevlew, 
III. 987. 

Friend of India, 
1809, p. 010. 


llyder died, without legitimate issue, and was succeeded bjr 
his uncle Mahomed AH Shah, though not without a sharp but 
very short struggle ; the Begum haring raised a disturbance, 
which, by the promptitude and firmness of the British resi- 
dent, Colonel Lowe, was suppressed in the outset. A treaty 
was concluded with the new prince, having for its object the 
more scrupulous performance of existing obligations.^ The 
misgovemment of the kingdom had been a subject of frequent 
and earnest remonstrance on the part of the British govern- 
ment during nearly the whole of the period which had 
elapsed since the conclusien of the subsidiary treaty. The 
footing on which that treaty placed the relations between 
the two states, was as follows. On the one hand, in con- 
sideration of the vizier’s ceding a portion of his dominiona, 
the British government undertook to uphold his authority 
in the remainder against all foreign and domestic enemies. 

On the other hand, to guard against the evils which might 
result from this assurance of complete protection to an 
Asiatic sovereign, not only against invaders but against his 
own subjects, evils not merely possible but highly probable to 
occur, an article was inserted in the treaty, by which the 
nawaub bound himself to establish such a system of adminis- 
tration as should ‘‘ be conducive to the prosperity of his 
subjects, and be calculated to secure the lives and property of 
the inhabitants and, moreover, undertook always ** to advise 
with, and act in conformity to, the counsel of the ofiBcers of 
the Company.” This essential part of his engagement the 
nawaub had never performed. Some indications of amendment 
marked the commencement of the new reign, but, as usual, 
they were fallacious. In 1842, on the death of Mahomed Ali 
Shah, his son Soorya Jah ascended the musnud, under the title 
of Aboonzufier Muslah-ood-Deen, and the opportunity was 
embraced for pressing the reforms requisite to place the king- 
dom in a state of tranquillity and security. A limited period 
was assigned for effecting the required work ; and in default of 
performance, it was distinctly intimated that the country would 
be placed under British management. The intimation has been 
totally ineffective.® In weakness and profligacy, the new sove- qq^ 
reign has equalled, perhaps even surpassed, his predecessors. 

The progress has been constautly from bad to worse ; and the 


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borne government have felt bound, by the representations of the 
resident at Lucknow, to extend its sanction to the adoption of 
such measures as may be requisite to give effect to the provisions 
of the treaty, all unnecessary interference being forborne. 

OUDE.*^ — A town in the kingdom of the same name. It 
is situate on the right bank of the river Ghogra, which 
Buchanan^ considers here to be ** fully larger than the Ganges 
at Chunar,*’ and which is navigable^ downwards to its mouth, 
upwards to Mundiya Ghaut, in the district of Bareilly.^ It 
extends about a mile in a south-east direction, from the ad- 
joining recent city of Fyzabad the breadth of the town is 
something less from north-east to south-west, or from the river 
landwards. The greater part of the site is on gently-swelling 
eminences but to the north-west, or towards Fyzabad, is low. 
Most of the houses are of mud, and thatched, though a few 
are tiled. Here, in a large building a mile from the river,^ is 
an extensive establishment, called Hanumangurh, or Fort of 
Hanuman, in honour of the fabled monkey-god the auxiliary of 
Bama. It has an annual revenue of 50,000 rupees, settled on 
it by Shuja-ud-daulah, formerly Nawaub ’Vizier. It is managed 
by a malik or abbot, the spiritual superior ; and the revenues 
are dispensed to about 500 bairagis or religious ascetics, and 
other Hindoo mendicants of various descriptions; no Mussul- 
man being allowed within the walls. Other establishments of 
similar character are Sugrimkilla, Bam-Parshad-ka-Kana, 
and Bidiya-Kund ; maintaining respectively 100, 250, and 200 
bairagis. Close to the town on the east, and on the right 
bank of the Ghog^ are extensive ruins, said to be those of the 
fort of Kama, king of Oude, hero of the Kamayana,^ and 
otherwise highly celebrated in the mythological and romantic 
legends of India. Buchanan^ observes, that the heaps of 
bricks, although much seems to have been carried away by the 
river, extend a great way ; that is, more than a mile in length, 
and more than half a mile in width ; and that, although vast 
quantities of materials have been removed to build the 
Mahomedan Ayodha or Fyzabad, yet the ruins in many parts 

^ Ayodhya of Shakespear,' and Awadh of the same represented 
bj Prinsep* as Ondh on the Lucknow rupee ; Owdh of the Ajeen 
Akbery ;• Ood of the translators of Baber ;* Oude generally of the British^ 
writers. 

45 


> B.I.C 1ft. Doe. 


■ Surrer of 
Eastern lodls, 

II. S90. 

• Id. IL 206. 
Prinsep. Sloi'm 
Nsvlsation In 
BHtish India. 40* 

* Calcutta Ri- 
Tlow, 111. 860 


• Tieirentbaler, 
nt supra. IL loO. 

• Rutter, Topof. 
of Oudh. lOS. 


As. Rea. avil. 

606 — Wilson, on 
the Dionjalsca of 
Nonnua. 

* Ut supra, II. 88ft. 

* Dlctlonarj, In v. 
col. 170. 

* Ind. rabl«a,I.A6. 

* 11.40. 

4 pp. aw. 840. 

* Rennell, Mem. 
of Map of HIndo* 

•tan, cie. 

Thornton. Hist, of 
British Empire In , ... 

India, 1. 171. realpatidar.com 

Malcolm, Pollt. 

Hist, of India, 

I, 278. 


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ODDE. 


* Bachanan, 
il. »4. 


* Id II. SSft. 


• TIHrL>f>*halrr, 
II. 181. 

* Shnketpcar, ▼. 
ool. IflO. 


* Tod, Annal* of 
R^wthao. 1. 88. 

* Joum. Aa 8oe. 
Brair. Jao. 1888, 
p. 38 — On Coins 
In Cabinet of At. 
Boo. 

* Hbt. of India, 
1. 880. 


retain a very considerable elevation ; nor is there any reaaon 
to doubt that the structure to which they belonged has been 
very great, when w^e consider that it has been ruined for above 
2,000 years.” The ruins still bear the name of Eamgurh, or 
** Fort of Kama the most remarkable spot in which is that 
from which, according to the legend, Kama took his flight to 
heaven, carrying with him the people of his city; in conae* 
quence of which it remained desolate until repeopled by Vikra- 
maditya, king of Oojein, half a century before the Cliriatian 
era, and by him embellished with 360 temples. Not the 
smallest traces of these temples, how’ever, now remain and 
according to native tradition, they were demolished by Aurung- 
sebe, who built a mosque on part of the site. The falsehood 
of the tradition is, however, proved by an inscription on the 
w'all of the mosque, attributing the work to the conqueror^ 
Baber, from whom Aurungsebe was fifth in descent. The 
mosque is embellished with fourteen columns of only five or 
six feet in height, but of very elaborate and tasteful workman- 
ship, said to have been taken from the ruins of the Hindoo 
fanes, to which they had been given by the monkey-general 
Hanuman, who bad brought them from Lanka or Ceylon. 
Altogether, however, the remains of antiquity in the vicinity of 
this renowned capital must give a very low idea of the state of 
arts and civilisation of the Hindoos at a remote period. A 
quadrangular^ cofier of stone, whitewashed, five ells long, four 
broad, and protruding five or six inches above ground, is pointed 
out as the cradle in which Kama was bom, as the seventh^ 
avatar of Vishnu ; and is accordingly abundantly honoured by 
the pilgrimages and devotions of the Hindoos. On the right 
bank of the Ghogra is a brick fort, of quadrangular ground- 
plan, with low round towers, but quite ruinous since deserted 
by Saadat Ali, Nawaub Yisier, who, alarmed at some dis- 
couraging prediction, removed the seat of government to the 
site of Fyzabad, adjacent on the north-west to the more ancient 
city. Ayodha or Oude is considered by the beat authorities 
to be the most ancient^ city in Hindostan ; and Prinsep 
mentions* that some of its coins in the cabinet of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal are of such extreme antiquity that the 
characters in which their legends are graven are totally 
known. According to Elphinstone,* ** fmm thence the princes 

46 


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of all other Indian countriea are sprung.” Buchanan^ con- 
jectures that it was founded by Brahmins, whom be considers 
as an immigrant race, more advanced in civilization than the 
indigenous Indians. ** These personages^ came from western 
Asia, introducing with them the Sanskrit language, generally 
admitted to be radically the same with the Persian dialect ; 
while the languages spoken among all the rude tribes that in- 
habit the fastnesses of India, and which are, probably, remains 
of its ancient tongue, have no sort of analogy to the languages 
of the West.” This author supposes^ the city to have been 
founded by Yaiwaswata, one of this race, about 1,366 years 
before the Christian era. He considers that its renowned 
ruler Bama perished a.o. 775,^ involved in the destruction of 
bis city by the hostile confederacy of his sons ; that being re- 
built, it suffered a similar fate under the reign of Yridhabala, 
A.o. 512 ; and having lain for centuries desolate, was rebuilt 
A.c. 67, by Yikramaditya,^ the celebrated king of Oojein. Tod,* 
however, and Wilford, fond of large numbers, place the foun- 
dation of Ayodha* in an era more than 2,000 years b.c. The 
former writer states,^ without comment, a tradition that 
Xiucknow, distant eighty miles from the present city of Oude, 
was formerly one of its suburbs. The great decline of Oude is 
of comparatively recent date, as it is described in the Ayeen^ 
Akber}' as one of the largest cities of Hindostau ; and it is 
farther stated, ” In ancient tiroes this city is said to have 
measured 148 cose [perhaps 200 miles] in length, and thirty- 
six cose in breadth. It is esteemed one of the roost sacred 
places of antiquity.” With the havili or municipal district 
attached, the city is assessed in the Ayeen Akbery^ at 50,209 
rupees, a sum so moderate as to throw discredit on the previous 
statement of its being one of the greatest cities of India. The 

^ Tod ' gires a traoslation of a passage from the Ramayana, descriptive 
of this city in its prime : — ** Ayodha, built by Mena, twelve yojans (forty- 
eight miles) in extent, with streets regular and well watered. It was 
filled with merchants, beautified by gardens, ornamented with stately 
gates and high-arched porticos, furnished with arme^ crowded with 
chariots, elephants, and horses, and with ambassadors from foreign lands ; 
embellished with palaces, whose domes resembled the mountain-tops ; 
dwellings of equal height resounding with the delightful music of the 
tabor, the flute, and the harp. It was snrroanded by an impassable moat, 
and guarded by archers." 


^ Surrey of 
Hastem India, 
ii. 390. 

• II. 391. 

• Rtichanan, 

II. 839. 

I Id. II. 384. 

• I. 92 . 

• I. 88. 

« il. 41. 

• il. 84. 

1 I. 88. 

realpatidar.com 


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OUD— OWL. 


• Topofrmpby of 
110 . 


« E.I.C. M*. Doc. 


* Journ. In India, 
1 . 428 , 428 . 


B.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


B.I.a M a. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


present population, according to Butter,^ i^^,000, including 
GOO Mussulmans. Distant E. from Lucknow 76 milee, N. 
from Allahabad 95. Lat. 26° 47', long. 82° 1 1'. 

OUDEYPORE. — See Oodetpoob. 

OUDUNPOOR,* in the territory of Oude, a town on the 
route by Shahabad from Lucknow to Sbahjehanpoor, 14 miles 
S. of the latter. It is situate on the north-western frontier, 
towards the British district of Sbahjehanpoor ; and, according 
to Heber,^ ** is what would be called a moderate-sized market- 
town in England.” It is situate close to an extensive grove of 
mango-trees, in the midst of which is a shrine of Siva. The 
inhabitants have the character of a thievish, murderous race, 
within whose reach it is dangerous to come without adequate 
protection. The surrounding country is rather well cultivated, 
especially under cotton. Lat. 27° 42', long. 80°. 

OUNLA. — See Aonlaoakj. 

OUR. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Jodhpoor, situate on 
the right bank of the Sookree river, and 64 miles S.S.W. from 
Jodhpoor. Lat. 25° 26', long. 72° 50'. 

OUR AD. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or the 
territory of the Nizam, 94 miles N.W. by W. from Hyderabad, 
and 109 miles E.N.E. from Sholapoor. Lat. 18° 14', long. 

77° 29'. 

OURAHEE. — A town in the native state of Oude, situate 
on the left bank of the Ghogra river, and 60 miles N.N.E. 
from Lucknow. Lat. 27° 89', long. 81° 26'. 

OURLAGONDA. — A town in the native state of Hyder- 
abad, or the territory of the Nizam, 92 miles E. from Hyderabad, 
and 76 miles N.W. by N. from Guntoor. Lat. 17° 14', long. 

79° 54'. 

OURUNGA. — A river rising in lat. 20° 37', long. 78° 38', 
on the western slope of the Syadree range of mountains, and 
flowing in a westerly direction for thirty-three miles through 
the native states of the Daung rajahs and Bansda, and fifteen 
miles through the British district of Surat, falls into the 
Arabian Sea, in lat. 20° 86', long. 72° 56'. 

OWEN ISLAND. — One of the islands forming the Mergui 
Archipelago. It is about four miles in diameter, and its centra 
is in lat. 1 1° 15', long. 98° 21'. realpatii iar.com 

OWLUHA KHASS. — A town in the British district of 

48 


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realpatidar.com OWN — PAB. 

Saran, preaidency of Bengal, 22 miles S.£. of Bettiah. 
Lat. 2e° 83', long. 84® 4 &. 

O WNCBLUH, in the British district of Mjnpoorie, lieu- 
tenant-go vemorahip of the North-West Provinces, a town 13 
miles N.W. of the town of Mjnpoorie. Lat. 27® 13', long. 
78® 63'. 

OWSA. — A town in one of the recentlj sequestrated districts 
of the native state of Hyderabad, or dominions of the Nizam, 
situate 59 miles N.£. from Sholapoor, and 145 miles N.W. 
from Hyderabad. Lat. 18® 16', long. 76® 34'. 


P. 

PAABEE. — A town in the Bajpoot state of Seerooee, five 
miles S.E. from Seerooee, and 93 miles 8. by W. from Jodhpoor. 
Lat. 25®, long. 72® 51'. 

PA BANG*. — A town of Burmah, 180 miles E. by N. from 
Prome, and 109 miles N.N.E. from Pegu. Lat. 19® 8', long. 
96® 59'. 

PABUL. — A town in the British district of Poonah, pre- 
sidency of Bombay, 26 miles N.N.E. of Poonah. Lat. 18® 50', 
long. 74® 3'. 

PABUB,^ a river of Bussabir, has its source close to the 
Burenda Pass, in a lake^ called Charamai, about a mile in 
circuit, whence the stream rushes forth over a perpendicular 
rock, forming a fine cascade. Above are enormous banks of 
snow, 80 or 100 feet in thickness, which have cracked, and 
partly fallen outward into the lake. This spot is in lat. 31® 22', 
long. 78® 12', and has an elevation of 13,839* feet above the 
sea. The river holds a southerly course of between ten and 
eleven miles to the confluence of the Sipoon, at an elevation of 
8,854 feet above the sea, and in lat. 81® 18', long. 78® 4', and 
in that distance has the enormous average fall of 545^ feet per 
mile. Continuing its course in the same direction for about 
eleven miles to Chergaon, it there receives, at an elevation of 
5,985 feet, and in lat. 31® 13', long. 77® 56', the Andrytee, 

« E 49 


E I.C. M». Doe. 


E.I.O. Uu Doe. 


B.X.C. Ms. Doe. 


* B.I C. Trifoo. 

Burr. 

* Journ. R 07 . As. 

80 c. I. 947 -Colo- 
brooke, Retnsrks 
00 tbs Rlvsr 
Sutlej. 

IJoyd and Qcmrd, 

Tours In Hlms- 
Isja. I. Z50. 

As. Ret. Bis. 978* 

— Hodi^ton and 
Hsrbsrt. Trlaon. 

Burr, of Hlma- 
laja. 

Joum. As. 80 c. 

Bsnjr. 184S, p. 905 
— Oerard, Joum. 
to Shipks. 

* Oerard, Koona- 
wur, Tiible 111. No. 

r&'alpatidar.com 

Oerard, at supra, 

I. S58. 


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* Oerard, Ki>ona« 
«ur. Mai*. 

* Joorn. Soe. 
Renf. 1S37. p. 0« 

Hutloa, Journ. 
of a Trip to tba 
Burvnda Paaa. 

Id. Op. 1849. p.804 
— Oemrd, Journ. 
to 81ilpke. 

Praarr. Joum. In 
Hloiala/a. 108. 


Ut ■iipra, 106. 


F I.C. Ms. Dor. 
B<«tt4>r. ToiHif. of 
Oudh. 07. 


* B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 

• Benaral R*icula- 
tkNia, Bill, of 1888. 


• Parllaraentarj 
Return, April, 
1881. 

* Vojafoa, I.97I*. 


PAB— PAC. 

flowiug from the north-west. For this last portion of its 
course it has an average fall of 254^ feet per mile. The vallej 
through which it thenceforth holds its way is the finest* part 
of Bussahir, being beautiful, fertile, and highly cultivated, and, 
from the amount of its elevation above the sea, enjoying a 
genial climate. The river flows still in a south-westerly direo 
tion between ten and eleven miles to Rooroo, lat. 81^ 12 \ long. 

77^ 48', and at an elevation of 6,100* feet : there it takes a 
southerly direction of about twenty-five miles to its confluence 
with the river Tons, in lat. 30° 56', long. 77° 54', after a total 
course of about fifty-eight miles. Fraser^ describes it as a 
large, clear, and rapid stream at Haingarh, about fifteen miles 
above its mouth. 

PABYA RIVER. — An ofiset of the Yennan, one of the 
branches of the Irawaddy, the chief river of Burmah. The 
Pabya runs in a south-easterly direction, intersecting a portion 
of the valley lying between the Irawaddy and the Sitang, and 
falls into the latter after a course of about fifty miles, in lat. 

18° 68', long. 96° 80'. 

PACHAMRAT, a district of the territory of Oude, is 
bounded on the north-east by the river Ghogra, dividing it 
from the British district Goruckpore ; on the south-east by the 
district of Aldemau ; on the south-west by Sultanpoor; and on 
the west by Bainswara. Its centre is in about lat. 26° 50^, 
long. 81° 53'. 

PACHETE,^ a Bntish district in the presidency of Bengal, 
is denominated from the town of the same name. It is^ under 
the jurisdiction of the Governor- General’s agent for the south- 
west frontier. It is bounded on the north by the British dis- 
tricts Ramgurh and Beerbhoom ; on the east by the British 
district Bancoora ; on the south by the British districts 
Pooralia, Barabhoom, and Singhbhoom ; on the west by the 
British district Chota Nagpore ; it lies between lat. 22° 5B' — 

23° 64', long. 85° 46' — 87° Ky ; is 105 miles in length from 
north-east to south-west, and ninety-five in breadth. The area 
is 4,702 square miles.^ The information respecting its aspect 
and physical geography is very scanty. Jacquemont,* who 
traversed the northern part from east to west, describes the 

• 5,177 feet according to Table iii. No. 40, at end of aooonnt-''of -^Om 
Koonawur by same author. 

Ml 


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realpatidar.com PACHETE. 

country as marked by hills from 400 to 600 feet high, oyerrun 
with forest or jungle, in some places intersected with plains or 
open Tales of limited extent. About lat. 23^ 35\ long. 85^ 50^, 
near the town of Pachete, and skirted by the river Damooda, 
he observed a mountain having, as he conjectured, an elevation 
of 2,500 or 3,000 feet. About fifteen miles more south- 
west is Eogonathpore, and near the centre of the district the 
same traveller examined several hills, the rocky formation of 
which was of granite ; the elevation about 900 feet. In the 
vales and plains rice is the staple crop, interspersed anth oil- 
seeds and some other products of less importance ; but much of 
the country now covered with jungle or waste, bears marks of 
having been formerly cultivated. Its present condition pro- 
bably arises from the injudicious rural economy of the natives, 
under which the soil is cropped until exhausted, and then 
neglected until the rest of many years gives hope of its again 
becoming productive. The geological formation is described 
by Jacquemont as generally primitive, consisting of either 
granite, gneiss, or syenite. In the northern part of the dis- 
trict, however, according to the received tlieories, it appears to 
be of a later era, coal® being found near Jeria, in lat. 23° 44', • a*, so.-. 

, 1 • ... , , ’ Ben». IS4S, p. 460 

long. 86^25, and irou-ore existing in great abundance at a — HM 117 . Min«rmi 
short distance. The south-western part appears to be a maze 
of mountains and ravines, connected with the adjacent high- 
lands of Chota Nagpore. The district is traversed by some 
considerable rivers, the course of which being to the south-east, 
indicsktes the general slope of the country to be in that direc- 
tion. The Damooda river, flowing from the British district 
Bamgurh, touches on this district in lat. 23° 42', long. 86° 6', 
and taking an easterly course for fifteen miles, forms the 
boundary towards the British district, from which it flows ; 
then entering Pachete, it continues to flow easterly for seventy 
miles to the eastern frontier, which it crosses into the British 
district of Bancoora. The Soobunreeka touches on the western 
frontier in lat. 23° 26', long. 85° 49', and flowing fifty miles in 
a south-easterly direction, forming for one-half of that distance 
the boundary tow'ards Chota Nagpore, finally leaves the dis- 
trict in lat. 22° 55', long. 86° 8'. The Cossye rises on the 

north-western frontier, in lat. 23° 34', long. 85° 58', and flowing realpatidar.com 

south-easterly about 100 miles, passes over the south-eastern 

E 2 


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PAC. 


• Fri<-nd of India 
Journal. Oct. 
1839. p. 047. 


» E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 

* Jaequcmnnt, 
Voyaffca, Hi. t2S4. 


• Garden. Tablaa 
of Koulca, 170. 
S.I.C. Mr. Doe. 


Garden, Tablet of 
Ruutea. 909. 


frontier into the British district Midnapore. Many torrents 
discharge themselves into those greater streams, the country 
being fully under the influence of the periodical rains ; and the 
drainage is good, in consequence of the rapid declivity of the 
surface. This tract is considered to have been considerably 
improved since its incorporation with the dominions of the 
£ast-India Company, villages formerly deserted having become 
reinhabited, many more having been built, and culture much 
extended. An investigation has recently taken place into an 
alleged case of suttee, reported to have been authoriaed by 
the rajah of Pachete, a petty potentate of hill jungle in this 
district ; but the inquiry has resulted in the acquittal of the 
rajah.^ There does not appear to be any collection of residences 
which can be properly termed a town. Pachete, regarded as 
the capital, Rogonathporo, Jalda, and Chas, are noticed under 
their respective names in the alphabetical arrangement. The 
g^eat trunk road from south-east to north-west from Calcutta 
to the North-West Provinces, through Burdwan, passes through 
the northern part of the district ; the other route between the 
capital and the North-West Provinces, through Bancoora and 
Hazareebagh, lies through the middle of the district. The 
only remaining route of any importance is from east to west, 
from Bancoora, through Jalda, to Chota Nagpore. Pachete is 
within the limits of the Dewanny granted to the British in 
1765 by Shah Alum, emperor of Delhi. 

PACHETE,* reputed the principal place of the British dis- 
trict of the same name, a ruined town^ six miles south-west of the 
right hank of the river Damooda. It is situate midway between 
the new and old line of road from Calcutta to the North-West 
Provinces, and about ten miles from each line.* Distance from 
Calcutta, N.W., 150 miles.* Lat. 23° 36', long. 86° 50'. 

PACHIPONTA. — A town in the British district of Viza- 
gapatam, presidency of Madras, 56 miles N. by W. of Viza- 
gapatam. Lat. 13° 30', long. 83° 10'. 

PACKBUE.RAH, in the British district of Moradabad, 
lieutenant- governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 


1 OaMttcer. 11. * Hamilton’s statement* is as follows : — **Tbe fort is now a wildemeea, 

***' some miles in extent, situate at the base of a high wooded mountain. It 

was no doubt at one period a very formidable stronghold, being snrfOtmdeddr.COrn 
by a treble labyrinth of moats and mounds." 

92 


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on the route from the town of Moradabad to MozufTurnuggur, 
and six miles W. of the former place. It is situate in an open 
country, partially cultivated. The road in this part of the 
route is generally good, though in some places sandy and heavy. 
Distant N.W. from Calcutta 890 miles. Lat. 28^ 50^, long. 
78® 44'. 

PACTNA, in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the route 
from Almora to Pilleebheet, 19 miles S.S.E. of the former. 
Lat. 29® 21', long. 79® 49'. 

PADBA. — A town in the native state of Guzerat, or 
dominions of the Guicowar, situate eight miles W.S.W. from 
Baroda, and 36 miles N. by E. from Broach. Lat. 22® 12', 
long. 73® 7'. 

PADBOO. — A town in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, situate 
11 miles E. from the left bank of the Loonee river, and 82 
miles S.W. from Jodhpoor. Lat. 25® 32', long. 72® 11'. 

PAJDSHAHGANJ,* in the district of Sultan poor, territory 
of Oude, a village two miles S.W. of the cantonment of Sultan- 
poor. Here a foujdar or commandant of police resides in a 
square building of masonry. Butter estimates^ the population 
at 300, of whom 100 are Mussulmans. Lat. 26® 18', long. 
81® 59'. 

PADSHAH MAHAL,^* in the British district of Suharun- 
poor, a ruined palace, built by Shahjehan, is situate at the spot 
where the river J umna enters the plain, and opposite the point 
where the Delhi Canal ^ passes off to the south-west. Distant* 
N.W. from Calcutta 1,030 miles ; elevation above the sea 
L276^ feet. Lat. 30® 20', long. 77® 39'. 

PADSHAHPOOB,^ in the British district of Goorgaon, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small 
town on the route from Hansi^ to Muttra, by Goorgaon ; 
distant 25 miles S.W. of Delhi. It is situate among rocky* 
hills, and has still a bazar, though much fallen away from its 
state during the time of the Patau sovereigns of Delhi. Lat. 
28® 22', long. 77® 6'. 

PADSHAHPOOB. — ^A towm in the British district of Bel- 
gaum, presidency of Bombay, 21 miles N.E. by N. of Belgaum. 
Lat. 16® 5', long. 74® 46'. 

* From Padshah, ''king,'* and Mahall, "house.** 


B.I.C. M*. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ma Doe. 


B.I.C. M*. Doe. 


* B.IX;. Ma Doc. 


* Topovnipby of 
Oudl^ ISl. 

< B.I.C. M a Doe. 
B.IjC. Trff. Sunr. 

* Journ. A*. Soe. 
Beof. ISSS, p. 105 
— Colvin, on An- 
cient CannI* of 
Delhi Territorf. 

* Oarden. 'I'ablee 
of Routes, V21. 

* Aa Rea zlv. 
8S9*— Hodgson 
and Herbert, Trff. 
Sure. of Himalaya. 

I E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 

* Garden, Tsbiea 
of Routee, 107. 

* Jacqucnionl, 
vl. 553, 357. 


B.I.C. Ha Due. 

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PAD— PAH. 


E I.C. Doe. 


> B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* OaaHUer, II. 
8M. 


■.I.C. .M*. Doci 


E.t.C. Mb. n<»c. 


* Ourdcn. TnblcB 
of R*HJteB, 84. 

* Mundj, 
SkBtchM, ii. 94. 
Arcber, Toura, 

II. IS. 

Gordon, Toblot of 
Route*, 6. 


PADSHAHPUR. — See Shahpur. 

PADUR. — A town in the British district of CoimbatOdr, 
presidency of Madras, 73 miles N.E. of Coimbatoor. Lat. 

11® 41', long. 77® 49'. 

PAQHAM MEW.^ — A town of Burmah, situate on the 
left bank of the Irawady river, and 99 miles S.W. by W. from 
Ava. According to Hamilton,^ this city, in remote times, was 
the residence of a long dynasty of kings, and is still famous 
for its numerous temples, to count which is among the pro- 
verbial impossibilities of the Burmese. Lat. 21® 7', long. 

94® 42'. 

PAGODA POINT. — The southernmost extremity of the 
district of Bassein, province of Pegue, named from a pagoda 
standing upon it. Lat. 15® 66', long. 94® 19'. 

PAGODA POINT. — A prominent headland on the coast 
of Tenasserim, at the entrance of the small river on which is 
situate the town of Amherst. Lat. 16® 6', long. 97® 88'. 

PAHAREE. — See Puhatiee. 

PAHARGURH, in the territory of Gwalior, or possessions 
of Scindia’s family, a town 28 miles S.W. of the fort of 
Gwalior, situate on a sandstone hill ; whence its name. Lat. 

26® 11', long. 77® 44'. 

PAHARPOOR, in the Daman division of the Punjab, a 
town situate on the right bank of the Indus, 186 miles 8. by 
W. of the town of Peshawar. Lat. 32® 8', long. 71® 3'. 

PAHARPOOR,* • in the British district of Furruckabad, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from the cantonment of Bareilly to that of 
Futtehgurh, and seven miles* N.E. of the latter. The road in 
this part of the route is good ; the country level, fertile, and 
very well cultivated.* Lat. 27® 28', long. 79® 41'. 

PAHLADPOOR, in the British district of Budaon, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Agra to Bareilly, and 68 miles N.E. of the 
former. It is situate in a depressed place, formerly the bed of 
the Ganges, but now deserted by the stream aud dry. The 
road in this part of the route is heavy and sandy, the country 
partially cultivated. Lat. 27° 52', long. 78° 46'. realpatidar.com 

• Mountain Town; from Pabar, “Mountain,” and Pur, “town;” an 
unaccountable denomination of a place in a remarkably level tract. 

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PAHLUNPOBE. 


PAHLUNPOBE.^ — Apettj state under the political super- • b.i c. m*. Doe. 
intendeoce of the presidencj of Bombay, oomprising the diri- 
sioQs of Dbandar, Deesa, and Dhuneyra. It lies between lat. 

23° sr— 24^ 41', and long. 71° 51'— 72° 45'. It is bounded on 
the north by the Rajpoot principality of Serohee ; on the south 
bj the Puttun district ; on the east by the Guicowar district of 
Keyralla, and by that of Daunta ; and on the west by the petty 
ehieflainship of Thunraid. It contains about 800 TUlages. 

Id the neighbourhood of the town of Pahlunpore the country 
is imdulatiDg, consisting of a succession of sandy hillocks and 
BmaU Talleys. To the north and westward, towards the Bunn, 
it becomes level, and is covered with low jungle. A range of 
mountains, commencing about eighteen miles firom the town of 
Pahlonpore, and running from north to east, divides Guserat 
from Mm*war or Joudpore. 

To the north and west, the soil, light and sandy, produces 
only one crop yearly ; to the south and east, towards the hills, 
it is rich and black, allowing of the production of three crops 
in the year. !For the former soil, light showers suffice ; but 
hesTy rain is required to develop the produetire powers of the 
Utter. The wells are generally about forty feet deep. Wheat, 
rice, bajree, are the usual products of the district. A good 
deal of sugarcane is cultivated in the black soil under the 
hills, but no attempt has yet been made to manufacture sugar. 

The produce is either made into goor, or sold in the stick at a 
▼cry cheap rate. A little cotton is gp-own in the neighbourhood 
of the villages. The jungles north and west are good gracing 
lands, but contain no timber of any value. The year may be 
dnided into four seasons ; namely, a hot one, comprising the 
three months of April, May, and June; a rainy season, 
extending over the months of July and August ; a second 
hot season, continuing during September and October; and 
s cold season, embracing the remaining five months, from 
Xofcmber to March inclusive. During the first season, the 
hot winds blow with great violence, accompanied by sand- 
storms ; the thermometer often ranging from 90^ to 120°. 

During the second, the rains, though constant, are seldom 
heavy. The third season (the second hot one) is considered 
the most unhealthy for both Europeans and natives : the 
fourth, or cold season, is delightful. With the exception of 


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the second hot season, comprehending the months of September 
and October, the climate, although the heat at times is ex* 
cessiye, maj be considered not unhealthy. 

The rivers that water the Pahlunpore territory, are the 
Bunass, Sumiswuttee, and Numrodakee, with other small 
streams. They all take their rise from the mountains in the 
north-east, and fall into or disappear near the Eunn. The 
principal of them is the Bunass, on the banks of which is the 
Deesa cantonment. There is but one good road through the 
district; but it is of some importance, being the route by which 
most of the commerce from Hindostan, including the great 
nuurt of Pallee, finds its way to the difierent bunders on the 
Cutch, Kattywar, and Guzerat coasts; and again from those 
bunders to the north. 

• suitotks f The number of inhabitants is about 130,000 of these, one- 

kiiiaf to laJitt, seventh are Mussulmans, the rest Hindoos. There appears to 
be a remarkable disparity between the numbers of male and 
female children ; and from the paucity of the latter, it has been 
suspected that female infanticide is practised. Major Brown, 
who inquired into the subject in 1845 , acquitted the people of 
this horrible charge, and assigned the following three causes for 
the disparity above adverted to : first, early marriages, under 
which female children were regarded as adults ; secondly, the 
marriage of females with foreigners ; thirdly, an excess of male 
births. This statement does not, however, appear altogether 
conclusive. If the practice of early marriage caused a 
diminution of the apparent number of female children, by 
throwing them into the class of adults, it must, at the same 
time, have unduly increased the latter class, and created therein 
an apparent disparity of females over males. The second cause, 
if it existed to any great extent, would to that extent account 
for the disparity ; but its existence is asserted only, not 
proved ; and if proved, would further require to be shown 
that it operates so as to withdraw a large number of females 
from the country, not after attained maturity, but during the 
period of childhood. So, also, with the third alleged cause ; it 
is not proved ; and it may naturally be asked, Why should this 
great preponderance of male over female births occur in Pah-, 
lunpore rather than anywhere else? There is certainly n0^idar.com 
reason a priori to conclude that the district is in this respect 

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an exception to the rest of the world. Another British officer, 
howerer. Captain Leckie, concurs in the belief that infanticide 
i« not practised ; and the result of the latest inquiries (1848) 
is onlj the conclusion, that no light can be thrown upon the 
sahject. 

The Pahhinpore state pays no tribute of any kind to the 
British goTemment, but merely the expenses of its agent, 
amoonting to 500 rupees per mensem ; but it pays 50,000 
rupees yearly tribute to the Guicowar state. 

The rerenues of the state, including land-tax and customs, 
arerage nearly 800,000 rupees per annum : the disbursements, 
including civil, military, and agency charges, allowances to the 
late Shumshere ELhan’s family, and relatives of the present 
chief, amount tp about 200,000 rupees per annum. If to this 
be added the tribute of 50,000 rupees to the Guicowar, there 
remains a sum of about 50,000 rupees for the expenses of the 
chief and his household. 

In 1844, a criminal court for Fahlunpore,. and the neighbour- 
ing petty states, was established, on the principle of the 
political agent’s court in Katty war and the Myhee and Bewa 
Cauntas. 

The only engagement with neighbouring states is with the 
pettj Bajpoot district Daunta, joining the eastern boundary of 
Fahlunpore. In 1819, that state having suffered severely from 
the depredations and incursions of the Coolies of the neigh- 
bouring districts north and east of it, its chief sought the 
tKutanoe of Fahlunpore. It was graoted, on an agreement 
between the two states, that for the support to be afforded, 
Fahlunpore should receive seven annas in the rupee of all the 
revenue collected in Daunta. The contract was approved and 
eonfinned by the British government, and still remalnB in 
foixx. The native force consists of 115 horsemen and 410 
footsoldiers ; they are stationed on the brontiers and in 
chferent villages, as police, to protect the district from incur- 
riona of the Coolies and Bbeels of the neighbouring states, 
^ to afford protection generally. From the tranquillity 
which has usually prevailed, it is to be inferred that they are 
<&ient. The only troops subsidized by this state, are 150 
Qnioowar horse and 100 Guicowar foot. They consist generally 

of ioreignerw, and are commanded by jemadars, who receive 

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PAHLUNPORE. 


* Clan*. Itinerary, 
Appaad. 46. 


thirty rupees per mensem for each horseman, and ten rupees 
per mensem for each foot-soldier ; all expenses of arms and 
horses being included in these respective amounts. They were 
first raised in 1817. They are bound to serve wherever they 
are ordered, but the foot-soldiers generally remain stationed in 
the town of Pahlunpore, together with a portion of the horse- 
men, for the protection of its different gates. The rest of the 
horsemen are posted in detachments on the frontier most open 
to the incursions of plunderers. Formerly, an officer, receiving 
600 rupees per mensem, was appointed to command them ; but 
they are now under the charge of the political superintendent. 

The nawaub or dewan of this small state is of a Mussulman 
family, originally from AJfghanistan,^ who appear to have 
migrated to Behar, and subsequently to Malwa, in which pro- 
vince their chief was confirmed as foujdar of Jhalore, by the 
Emperor Akbar. Here they remained until the reign of 
Aurungzebe, by whom they were transferred to Pahlunpore 
and Deesa, the office of foujdar being retained. 

Our first connection with this state was in 1818. For some 
years previously, the chief power had been in the hands of a 
faction of Scindee jemadars, who in 1812 murdered the then 
reigning dewan, Peeroze Khan, when out hunting, under 
suspicion that he was about to restrict their authority. 
Having committed this act, they offered the dewanship to hie 
only son, Futteh Khan, the present chief, and then only thir- 
teen years of age. By the advice of his mother he refused the 
offer, and, through his late father's karbarees, petitioned the 
Guicowar and British governments for assistance and protection 
from his father's murderers. In the mean time the jemadars, 
having seized and placed him in strict confinement, invited his 
uncle, Shumshere Khan, then chief of the district of Deesa and 
Dhuneyra, to Pahlunpore, to undertake the management of 
affairs. This chief, who had been superseded in the dewanship 
by Peeroze Khan eighteen years before, although he had since 
constantly waged a petty war with Pahlunpore, and sometimes 
with success, had no hand in the death of the dewan. He, 
however, accepted the offer made to him ; but in the mean time, 
interference in favour of the rightful heir being considered 
necessary by both the British and Guicowar governmental,*^' 
Captain Camac, then Resident at Baroda, proceeded to Pahlun- 

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pore, with a force fumisbed by those govern ments, under the 
command of General Holmes. On the road, information was 
received that, on the approach of the force to Pahl unpore, the 
jemadars intended to carry off Futteh Khan, in order that his 
presence might give a sanction in the country to any lawless 
measures which it might suit their interest to pursue. In this 
design, however, Shumshere Khan did not participate, and he 
was afterwards fully exonerated from all suspicion. In hopes 
of preventing the meditated act, the force marched with all 
practicable speed to Pahlunpore, which was threatened with 
assault, unless Futteh Khan was immediately given up. There- 
upon he was sent to the British camp, and Shumshere Khan 
shortly afterwards surrendered himself. Captain Carnac inti- 
mated to the rebellious jemadars, that if they submitted, their 
personal safety would be insured, and anything they had to 
urge in defence of their late proceedings would be attended to ; 
but, fearing the displeasure of the British government, they 
fled, with a few followers, to the hills ; whence, from the great 
strength of the country, and the smallness of the force dis- 
posable for the purpose, it was not considered advisable to 
follow them. The town was given up without resistance. 

In consequence of Futteh Khan’s youth and inexperience, 
it became necessary to ascertain if any members of his family 
were fit to superintend the affairs of the state during his 
minority. After a strict examination, none were found to 
whom the trust could safely be committed, all being deficient 
in intellect, education, or habits of business ; or from other 
causes incapable. Under these circumstances, the choice of a 
guardian became a point of some difficulty, as the interposition 
of the Guicowar’s authority w as a measure which it was most 
desirable to avert. After some consideration, it was deemed 
the most advisable course, with a view to the suppression of 
anarchy and intestine feuds, and to the gratification as far as 
practicable of the feelings of all parties, to unite the interests 
of the young chief Futteh Khan with those of his uncle 
Shumshere Khan. The management of affairs during the 
minority of the young chief was accordingly offered to Shum- 
shere Khan. He at first refused, and urged his priority of 
pretension to the guddee over the family of the late chief. 
Into this claim it consequently became requisite to inquire, 

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PAHLUNPOBE. 


and the result of the researches instituted by Captain Camac 
was a conviction that it was untenable. Shumshere Khan 
after a time acquiesced in the decision ; and finally, after much 
discussion, it was agreed that he should be associated with 
Futteh Khan ; and, having no issue of his own, that he should 
adopt the latter as his son, and make him heir to all his pos- 
sessions, including the districts of Deesa and Dhuneyra ; with 
the exception, in the event of a son being subsequently bom to 
him, of a small provision for such ofispring. The differences 
which prevailed having been apparently settled by this com- 
promise, agreements were signed by the respective parties 
before Captain Carnac ; and on the 22ad December, 1818, the 
ceremony of investing Futteh Khan with the rule of Pahl un- 
pore, and his adoption by Shumshere Khan, took place, in 
presence of tliat officer and several other gentlemen, as well as 
the principal people of the place, to whom the arrangement 
appeared to be entirely agreeable. To make the tie more 
binding, it was afterwards agreed that Shumshere Khan should 
give his daughter in marriage to Futteh Khan. From this 
date until 1816, although dissensions were not unknown, it 
does not appear they were considered of sufficient moment to 
require the interference of the British government ; but at 
the latter end of that year Futteh Khan complained to the 
resident at Baroda of his uncle’s conduct in alienating the 
revenues of the state, and other malpractices. Lieutenant 
Bobertson was thereupon deputed to inquire into the alleged 
grievances ; and, both parties being summoned to Sidpore 
(eighteen miles from Pahlunpore), a lengthened investigation 
of the different charges took place ; and it was fully proved 
that Shumshere Khan had on several occasions departed from 
his agreement as guaranteed by the British government. It 
appeared that since he had held the management of affairs the 
debts of the state had greatly increased ; that the Guicowar’s 
tribute of 50,000 rupees had remained unpaid since 1813 ; and 
that within three years last preceding, Shumshere Khan had, 
without the signature or permission of Futteh Khan, given 
away nearly 100 villages to wuzedars, distant relations of his 
own, and to others, in order to attach them to his person : 
thereby alienating from the state nearly 50,000 rupees,^br 
upwards of one-fifbh of its yearly revenue. It was also reported 

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to the agent, on good authority, that Shumahere Khan bad 
threatened to take the life of the young chief, should he be 
deprived of the management of affairs. Lieutenant Robertson 
having received his instructions from the resident, then ad- 
dressed a letter to Shumshere Khan, in the name of the 
British government, informing him that, in consequence of 
his having failed in administering the affairs of the state 
according to his agreement, as shown in the foregoing inquiry, 
it was deemed necessary, with a view to the security of the 
rights and interests of Futteh Khan, to divest him (Shumshere) 
of all authority in the state ; and that any resistance to this 
measure would deprive him of all claim to consideration, and 
put an end to any chance of retaining his authority over 
Deesa. On receiving this letter, Shumshere Khan, as a last 
resource, opened a private communication with Futteh Khan, 
trying to persuade him that the British government, in inter- 
fering between them, merely wished to benefit itself at their 
joint expense, and that Futteh Khan would thereby become a 
mere pensioner on that government. He suggested a restora- 
tion of the relations of friendship for their mutual benefit, and 
promised at once to carry into effect the marriage of his 
daughter with Futteh Khan, a measure long before agreed 
on, but which had been delayed by the dissensions of the con- 
tracting parties. These solicitations and promises seem to 
have answered their intended purpose, for Futteh Khan 
secretly left the agent’s camp in company with Shumshere 
Khan, and proceeded with him aud his followers to Pahlun- 
pore. On this Lieutenant Robertson returned to Baroda, and 
a field-force under Colonel Elrington was detached to Pahlun- 
pore to effect a settlement of its affairs ; Captain Miles being 
appointed to accompany it and conduct the negotiations. 

On the 10th October, 1817, the force having arrived in the 
neighbourhood of Pahl unpore, it was attacked by the troops 
under Shumshere Khan, who, after a slight skirmish, retreated 
within the walls. The town was then assaulted and carried ; 
Shumshere Khan and all his followers retreating towards the 
hills northward, taking Futteh Khan with them. Detach- 
ments from the British force having followed the fugitives, 
Shumshere Khan took shelter in the foreign territory of 
Neemuj, and Futteh Khan shortly afterwards came to Captain 


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PAHLUNPORE. 


Miles ftnd submitted himself to the British govemmeDt, who, 
taking into consideratioo his youth and inexperience, and being 
aware that he had acted by the advice and influence of others, 
refrained from visiting his error in the manner which he might 
reasonably have expected. Of his inability to conduct his own 
aflaira, be himself, however, soon became painfully conscious ; 
for, a few days after his return, be addressed a letter, through 
Captain Miles, to the Guicowar, requesting that prince to use 
his interest with the British government to allow him an 
English gentleman to superintend his concerns ; and also 
asking that the G-uicowar government would depute a respect- 
able native as vakeel, to assist him in his revenue accounts, 
and make arrangeTuents for the payment of the yearly tribute 
to that state. Both requests* were consented to, and after 
some negotiation, the villages unlawfully alienated from the 
state by Sbumshere Khan having been resumed, articles of 
agreement in supersession of all former treaties were sealed 
and delivered by Futteh Khan to Captain Miles, and after- 
wards approved and conflrmcd by the British and Guicowar 
governments, with the exception of one article ; the number of 
troops to be subsidised was reduced from 250 to 150, the state 
being considered unequal to bearing the expense of the greater 
force. Under this agreement, Futteh Khan engaged to hold 
no communication with Shumshcre Khan or his adherents. 
Captain Miles was shortly after confirmed in his appoint- 
ment as political agent, to superintend the affairs of Pahlun- 
pore. In 1810, Shumshere Khan having given himself up, 
nine villages, whose net revenue amounted to 25,000 rupees 
per annum, were appropriated for his support; to revert to the 
state at hia death. This event happened in 1884, when pro- 
vision was made for his widows and servants, to the amount 
of 6,000 rupees yearly, in addition to the revenue of four 
villages, amounting to 6,000 rupees ; making a total of 12,000 
rupees. His daughter had been married to Futteh Khaa 
shortly after his submission. By the arrangement which has 
thus existed with this state since 1817, the British govern- 
ment exercise a control over its finances ; the different char^ges 
and expenditure being fixed, and no extra disbursement of any 


' BombAj Pol. 
Blip. « Ptfb. lS4a. 


The office of Guioow&r'H v&kcel eppe»ra to have been enbsequentJy 
aboliftbed.^ 


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hetLTj amount being admitted without ita special sanction. 
All interference, howerer, with its internal affairs is limited to 
recommending measures when called for, leaying the execution 
of them to the authorities. 

The interference of the British goremment has been of the 
greatest adrantage to this petty state. From the day a British 
agent was placed in charge of its affairs, it has continued to 
prosper; instead of being a scene of anarchy and confusion, 
ruled as it often had been, by a band of foreign mercenaries, 
and OTerwhelmed with debts, it is now in a flourishing condi- 
tion, in the enjoyment of perfect immunity both from 
foreign oppression and internal dissension, and unembarrassed 
hj oppressive debts. 

The present dewan of Pahlunpore derives his descent from 
a tribe of Affghans, who occupied Bebar in the reign of 
Hoomayon, emperor of Delhi. In 1682, Futteh Khan, one of 
hia ancestors, was dewan of Sbalore, now a large district of 
Marwar, adjoining Pahlunpore. During his dewanship he 
received from the emperor of Delhi, in gift, the districts of 
Pahlunpore, Deesa, and Sachore : he died in 1688, leaving one 
only son, by name Peer Khan, whose claim to the dewanship 
wu set aside by his uncle Kumaul Khan, on the plea of 
incapacity. During Kumaul Khan’s reig^, and in the year 
1608, Shalore and Sachore were resigned by him to Marwar. 
Pahlunpore and Deesa only were retained in the family, who 
then came to reside at the former place, which from this date 
became the seat of government. In 1704 Peeroze Khan suc- 
ceeded his father Kumaul Khan ; Peer Khan’s claim having 
been again passed over, he applied to Delhi, and obtained a 
suuDud of investiture from the royal court for his patrimonial 
rights. By some mistake, or through the intrigues of Peeroze 
Khan’s vakeel, who also went to Delhi to support his master’s 
rights (it is said, indeed, that the writer of the sunnud was 
bribed by him), the name of Peeroze Khan was inserted in the 
•unnud instead of that of Peer Khan, unknown to the court. 
This lost the latter his rights ; for Peeroze Khan, standing on 
the letter of the sunnud, refused to resign, and Peer Khan was 
eventually persuaded not to urge his claim, and remained 
•atisfied with the grant of ten or twelve villages for his 

maiotenance. He died in 1735, leaving an only son, named 

ei 


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PAIILUNPOKE. 


• B.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


* Tod, Tni»cls In 
Western India, 
140. 

* Trans, of Med. 
■nd Phjs. 8oc. 
Borabsj, i. 03 — 
Oltnon, Sketch of 
Ouserat. 

4 Oibson, at 
supra. 

* Clunes, Append, 
to Itinerary for 
Western India, 40. 


X.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


Futteh Khan, who, at his decease, left three sons — Tej Khan, 
Poerose Khan (tlve present chiefs father, who was murdered in 
1812), and Mahomed Khan. Peeroze Khan, the second son, 
some years afterwards laid claim to the chieftainship, but for a 
long period without effect, the other branch of the family 
being too powerful. 

Peeroze Khan, the son of Kumaul Khan, died in 1721, and 
was succeeded by his son Kurreen Khan, who, in 1733, was 
followed by his son Par Khan. In 1743, Par Khan, having 
died childless, was succeeded by his uncle Bbadur Khan, son 
of Peeroze Khan and brother to Kurreen Khan. In 1781, 
Sulleen Khan, his son, reigned ; and in 1784 was succeeded by 
his son Sheer Khan. In 1791, Sheer Khan, having died child- 
less, was succeeded by his nephew Moobariz Khan, through 
the intrigues of his mother, a sister of Sheer Khan*s ; but he 
only reigued for about two years, being superseded by 
Shumshere Khan, of whom mention has already been made. 
Sbumshere Khan was a grandson of one of the brothers of 
Bhadur Khan, and was assisted in the usurpation by such of 
the chiefs of the district as were hostile to Moobariz Khan. 
During the disturbances which followed, Peeroze Khan, the 
son of Futteh Khan, whose claims had so long been overlooked, 
now urged them afresh, and Shumshere Khan having fled to 
Deesa, his rival was installed in 1794, with, it is alleged, the 
unanimous voice of the people. The murder of Peeroze Khan 
in 1812 was followed by the events which have been already 
recounted. 

PAHLUNPORE,* in Quzerat, a town, the capital of the 
petty state of the same name, and situate on the route from 
Neemuch to Deesa. It is surrounded^ by a wall, and has 
some^ trade and manufactures, there being within it many 
artificers of various kinds, and shopkeepers. The population 
is estimated at 30,000.^ The chief, styled Nawaub, who is also 
chief of Deesa, is descended from a tribe^ of Afghans settled in 
Behar in the time of Humaion, emperor of Delhi, and esta- 
blished in their present possessions in the reign of Aurungzebe. 
Distance from Neemuch, W., 160 miles; from Deesa, S.E., 18 
miles ; from Ahmedabad, N., 80 miles. Lat. 24° 12^, long. 

72° 23'. ^ j.0g| , atidar.com 

PAIITUN. — A town in the British province of Sattora, 


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pmidencj of Bombay, 23 miles S.S.W. of Sattara. Lat. 
ir 22^, long. 73® 56'. 

PAI. — A town in the British territory of Tenasserim, pre- 
ndencj of Bengal, 103 miles N.N.W. of Tenasserim. Lat. 
13® Siy, long. 98® 36'. 

PAIGA, in the Daman division of the Punjab, a town 
•itusted 33 miles W. from the right bank of the Indus, 
09 miles W. by S. of the town of Mooltan. Lat. 29° 57', 
long. TOP 24'. 

PAIK TSOUNQ. — A town in the British territory of 
Tenasserim, presidency of Bengal, 51 miles N.E. by N. of 
Moulmein. Lat. 17® 5', long. 98® 8'. 

PAIMSAH KA PXJBWA,^ in the territory of Oude, a 
Tillage on the route from Lucknow to Sultanpoor, 70* miles 
S.E of the former. It is well provided with good water, and 
BQpplies may be bad from the surrounding country, which is 
generally cultivated, though in some parts overrun with low 
jimgle. The road in this part of the route is winding and bad, 
being much cut up. Lat. 26® 25', long. 81° 40'. 

PAINTEE, in the British district of Moradabad, lieutenant- 
goremorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
mate from the town of Moradabad to Mozuffumuggur, and 
nine miles W. of the former place. There is open ground for 
encamping, and water can be obtained from a good well. The 
Borrounding country is open and partially cultivated, and the 
mtd in this part of the route is good. Distant N.W. from 
Calcutta 897 miles. Lat. 28® 51', long. 78® 41'. 

PAIBA. — A river rising in lat. 19® 32', long. 73® 39', on the 
eastern slope of the Western Ghats, and, flowing through the 
Ahmednngur collectorate in an easterly direction for 105 miles, 
frlls into the Godavery on the right side, near the town of 
Toka, in lat. 19® 36', long. 75® 3'. 

PAKANGQOLO. — A town in the native state of Nepal, 
situate 13 miles E. from the left bank of the Arun river, and 
111 miles E. by N. from Khatmandoo. Lat. 27® 59', long. 
87® y. 

PAK CHAlN. — A town in the British territory of Tenas- 
scrim, presidency of Bengal, 90 miles S. by W. of Tenasserim. 
Lat. lOP 51', long. 98® 42'. 

PAKOLIYA,* in the British district of Goruckpore, lieu- 
6 . 


B.I.C. M*. Doc. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


E.IX:. Ma. Doe. 


* B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 

* Oorden, Toblea 
of RouUft, tfS4. 


R.I.C. Ma. Doc. 

E l.C Trigoo. 
Sunr. 

Oarden, Tablea of 
Routca. 908. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


B.l.C. Ma. Doc. 

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I E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


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PAK— PAL. 


* Sonrey of 
Baatorn Indian 
II. aoo. 


Bollcau, 
110. 918. 


tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a petty 
town on a small feeder of the river Koyane. Buchanan^ states 
the number of its houses at 100; and consequently, if six 
persons be assigned to each, its population may be taken at 
600. Distant 40 miles W. of Goruckpore cantonment. Lat. 
26° 48', long. 82° 34'. 

PAKUL. — See Bakul. 

PAL, in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a village on the 
route from Balotra to the town of Jodhpoor, and five miles S. 
of the latter. It is situate at the north-eastern base of a low 
rocky ridge. The road in this part of the route is tolerably 
good, and passes through a wooded tract. Lat. 26° 15', long. 
73° 4'. 


B.l.a Ms.Ooc. 


> B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


• ParlUmentftrj 
Return, ISftl. 


* Buchanan. Sur- 
vey of Eaetam 
India. 1. 409. 


* TranMcts. Mad. 
and Phjra. Soc. of 
Calcutta, 11. 948. 


PALAKEE, in the Sinde Sagur Dooab division of the 
Punjab, a town situated 36 miles W. from the right bank of 
the Jhelum, 106 miles N.W. by N. of the town of Lahore. 

Lat. 33° 3', long. 73° 17'. 

PALAMOW,* a British district of Bengal, is bounded on 
the north by those of Behar and Bamgurh, or Hazerabagh ; on 
the east by the British district last named ; on the south by 
that of Chota Nagpore ; on the south-west by the British dis- 
trict Sirgoojab ; and on the west by that of Mirzapoor. It lies 
between lat. 23° 12' — 24° 22', long. 83° 18' — 84° 31' ; is eighty- 
eight miles in length from south-east to north-west, and seventy 
in breadth : the area is 3,468^ square miles. It is an ill- 
explored country, and little comparatively is known of it, but 
that it is rough and irregular. Torrents are numerous in the 
rainy season, and most of them discharge themselves into the 
river Koel, which, taking a direction north-west, passes into 
the British district of Behar, and falls^ into the Son on the 
right side, in lat. 24° 33', long. 83° 56' ; having a total length of 
course of about 130 miles. The torrents quickly disappear as 
the dry season advances. To this, however, the Koel is an 
exception, retaining a continuous stream at all times. The 
mountains are everywhere covered with forest or jungle, con- 
taining^ a great variety of trees and shrubs ; amongst them the 
sal (Shorea robusta). The Mimosa^ catechu, denominated by 
the natives Khair, is very abundant ; and the gum-catechu, or 
terra Japonica, which is largely prepared from it, is regarded com 
the best in India. The jungly valleys and mountains harbour 

GG 



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realpatidar.com palaMOW. 

the gsour, a bovine quadruped, greatly exceeding ordinary 

kine in dimensions, a full-grown bull being above eighteen 

hinds high. It is shy, but when brought to bay very fierce ; 

and tboQgh many have been taken young, all attempts to 

domesticate them have failed. There are also in those valleys 

the wild bofialo, elk, nylgau (Antilope picta), various kinds of 

deer and antelopes. Tigers are very numerous, and lions* have * spry. win6m 

sometimes been destroyed. There are besides, bears, leopards, *"****’ *' 

wolves, jackals, foxes, and a species of wild dogs, which are 

represented as hunting in packs, and destroying large game. 

The wild hog, porcupine, and pangolin, lurk in the jungles 

which overspread the mountains and valleys. Snakes are 

ntmierous, and very dangerous ; the boa-constrictor has been 

met with* twenty-three feet long, and the cobra de capello, and • Tr«n». ul tuprs 

miny other dreadfully venomous kinds, are common. Bees 

ire numerous, and produce fine honey; and the lac insect 

abounds in the jungles, producing both the resin of the same 

name and a mueb-ee teemed dye. The mineral resources of 

the district are of considerable value and utility. At Sing^, 

on the right bank of the river Koel, in lat. 24° 5', long. 84° 8', 

are^ extensive fields of good coal, and iron-ore in inexhaustible ^ Report or cnm- 

<^Qantities. Some other parts contain valuable coal-fields and 

wm-mines ; and the Koel might, it is said, bo made available •o"*^ \nii\a, 

lor navigation to a considerable extent. The only places which p. se. 

can with any propriety be denominated towns, are Oontaree, 

near the northern frontier, and Palamow, in the middle of the — D«cripuoi» of 

district. There are, however, numerous villages and hamlets j. Hurophray, 

dispersed over it; yet altogether it is very thinly peopled. 

Xothing has been stated as to its separate population, but the 
amount, united with that of Chota Nagpore, is computed to be 
^,900. Its area is 3,468 square miles.® • p«ri»*m«»i*ry 

This district is part of the territory under the administration 
of the pobtical agent for the south-western firontier and com- 
mitrioner for Chota Nagpore, to whose jurisdiction it was 
biniferred in 1833, subsequently to an insurrection cora- 
®«nchig in the preceding year, and which overspread the whole 
of this district, and the adjoining one of Chota Nagpore. A 
military force was employed to reduce the disturbed 
diitricts to obedience, and subsequently order has prevailed. 

PALAMOW. — The principal place of the British district of e.i.c m*. doc. 

r 2 *7 


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* B.I.C. M«. Doc. 
■ TfiKonometrical 
Bunrcy, envrmvcd 
bj Walker. No. 60. 


* HorstNirfh, 
Ea*t«India Dlrcc- 
tory. I. dOO. 

* Buchenan, Nerr. 
of Journey from 
Madras, throuitb 
Mysore. Canara. 
and Malabar. 1. S3. 
E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


• D'Cms. Pol. 
Ralallons, 30. 31. 


> E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


PAL. 


the same name, situate fire miles east from the rirer Koel, 
amidst mountains containing coal and iron. Distance S.W. 
from Patna (Behar) 145 miles. Lat. 23° long. 84^ 1'. 

PALAR.*® — A river rising in the territory of Mysore, in lat.* 
13° 2(y, long. 78° 2f. It holds its course circuitously, but 
generally in a south-east direction, for fifty-fire miles, through 
Mysore, when it crosses the frontier into the British district of 
North Arcot, thirty miles below which point it passes through 
the gorges of the Eastern Ghats, in lat. 12° 41', long. 78° 36*, 
about eighty-five miles from its source. Quitting the hills, it 
holds a course generally east for eighty-seven miles, and passes 
by Vellore and Arcot, to lat. 12° 48', long. 79° 42', where it 
crosses into the British 'district of Chingleput, through which 
it continues its direction south-eastward for forty-eight miles, 
to its fall into the Bay of Bengal, on the Coromandel coast, in 
lat. 12° 28', long. 80° 13' ; its total length of course being about 
220 miles. ** The entrance of the river Polar or Paliar, about 
three and a half or four miles to the southward of Sadras, is 
contracted^ t)y ^ bar or narrow ridge of sand, inside of which 
the river becomes of considerable width.** During the rainy 
seasons, it has a considerable volume of water, but at other 
times is completely^ dry, though water may always be obtained 
by digging in its bed. 

PALAVERUM. — A town in the British district of Chingle- 
put, presidency of Madras, 11 miles S.W. of Madras. Lat. 
12° 58', long. 80° 15'. 

PALCONDA. — See Pallakondi.. 

PA LDEO,^ in Bundelcund, a small state, or rather jagbire, 
granted’ by the East-India Company to the commandant of the 
fortress of Kalleenjur at the time of its surrender, and still 
held by his descendant. It is stated* to have an area of 
twenty-eight square miles, fourteen villages, a population of 
3,500, and an annual revenue of 10,000 rupees, or 1,000/. 
The jaghirdar maintains a force of 100 infantry. Paldeo, the 
principal place, is situate in a mountainous tract 67 miles 
S.W. of Allahabad. Lat. 25° 6', long. 80° 51'. 

PALEE,^ in the British district of Gh>orgaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town, the prin- 
cipal place of the pergunnah of the same name, situate at the 
* Palsr of TkaiiQ ; PaUur of BuchansD. 




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realpatidar.com PAL. 

eastern base of a rocky range, formed of sandstone^ largely 
intermixed with quartz.* Distance S. from Delhi 18 miles. 
Lat. 28® 2.r, long. 77® 18'. 

PALEEKHEYB.UH, or PALIKHAIEA. — A town in the 
Dritish district of Muttra, lieutenant-goremorship of the 
North-West Provinces. Lat. 27® 34', long. 77® 31'. 

PALGHAT,^ in the British district of Malabar, presidency 
of Madras, a fort with straggling town on the north or right 
aide^ of the Palaur, the principal feeder of the river of Ponany. 
It is situate in a beautiful country, in that great depression 
in the Western Ghats, about* lat. 10® 35' — 10® 55', “ which 
leaves* a communication between the two coasts of the Penin- 
sula, covered only with forests of the^tately teak.” The fort 
of the Palgbat is a fine structure, built by Hyder Ali, when 
that adventurer, in the year 1757, found footing in Malabar, by 
marching* to the aid of the Nair chief of this place. In the year 
1783 it was taken* by a British force commanded by Colonel 
Fullarton, and restored to Tippoo Sultan in the following year, 
by the treaty of Mangalore. In the year 1790 it was, after a 
brief but vigorous siege, suirendered^ to a British force com- 
manded by Colonel Stuart. Distance from Calicut, S.E., 68 
miles; Mangalore, S.E., 190; Cananore, S.E.^lld; Coimbatoor, 
8.W., 25; Bangalore, S., 162; Madras, S.W., 290. Lat. 
l(f 45', long. 76^" 43'. 

PALHANPOOB. — A town in the native state of. Guzerat, 
or dominions of the Guicowar, 20 miles E. from Dtl^sa, and 
83 miles N. by W. from Ahmedabad. Lat. 24® 12', long. 
72® 23'. 

PALHANPOOB. — See Pahlxtkfore. 

PALHBHAGUDI. — A town in the native state of Nepal, 
situate on the left bank of the Arun river, and 147 miles S.E. 
by E. from Khatmandoo. Lat. 26® 33', long. 87® 14/. 

PALI,* in the district of Sandi, kingdom of Oude, a town on 
the route from Euttegurh to Seetapore, 18 miles^ N.E. of the 
former, 64 W. of the latter. It is situate on the right bank of 
the river Garha, here crossed by ferry* during the rainy season, 
at other times by ford. There is a bazar, and supplies are 
abundant. The road to the south-west, or towards Futtegurh, 
is good, the country open, level, and cultivated ; to the north- 
east, or towards Seetapore, the road is bad, the country level 


* TnnMcU. 

Soc Sod Mric«, 
1894. pp. 148. 144 
— Frairr, Joura. 
from Oelhl to 
Bomboj. 

* Jaoqiiemont, 
vl. 387. 

B.1.C Ut.l>oe. 

■ B.IXX Mt. Doe. 
Report of Cora- 
mlMlon on Stata 
of linJabor, L 90S. 
971. 

* Budiannn. 
Joaroay from 
Madras, thro«mli 
Mysora, Canara, 
and Malabar. 

li. 9i7. 

> Wilks. Historical 
Skatebss, I. S. 

< Id. I. 800; II. 
400. 

* Id. I. SOI). 801. 

* Id. 11.400. 


V Id. HI. SO. 


B.I.e. Ms. Doc. 


e.T.C. Ms. Doe. 


■ E.I.e. Ms. Doc. 

* Garden. Tables 
of Routes, 17a 

* Id. 170, 177. 


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^ BMchrvIbung 
von Hindustan, 
I. 104. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 
Butter, Topo(. of 
Oiidh, 183. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doc. 
E.I.C. Tfifoo. 
Surr. 

As. Rea. sir. ISO 
••Hoditson, Sur- 
vey of Juoina 
and Oanfea. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Madras Revenue 
Dlsp. 88 Auf . 

1847, and 38 Auf. 
1840. 

I B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 

* Madras Joum. of 
Lit. and Science, 
Iv. 900 — Account 
of the Harbour of 
Tuticorin. 

Madras Revenue 
Dlsp. 30 July, 
1840. 


PAL. 

and partially cultivated. Ticffenthaler, describing the condi- 
tion of this town about eighty years ago, states^ that it was 
formerly populous. Distant 90 miles N.W. of Lucknow. 
Lat. 27^ 3(y, long. 79° 44'. 

PAXiI, in the district of Boinswarra, territory of Oude, a 
large decayed town on the right bank of the river Goomtee, 
38 miles N.'VV. of Sultanpoor cantonment, 4i2 S.E. of Lucknow. 
Lat. 20° 38', long. 81° 33'. 

PALI, in Gurwhal, a small town in a sequestered glen, 
down which flows a stream, falling into the Jumna on the right 
side. It contains about fifty houses, and probably between 
400 and 600 inhabitants, the men of whom are stout and hard- 
featured, the women^generally of light complexions and 
agreeable countenances. The townsmen and other inhabitants 
of the glen are noted for a hardy and warlike character, having 
frequently rebelled against the rajah of Gurwhal, as well as 
against the Goorkhas during their occupation of the country ; 
and at one time cut ofi* an entire company of those invaders. 
Lat. 30° 53', long. 78° 22'. 

PALICONDA. — A town in the British district of North 
Arcot, presidency of Madras, 26 miles W. of Arcot. Lat. 
12° 54', long. 79°. 

PALKOTE. — A town in the British district of Chota 
Nagpoor, presidency of Bengal, 38 miles S. of Lohadugga. 
Lat. 22° 54', long. 84° 4^. 

PALLA. — A town in the British district of Candeisb, 
presidency of Bombay, 39 miles W. by S. of Malligaum. 
Lat. 20° 29', long. 73° 56'. 

PALLAKONDA.' — A town in the British district of 
Yizagapatam, presidency of Madras, 69 miles N.N.E. of 
Yizagapatam. The talook of which this town is the principal 
place, has been leased by the government to the European firm 
of Arbuthnot and Co. for a term of years.* Lat. 18° 36', 
long. 83° 49'. 

PALLAMCOTTAII,^ in the British district of TinneveUy, 
under the presidency of JVIadras, a town and military station 
situate a mile from the right bank of the Chindinthoora, here 
crossed by a good bridge,* forming a communication with the 
town of TinneveUy, on the opposite side of the river. The fort^ 
and town are situate on an extensive plain, varied by a few low 

70 


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PAL. 


Palvoeotuh, IIS. 


hillfl. The site^ of the fort is a slightly elevated surface of * Report on ir«d. 
granite rock, of a mouldering nature ; but not having a wet sutiMU^ot 
ditch, it is free from a common and active source of deliterious 
exhalations. There are a few tanks to the northward ; but as 
they are shallow, and the water, in consequence of being quickly 
drawn away for the purposes of irrigation, does not stagnate, 
no pernicious results ensue. Within the fort are many wells, 
in which water is obtained at depths varying from eight to 
twelve feet below the surface, and which never fails at any time 
of the year, but it is perceptibly saline, except in such as are 
much worked. The barrack occupied by the European artil- 
lery is on the most elevated ground within the fort, and con- 
tains many commodious apartments. * Near the barrack, and 
separated from it by a narrow road, are the houses of the 
European officers, forming an oblong square on the southern 
face of the fort. They are large convenient buildings ; and 
attached to them are public baths, affording the means of 
luxury and health. The place of arms for the native troops is 
in the middle of the town, and has in front an open space large 
enough to admit of a regiment being drawn up in line. Within 
a few yards of the place of arms, and separated from it by a 
road, is the hospital, a spacious building, and originally com- 
modious, but now old and in bad repair, so that it is contem- 
plated by government to replace it by a structure adequate to 
the exigencies of such an establishment. The native lines are 
situate outside the fort, on a rock of slight elevation, but 
sufficient to insure complete drainage. The establishment of 
the jail and its hospital were, in 1838, removed from the town 
of Tinnevelly to this place ; but the buildings originally pro- 
vided for their accommodation were very faulty and inadequate ; 
and though improvements have been made from time to time, 
they are still liable to considerable objections. Within the 
last few years a church has been erected here.^ Elevation 
above the sea 120 feet ; distance from the town of Tinnevelly, 

E., three miles ; from Madura, S., 88 ; from Ramnad, 8. W., 

88 ; Trichinopoly, S.W., 160 ; Madras, S.W., 348. Lat. 8® 43', 
long. 77^ 48'. 

PALL ASS WASH A, — A town in the British district of b.i.o. Ms. uoe. 

Candeish, presidency of Bombay, 69 miles N. of Malligaum. .ealpatidar.com 

Lat. 21° 31', long. 74° 28'. 

71 


« Madms Eec1e«. 
DItpb 1 Julj, ISSt. 


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E.IX;. Mt. dcm. PALLAW in the British territory of Saogur and Ner- 
budda, lieutenant-goyemorship of the North-West Provinces, 
a town on the route from Hoosungabad to Baitool, 86 miles 
N. of the latter. Lat. 22® 21', long. 77® 66'. 

B.i.c. u». Dec. PALLAYGAUM. — A town in the native state of Hyder- 

abad, or territory of the Nizam, 93 miles 8. by W. from 
Ellichpoor, and 173 miles £.N.£. from Ahmednuggur. 

Lat. 19® 64', long. 77® 14'. 

* oerden. Table* PALL££,^ in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a town on the 
^oute from Nusseerabad to Deesa, and 108 miles S.W. of the 
Oeocraphicai. and former. It is the principal mart of Western Baiwara, being 
luhed bj the In- situato at the intersection of the great commercial route from 
Mandavee, in Cutch, to the northern provinces, and from 
t Malwa to Bahawulpoor and Sinde. Tod,* one of the few 
than, I. 701 . £uropeans who have visited it, thus states its commerce : — 

“ Palli has its own currency, which, amidst universal deteriora- 
tion, it has retained undebased. From remote times, Palli has 
been the connecting link between the seacoast and northern 
India. Commercial houses established at Murcat-Mundavi, 

Surat, and Noanuggur, transmit the products of Persia, Arabia, 

Africa, and £urope ; receiving those of India and Thibet. To 
Enumerate all the articles, it would be necessary to name the 
various products of each : — from the coast, elephants* teeth, 
rhinoceros-hides, copper, tin, pewter, dates, dried and moist, of 
which there is an immense consumption in these regions; 
gum-arabic, borax, cocoanuts, broad-cloths, striped silks, called 
putung ; various dyes, particularly the kermes or crimson ; 
drugs, especially the oxides of arsenic and quicksilver ; spices, 
sandalwood, camphor, tea, mummaye or mummy, which is 
much sought after in medicine, and green glass (kanch) : from 
Bhawulpoor, soda (saji), the dyes called al and munjit, match- 
locks, dried fruits, asafoetida, Mooltan chintz, and wood for 
household furniture : from Kotah and Malwa, opium and 
chintzes: from Jeypoor, various cloths and sugars: from 
Bhooj, swords and horses. The exports of home production 
are the two staple articles of salt and woollens ; to which we 
may add coarse cloths and paper, made in the town of Palli. 

The looes or blankets are disseminated throughout India, and 
may be had at from four to sixty rupees per pair. Scarfs widdar.com 
turbans are made of the same material, but not for exportation ; 

TX 


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but Balt is the chief article of export, and the duties arising 
therefrom equal half the land-revenue of the country.” Pallee 
is khalsa, or the crown^ property of the maharaja of Joudpore, 
in contradistinction to the numerous places belonging to his 
feudatories. The sum annually obtained from the duties is 
estimated by Tod^ at 7,500/. It was formerly. surrounded by 
a wall, and in consequence, its possession was frequently 
contested by conflicting parties during the civil wars of 
Joudpore, until, at the desire of the inhabitants, the defences 
were demolished ; and their ruins ^ow give the place an air of 
desolation, at variance with its actual prosperity. It is an 
ancient place, and was acquired by. the Baj poets under Seoji,^ 
A. 1 ). 1156. Tod states the number of houses at 10,000, which 
would fix the number of inhabitaubs at about 50,000. Water^ 
and supplies for troops may be obtained here in abundance. 
Distant S.W. from Delhi 851 mil^s ; S.E. from Joudpore 40 
miles. Lat. 25^ 48', long. 73^ 24'. 

PALLEE. — A town in the British district of Tannah, 
presidency of Bombay, 39 miles S.E. of Bombay. Lat. 18^ 31', 
long. 73^ 18'. 

PAL LERA. — A native state on the south-west frontier of 
Bengal,^ bounded on the north by the native state of Bombra ; 
on the east and south by that of Talcheer ; and on the west by 
Bheracole. It is twenty-three miles in length from east to west, 
and fourteen in breadth ; and contains an area of about 220 
square miles : its centre is in lat. 21^ 10', long. 84^ 40'. 

PALLYAD. — A town in the native state of Guzerat, or 
dominions of the Guicowar, situate 46 miles E. from Rajkote, 
and 83 miles W.S.W. from Kaira. Lat. 22° 15', long. 71° 31'. 

PALMYRAS POINT. — The name of a low headland on the 
coast of Orissa. It is clothed with palmyra-trees, and has on 
each side of it, at a small distance, the mouth of a river. The 
lighthouse, formerly situate upon Point Palmyras, was 
abandoned in consequence of the encroachment of the sea, 
and False Point selected as the site of a new one.^ Lat. 
20° 43', long. 87° 6'. 

PALO OR, in Sirmor, a stream rising on the southern 
declivity of the Chour peak, and in lat. 30° 51', long. 77° 33'. 
After a course of about twenty miles in a south-westerly 
direction, it falls into the Giree, in lat. 80° 42', long. 77° 26'. 

71 


’ Bollettu, RiO- 
WArm, 188. 


* Ut fapra, 70S. 


* Tod, ut tupni, 
700. 

* Gardra. Tallies 
of Rouica, tf06. 


E.I.C. Ma-Doo. 


I Walker, N'aw 
Map of India. 


E.I.e. Ms. Doe. 


I Iforaburph, 

Directory, L 000. 

Bengal Marino 
DIap. 19 Sept. 

1838. 

B.I.C. Ma. Doc. 

B.I.C. Trigoo. 

Sure. 

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PAI^PAM. 


B.I.C. Ha. Doc. 


B.I.C. »1*. Doc. 


Garden, Tables of 
Routes, 900. 


K.I.C. Ms Doe. 


B.I.O. Ms. Dee. 


l.lojd and Gerard, 
Tuurs In Htma- 
laja, II. 837. 


E.f.C. Doe. 


Moorcr. PunJ. 
Bokh. 11. 849. 
Ajren Akberj, 
ii. 138. 


PALP A. — A town in the native state of Nepal, situate on 
the right bank of the Gunduck river, and 112 miles W. by N. 
from Khatmandoo. Lat. 27° 64', long. 88° SC/. 

PALPOOR, in the territory of Gwalior, or possessions of 
Scindia’s family, a town 70 miles S.W. of Gwalior fort. Lat. 

26° 49', long. 77^ 10'. 

PALBEE, in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a considerable 
village on the route from Nusseerabad to Deesa, and 163 miles 
S.W. of the former. It contains 200 houses and forty shops, 
and is supplied with water from forty weUs and two tanks. 

The surrounding country, though occasionally studded with 
hills, is in general rather level, with a gravelly soil, free from 
jungle, and partially cultivated. Lat. 26° 9^, long. 73° 5'. 

PALBI, in the jaghire of Jhujhur, lieutenant-govemorsbip 
of the North-West Provinces, a village on the route firom 
Bohtuk to Namol, and 40 miles S.W. of the former. Lat. 

28° 25', long. 76° 16'. 

PALUM, in the British district of Delhi, lieutenant- 
•governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
north-eastern bonk of the exensive jhil or shallow lake formed 
by the overflow of the Hansouti Nullah during rains. Dis- 
tance S.W. from the city of Delhi 10 miles. Lat. 28° 86', 
long. 77° 8'. 

PAMA-CHUN, in Bussahir, a halting-place in the district 
of Xoonawur, and on the south-eastern declivity of the 
IVIanerung Pass, from the crest of which it is about five miles 
distant. In consequence of the great elevation, even the 
hardy birch ceases to grow, and the only fuel is from a species 
of juniper, called by the natives pama; and whence the place 
has received its name. Elevation above the sea 13,643 feet. 

Lat. 31° 68', long. 78° 25'. 

PAMBAB. — A town within the dominions of Gholab Singh, 
the ruler of Cashmere, situate on the right bank of the 
Ohenaub river, and 66 miles E.S.E. from Sirinagur. Lat. 

33° 38', long. 75° 60'. 

PAMPUB, in Cashmere, a town about five nules S.W. of the 
city of Sirinagar, is situate on the north bank of the Jhelum or 
Behut, in a level tract of great fertility, and presents most 
delightful views of the mountain-ranges to the north, la Here a r. com 
is a bridge of several arches over the river. The town is 

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PAN. 


sarrotmded hy luxuriant orobarda and gardene ; it contains 
between 300 and 400 bouaes^ a bazar^ and two Mahometan 
fibrines. The neighbouring country ia generally cnltiTatad for 
the growth of eaffron, and the produce ia conaidered finer than 
that of any part of Hindoatan. Lat. 34^, long* 75^ 3'. 

FANCILLA, in the Bajpoot state of Jodbpoor, a village on OMrdtm, Tttim ot 
the route Nagor, from Jeasulmere to Nusaeerabad, «id 131 
miles N.W. of the latter. It is built m a scattered manner, 
hut ie in good condition, and is supplied with water i^m three 
wells 200 feet deep. The road is in some places sandy and 
heavy, in others firm and good. The surrounding country is 
in many places covered with thich jungle of kaijra, a small 
tree, the bark of which is in times of scarcity in this wretched 
country f converted into a sort of food, used as bread ; there 
is also in abundance a sort of burr with very sharp points, the 
seeds of which are used as food, and considered very palatable. 

I-at, 26° 68; long. 73° 20^. 

PANCHOBA. — A town in the British district of Candeish, e.i.c- 
preeidency of Bombay, 64 miles E. hy N. of MaUigaum. Lst. 

20P 38; long. 75° 2<y, 

FAN C HU, in the British district of Kumaon, lien tenant* 
gOTernorsbip of the North-West Provinces, a village in the 
Bhotia subdivision of Juwahir, on the route to Hiundes or 
Chinese Tartary, and 16 miles S. of the Juwahir Pass. It is 
situate on the right bank of the Goree, a little below tbe con- 
fluence of the Goonka. Elevation above the sea 11,284 feet. 

Eat. 80° 24; long. 80° 12'. 

PANHEHWABA, or PANDEiS W ABA,^ in Guzerat, or 
territory of the Ouicowar, a town on the route from Baroda to 
Neemueh, 106® miles N. of former, 164 S.W. of latter. Eat. 

23° 24; long. 73° 40^. 

PANDHABPUB, — See Pukotkfooe* 

PANDOOBNA. — A town in the territory of Nagpoor or E,r.c. ui. en«. 
Berar, 51 miles N.W. by W. from Nagpoor, and 70 miles 
N.B. by E. from EUichpoor. Eat. 21° SO', long. 78° 33; 

PAN DBAS, in Ladakh, a village on the route from Ee to 
Cashmere, by the Bultul Pass, from which it is distant twenty 
miles N.E. The land In the vicinity is in general employed for 
pasture, and produces the pahuUiria, so highly esteemed 

by Moorcroft for winter fodder. Xaset Ullah,* who calls this 


l-t.C. Doe. 
E.l.G. Trigon. 
Surr. 


R.fdC. Ml 0»e. 


* Clmid:#ni Tublrt 
of Eoutfla^ WTO. 


realpatidar.com 

■ OHcntnl 
ISWfi, Mvcii, lOA. 


O' 


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PAN. 


* At. Jour Sopt.* 
I>rc. 18 iA. p. 180. 

* PuiO. Dokh. 

II. 08. 

^ Note on Ititt 
Ullth, ut auprv, 
loa. 

* Vlene, Kathmlr* 
II 808. 

E.I.C. 1ft. Doc. 


Vl|tnc, Kashmir, 
li. 88. 

llourcr. PunJ. 
Bokh. li. 840. 

F. Von HtifH. 
Xatchniir, I. 800. 


B.I.C. Ms. I>oc. 


F..1.C. 1ft. Doe. 


I E.l.C. lit. Doe. 


I Perithta, Ir. 088. 

* Hitt, of India, 

11. 049. 

* At. Rat. lii. 01. 


place Panderraa, oboenres that the road ia good in this part of 
the route. Gholaum Hjder^ styles the village Paeen-dur-rauz. 
Professor Wilson, the editor of Moorcroft,^ considers that it 
should be called Pain-dras,^ or “ Lower Dras;” but this does not 
seem justifiable, as the place lies higher up the course of the 
river, and is more elevated than Dras. The elevation above 
the sea exceeds 9,000 feet.* Lat. 84° 23', long. 75° 47'. 

PANDREE, in the British district of Baitool, territory of 
Saugor and Nerbudda, lieutenant-governorship of the North- 
West Provinces, a town on the route from Baitool to Ellich- 
poor, 87 miles S.W. by S* of the former. Lat. 21° 22', long. 

77° 41'. 

PAND RENTON, in Cashmere, an antique temple of small 
dimensions, standing in a reservoir or tank about four miles 
S.E. of Srinagur, the present capital of the valley. It is a 
striking specimen of the simple, massive, and chaste style which 
characterizes the architectural antiquities of Cashmere. The 
ground-plan is a square of twenty feet, and the roof pyramidal. 

In each of the four sides is a doorway, ornamented with 
pilasters right and left, and surmounted by a pediment. The 
whole is constructed of blocks of regularly-hewn limestone. 

The interior ia filled with water, communicating with that 
without, which is about four feet deep ; and as the building is 
completely insulated, it can be reached only by wading or 
swimming. The purpose of its construction is not known, but it 
is generally considered a Buddhist relic. It exhibits neither 
inscriptions nor sculptures, except the figure of a large lotus 
carved on the roof inside. Lat. 84° 2', long. 74° 47'. 

PANDURE. — A town in one of the recently sequestrated 
districts of the native state of Hyderabad, presidency of 
Bengal, 21 miles W.S.W. of Ellichpoor. Lat. 21° 6', long. 

77° 15'. 

PANEEGONG. — A town of Assam, in the British district 
of Durrung, presidency of Bengal, 55 miles N.E. by E. of 
Durrung. Lat. 26° 44', long. 92° 52'. 

PANEEPUT,*® a British district in the territorial division 
of Delhi, within the lieutenant-governorship of the North- 
West Provinces, is bounded on the west and north by Sirhind; 

* Panipat, or Panipnt, in Briggs's ' Index; Panipat in Elphinstotie^itiddr.COrn 
India Panipni in the account by Casi Raja.* 

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realpatidar.com PANEEPUT. 

on the east by the river Jumna, separating it from the British 
districte of Mozuffurnuggur and Meerut ; and on the south by 
the British district of Delhi. It lies between lat. 28° 5(y — 
29° 4S\ long. 76° 4/(y — 77° 16' ; is sixty-five miles in length, 
in a direction nearly south to north, thirty miles in breadth, in 
a direction at right angles to the former ; and contains an area 
of 1,279 square miles.^ The country is level, and intersected 
by the Delhi Canal and its branches, as well as by numerous 
watercourses,^ ramifying in time of inundation between the 
Jumna and those artificial channels. Where not irrigated by 
the Jumna, or by canals, the country is generally barren 
•nd of repulsive appearance, being in many places a waste of 
undulating sands, exhibiting a very scanty growth of harsh 
herbage or stunted shrubs. In many places the soil is covered 
with a saline efflorescence,^ so abundant as to look like snow ; 
and this incrustation, though containing a large admixture of 
sulphate of soda with common salt, is collected and used for 
culinary purposes. 

The extent of the cultivation of sugarcane in Paneeput has 
been officially estimated at 5,327 acres. The total produce of 
goor, that is, the entire extract before the sugar is separated 
from the grosser matter with which it is combined, is estimated 
it 49,084 cwts. ; of which, 18,882 cwts. are believed to be con- 
sumed within the district, at an average of 8 lbs. per head ; 
leaving a surplus of 30,202 cwts. 

Among other productions, the Cactus opuntia is common, 
and so large, strong, and armed with such formidable thorns, 
that fences made with it are impenetrable even by elephants. 
In some fertile tracts, out of the reach of canals or streams, 
the water requisite for successful cultivation is raised by the 
Persian wheel.^ Numerous wells furnish the requisite supply 
of water, and the irrigation thus effected produces abundant^ 
and luxuriant crops. The average depth of the wells is from 
thirty to forty feet. 

The jungles, which in some places extend as far as the eye 
om reach, abound in game, especially hares, quails, partridges, 
and peafowl. A few years ago, they were infested by lions, ^ 
which are, however, now rarely met with, except farther to the 
west. 

The district is divided into five pergunnahs : — 1. Paneeput 

77 


■ P^rllam^larf 
Reiuru, April, 
ISOl. 

* Joum. As Soc. 
B«nf ISSS.p. 106 
^Colvin, Ancivnt 
CmnaU In Delhi 
Tsrrilorjr. 


* Jsequemont, 
Vojsgc, T. a. 


» Id. 7. 

* Barr, Cnbul and 
Uis Hui\jab, 10. 


7 Rnjla, Bot. of 
Himalaya, Isir. 

realpatidar.com 

Aa. Ann. Ref, 
ail. 7. 


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realpatidar.com PANEEPUT. 

Baogur, 2. Paneeput Khadir, 8. Soonput Bangur, 4. Soonput 
Khadir, 5. Kurnaul ; containing 492 xnoutahs or townsbips. 
The population in 1848 was returned at 288,420 ; of which 
number there were Hindoos, agricultural, 125,593 ; non- 
agricultural, 00,601 : Mahomedans and others, agricultural, 
24,781 ; non-agricultural, 72,445. 

It ^nll be seen from this return, that thongh the Hindoos 
greatly preponderate in numbers, the proportion of the other 
classes (chiefly Mussulmans) is larger than is to be found 
in many parts of India. The number of persons per square 
mile is something more than 221. The following classification 
of the towns and villages of this district, with reference to 
population, is obtained from very recent official returns 
(1848). 

Number containing less than 1,000 inhabitants... 418 


Ditto, more than 1,000 and less than 5,000 70 

Ditto, more than 5,000 and less than 10,000 ... !• 

Ditto, more than 10,000 3t 


492 


• Act* of OOTi. of 
India, No. vlll. uf 
IMS. 


I R.I.C. M*. Doc. 


* Jacquomont, 
Vojage, ▼. 7. 


a Cabtil and the 
Purtlab, 10. 


The chief places will be found noticed in the alphabetical 
arrangement. 

The land-assessment has been fixed for a term of years, 
which will expire on the 1st July, 1872.^ The district came 
into the possession of the British from Scindia in 1803, under 
the treaty of Seijee Anjengaum. 

PANEEPUT.^ — The chief town of the British district of the 
same name. It is situate in a fertile tract, the resources of 
which are to a considerable extent developed by cultivation,^ 
of which irrigation by water, principally drawn from numerous 
wells, is a very efficient part. The appearance of the place on 
approaching it is described by Barr^ as striking and pleasing. 

** As we approached Paniput, the whole of the surrounding 
country was converted into one mass of cultivation, here and 
there broken by small clumps of trees, through which are to 
be seen the spires and cupolas of numerous temples, with their 
white and polished surfaces, starting from the dark foliage in 

• Soonput, in porgunnah Soonput Bangur, 9,669. realpatidar.COm 

t Paneeput, 16,870 ; Burma, 80,056 ; Kurnaul, 15,029. 

78 


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realpatidar.com PAIiEEPUT. 

which they are imhedded, with an almoat da^^ling brill lancy/’ 

Jaoqaemont considered Paneeput tli© largest • town, except 
Delhi, which he had seen in Northern India* It is surrounded 
bj waUa and ramparts, apparently of no great antiquity, and 
built at different periods and in different styles, the outline 
being very irregular* The housea, generally^ built of brick, « ni ka^im, 
and in some mstances two stories high, hare usually balconies, 
and a few baye cupolas. A great nuniber, boweyer, are said to 
be un tenanted ; but if this be so, the place has, notwithstand- 
ing, an amount of population which may entitle it still to rank as 
a yery considerable town. The number of inhabitants in 1B48, 
as ascertained from official report, was 16,870.® The chief •&t»u«tiCTof 
source of the busy scenes of life, however, appears to be that 
created by two carayanserais which the town posses see, one on 
each aide* The enyirons are overspread with the mins of 
tombs, many indicating, by their size and style of building, that 
they were the memoriala of persons of rank* Water and sup- 
plies for troops are abundant here, and there is an extensive 
and good encam ping-ground a mile north of the town, and on 
the ngbt of the road* The civil establishment consists of a 
magistrate and collector, a joint- magistrate and deputy-col- 
lector, an officer in medical charge, and a deputy-collector of 
the second grade, under Regulation XIX. of 1833. 

Paneeput is situate on the great mOltary route between 
Western Asia, Affghanistan, and the Punjab, on the one side, 
and Central and Eastern Hindostan on the other; and the 
plains around it have repeatedly been the field of battle for 
powers contending for the empire of India. Here, in 1526, 

Baber, at the head of 12,000 men, encountered and utterly 

routed Ibrahiro, the Patau king of Delhi, whose army is usually 

estimated at about 100,000 men,* with 1,000 elephants. Accord- • Bmhmr, M«nQify 

ijig to generally received statements, above 40,000 of the army 

of Delhi were slain, and among them Ibrahim, whose empire was PnrWit^ n* «. 

seized by Baber ; thus establishing the renowned Tiraurian 

dynasty. In the same locality, in 1761, a battle was fought 

between tbe Affgbans, commanded by their king Abmed Doo- 

ranee, and the Mahrattaa, under Sedasheo Rao Bhoo. The 

* Hsmilfcon* stateei ''that m its greatest exteat it U four miles in i rQQlp^tidsr.COrn 

circaiuiereiioe.** G«*Ueiri ti. SST 


" d Goegfe 


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PANEITH. 


T Hlit. of IhdlK, 
II, 049. 


* Rffintll, Mf^m, 
of Hap of Hiodo- 
•tani ttklv. 


® aardvDj TaWrt 
of Kout««, 179, 


K.1X, Mm. Doc, 


troope of Ahmed Shah are estimated by El p bin stone ^ • at 
40,000 AflTghana and Persians, 13,000 Indian horse, and 38,000 
Indian infantry, with thirty pieces of cannon ; that of the 
Mahrattaa at 15,000 infantry, of whom 9,000 were regularly 
disciplined, 65,000 cavalry in regtilar pay, and 15,000 predatory 
horse, with 200 cannon, numerous wall-pieces, and a great 
supply of rockets. After some hours of hard fighting, the Mah- 
rattas yielded to the superior valour of the Afighans and the 
military talents of Ahmed, and were totally routed their 
commander, and nearly the whole of their best troops, being 
slaiu either in the battle or in flight. 

Paneeput is mentioned in the Ajeen Akbery as situate in 
the soubah of Delhi, and as having a brick fort. It lies on the 
route from Delhi to Kurnaul, and the road in this part of the 
route may be described as good. Distant N* from Delhi 78 
miles,® N.W, from Calcutta 965 miles. Lat. 29° 28', long. 
77° 2'. 

PAJ^EITH. — A town in the native state of Gunerat, or th© 
dominions of the G^uicowar, situate on the left bank of the 
Nerbudda river, and 28 miles S. from Baroda. Lat. 21° 61% 
long. 73° 18'. 


• 4crniint ftt 
Cabul. Jl 


■ Am. Rm. Ill, m 
— Cul HiJ»- Ae- 
cnuot of i)i« QactJe 

of 


* £]phiiistose elsewhsre' givea Kmouata Taiylmg from the &^bove. " It 
if not easj to detormioa accmmtolj tha force of each perl; on thii ooajrion. 
1 ooojeclnro Ahmed Sheh'a force to have atnottnled to 40.000 of bia ovm 
eubjacta, 30,000 Rohllls troopa, and 10,000 baloDging io the Indian cbie& : 
be had also 700 camal-awireU and a few guns. The Mahrattae are geneTally 
said id have bad 300,000 men/* ** Thej bad not leae tban 200 gone,** 
Whether the 800,000 of the above atatament are to be oonddered aa 
fighting man, la not apparent. If the; are to base coELaldered, the account 
difiars widely from that in the text ; If it induda the mob of followers 
wbiob always haog on an Indian army, it may not be irrcKwnodable with 
it. It will, however, be greatly at variance with another eetimata reeting 
on native authority, but with which it may be reconciled by taking tlie 
other branch of the alternative, and aaanmiDg the 300,000 to have bean 
fighting men. According to the account laet referred to, the Mabratta 
host, including camp-follower% are estimated at 300,000* person b, and of 
these it is computed 200,000 were slain. The difficulty arising from the 
variance between the two acoounto, which rent on the diatingnltihed 
authority of Mr. Elphinatone, may be met in another way. Hie aooonnt 
given in the text was written many years subsequently to that contained 
in the earlier part of ibis note, and may therefore be considered 
result of more mature Inquiry, and more deliberate judgment. 


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PANGKONG. — A long and narrow lake, 100 miles in 
length, with an average breadth of three, indenting the eastern 
frontier of the dominions of Gholab Singh, the ruler of Cash- 
mere. Its waters are clear and salt : elevation above the sea 
14;224 feet. Cunningham^ is of opinion, that ** in former ages 
thePangkong lake had an outlet at its north-western extremity, 
through a gorge in the limestone cliffs, into the present scanty 
stream passing by Muglib, and joining the Shayok river just 
tboYe the village which gives its name to the stream.” Its 
centre is in lat. 33° 46', long. 70° 16'. 

PAXGREE. — A town in the British district of Sholapoor, 
prewdency of Bombay, 45 miles N. of Sholapoor. Lat. 18° Iff, 
long. 75° 5^. 

PANGTOOR. — A town in one of the recently sequestrated 
districts of the native state of Hyderabad, presidency of Bengal, 
16 miles N. of Kumool. Lat. 16° 3', long. 78° 4'. 

PANGULL, in Hyderabad, or territory of the Nizam, a 
town 80 miles 8. of the city of Hyderabad. Lat. 16° 15', long. 
78 " 

PANJAL, or PANGLA, in the petty hill state of Hindoor, 
a Tillage situate on the river Gumbur, and in the valley be- 
tveen the ridge of Ramgurb and that of Malown. Lat. 31° 5', 
long. 76° 52'. 

PAN J UR. — A river rising on the eastern slope of the 
Syidree range of mountains, in lat. 20° 63', long. 73° 63', and, 
flowing through the British collectorate of Candeish in an 
easterly direction for sixty-two miles, and northerly for thirty 
milea, falls into theTaptee river, on the left side, in lat. 21° 17', 
long. 74° 5ff. 

PANNAH. — See Pukkah. 

PANNALAGURH. — A town in the native state of Gwalior, 
or possessions of Scindia's family, situate 40 miles S. by E- from 
Kurgoon, and 107 miles N.E. by E. from Malligaum. Lat. 
21" Iff, long. 75° 54'. 

PANSAVAL. — A town in the British district ofTanjore, 
presidency of Madras, 37 miles S. of Tanjore. Lat. 10° 16', 
long. 79° 13'. 

PANTI, in native Gurwhal, a village pleasantly situate on 
the riirht bank of the Jumna, and 400 feet above its bed. Lat. 
long. 78° 15'. 


I I.iidnk. 137. 


E I C. lit. Doc. 


B.I.C. kU. Doe. 


B.I.C. M«. Doe. 


Moorcroft. PunJ. 
Bokh. 1. 37. 


B.I C. Mt. Doc. 


P. l C. Mi. Doc. 


E.I.e. Mi. Doc 

E.I.C. Triir. sur^. realpatidar.com 
Ai. nci. alv. I.ri ^ 

•^lltKluion, Sur- 
vey of Juiiinii anU 
Oaiigci. 


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E.I.C. M». Ihtc. 


■ E.I.C. M*. Doc. 


* II. IQO. 


* Valrntlc, Voyage* 
•nd Travrlt, II. 
111 . 


* Doinbiij Public 
Di»p. !1 %pril.t845. 


I E.I.C. Mft. Dur. 


■ Giinicn. Tablet 
of Route*, 2bV. 


* Narml. of Journ. 
II IVO 

* Oms< lictr, 11.970. 


PAN— PAP. 


PAN WAR A. — A town in the British district of Bbagul- 
poor, presidency of Bengal, 25 miles S. by E. of Bhag^lpoor. 
Lat. 24® 65', long. 87® 4'. 

PAN WELL, in the collectorate ofTannah (North Con- 
can), presidency of Bombay, a small town or village on the 
route from Bombay to Poona, 55 miles N.W. of the latter 
place. It is situate on the estuary of a small river, the stream 
of which fails during the dry season, at which period Pan well 
is accessible by water only w hen the tide is full. At this state 
of the tide, communication with Bombay is practicable across 
the haven of that place, from which it is distant E., in a direct 
line, 22 miles. This passage, by which a considerable portion 
of the intercourse between the capital and the great military 
station of Poona is carried on, has heretofore been subject to 
much uncertainty and delay, from the varying depth of water 
and fluctuating strength of tides and winds; but the intro- 
duction of the agency of steam will have tended to abate these 
inconveniences. Heber describes the place as a ** small-sized^ 
country town, with a pagoda, and a handsome tomb of a 
Mussulman saint.** This pogoda is dedicated to Mahadeo* or 
Siva. Here is a small fortress, the extent and plan of which 
may still be traced, though it is nowr much decayed.t There 
is a bungalow or government lodge for travellers, and the road 
to Poona is well drained and bridged. Panwell is styled a 
populous town by the Court of Directors, and provision, has 
been made for improving it.^ The Powna and Moolah rivers 
are crossed at Panowlee and Awund by indiflerent ferries, both 
of which may be avoided by the more circuitous route of 
Dapooree. Distance from Poona, vid Dupooree, 70 miles. 
Lat. 18® 58', long. 73® 12'. 

PAPARGHAT,* in the district of Sultanpoor, territory of 
Oude, a ruined town on the route from the cantonment of 
Sultanpoor to Jounpore, 47 iniles^ N.W. of the latter, 10 S.E. 
of the former. Here Asaf-ud-daula, nawaub vizier of Oude, j 
who reigned from 1776 to 1797, proposed to found a capital, 
and commenced building a palace; but, having visited the 


* Panwell of Tadsio ; Panweili of Heber.* 

■f* Hamilton Bays/ **TbiB place ia extensive, and being eligibly 
for buaineaa, carries on a considerable oommerce, although it stands in tbo 
midst of a small morass.*' 


CDin 


aa 


I 


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realpatidar.com PAP — PAK. 

work after employ iug 4fOO workmen for three years, waa 

deterred from its completion by a pestilence* which broke out * Buiier,Toi»o^. 

among his followers. The Hindoos attributed the visitation "^ ^“’**'* **’^ 

to the wrath of their goddess Debi, to appease whom the 

superstitious Mussulman prince erected a temple in her 

honour. The temple remains ; and annually, in the month of 

Chait (March-April), about 4,000 Hindoos resort thither, to 

pay thtdr devotions at the shrine, but remain only one night, 

in consequence of the pestilential air of the place. Here are 

besides a mosque and the unfinished palace of the nawaub. 

Half a mile south is the post of a foujdar or commandant of 
police, who has charge of those buildings. It has water in 
abundance, but supplies are scarce. Lat. 26® 10', long. 82® 17'. 

PA PHOS. — A town of Burmah, 140 miles E. by N. from 
Prome, and 118 miles N.E. by N. from Pegu. Lat. 19® 12', 
long. 97® 7'. 

PAPOUSA. — A village in the British district of Hurreeana, b.i.c. m«. doo. 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces. Lat. 

28® 69', long. 76® 3'. 

PAPPAMQW. — See Phaphamow. 

PAB-. — A river rising in lat. 20® 80', long. 73® 43', on the 
western slope of the Syadree range of mountains, and flow ing 
in a westerly direction through the territory of the Daung 
rajahs, then dividing the petty native states of Dhurrumpore 
and Peint, and subsequently traversing the British collectorate 
of Broach, it falls into the Arabian Sea, in lat. 20® 32', long. 

72® 66'. 

PABA, a river of Ladakh, rises in lat. 82® 27', long. 78® 3', 
at the north-eastern foot of the Parang Pass over the Western 
Himalaya range, and flows through Bupshu, one of the districts 
of Gbolab Singh’s dominions. Subsequently it enters the 
Thibet valley of Tsotso, through which it flows for eighty-five 
miles, and finally traverses the district of Koonawur to its 
junction with the Sutlej, in lat. 31® 49', long. 78® 41'. 

PABADANQA. — A town in the British district of Bung- e.i.c. doc. 
pore, presidency of Bengal, 29 miles N.E. by E. of Bungpore. 

Lat. 25® 55', long. 89° 40'. 

PABAMBALOBE. — A town in the British district of b.i.c. m«. doc. 

Trichinopoly, presidency of Madras, 32 miles N.N.E. of realpatidar.com 

Triebinopoly. Lat. 11® 15', long. 78® 55'. 

0 2 ^ 


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PAR. 


B.I.C. M». Doe. 


> At. Rrc. ilv. 406 
— Wilford. on ihe 
Ancient Ocogni- 
phj of India. 


* E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 

* Malcolm, Index 

to Map of Malwa, 
W7. 


• Garden, TahK^ 
of Route*, 606. 


< Id. 117. 


E.I.C. M*. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


• R.I.e. M*. Doe. 
E.I.C. Tri^'on. 
Burr. 

(At Re*. 111. 301 
Wllf*rd.on Efypi 
and the Nile. 


PARrAMUTTY. — A town in the British district of Coim- 
batoor, presidency of Madras, 66 miles E. of Coimbatoor. Lat. 
10° 57', long. 77° 69'. 

PARAN G. — A pass over the w estern range of the Himalaya 
Mountains : it leads from the British district of Spiti into 
Gholab Singh's district of Rupshu. Lat. 32° 27', long. 78° 3'. 

PARBUTTY (EASTERN), a small river in the Mahratta 
territory of Gw alior, rises close to the town of Sipree, and in 
lat. 26° 31', long. 77° 46'. It first holds a northerly course for 
about forty miles, and subsequently turning to the east for fifty 
miles, falls into the Sinde, on the left side, in lat. 26° 47', long. 
78° 21'. Wilford* styles it “ the little river Para,” but is in 
error in stating that it winds round the town of Nar war, which 
is situate on the right bank of the Sinde, twenty-five miles 
above the mouth of the Parbutty. 

PARBUTTY»^ (WESTERN), a river of Malwa, rises* on 
the north side of the Vindhya range, 20 miles S. of the 
town of Ashta, and in lat. 22° 46', long. 76° 33'. It has a 
winding course of 220 miles, first in a north-easterly direction 
for eighty miles, and subsequently in a north-westerly, and 
falls into the Chumbul on the right side, in lat. 26° 60', long. 
76° 40'. It receives in its course some mountain-streams, and 
during rains swells so as not to be fordable. It is crossed^ by 
ford on the route from Kotah to Saugor, at Kukwasa, 150 
miles from its source, and in lat. 24° 28', long. 77° 7' ; and 
“ there has a bed 160 yards wide, rocky and stony bottom, and 
fine clear stream.” At Khaliyanpur, sixty miles lower down 
the stream, and in lat. 26° 7', long. 76° 42', it is crossed^ by the 
route from Kotah to Calpee, and is there fordable. 

PARDUMPOOR. — A town in the native state of Phooljer, 
on the south-west frontier of Bengal, situate on the right 
bank of the Aurag river, and 69 miles S.W. by W. from 
Sumbulpoor. Lat. 21°, long. 83° 6'. 

PARE. — A town in the native state of Bhotan, situate on 
the right hank of the Guddada river, and 76 miles N.E. by E. 
from Daijeeling. Lat. 27° 35', long. 89° 23'. 

PARELI,* in the petty hill chieftainship of Ghoond, tribu- 
tary to Keonthul, a village situate on the right bank of the 

• Parbati, from whom the river was earned, isi, according 
mythology, the wife' of the deity Siva or Mahadeva. 

S4 


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PAtt. 


Giree, here a shallow, rapid, rockj stream of very clear water.* 
Archer* describes it as “a sweet, romantic village, surrounded 
vith luxuriant cultivation. Judging from the marks of steppes 
or platforms up to the very tops of the hills, as we came along, 
the population must have been more extensive than at present 
ia the case.” Lat. 81° 5', long. 77° 27'. 

PABELL. — A town in the island of Bombay, containing a 
residence for the accommodation of the governor of the 
presidency, aith a considerable domain attached.^ Distance 
X. from ^mbay Castle five miles. Lat. 19°, long. 72° 65'. 

PARGONG. — A town in the British district of Sumbul- 
poor, presidency of Bengal, 43 miles W.N.W. of Sumbulpoor. 
Lat. 21° 4(y, long. 83° 24'. 

PABIMBAUCtJM. — A town in the British district of 
Chingleput, presidency of Madras, 33 miles W. of Madras. 
Lat. 13° 2', long. 79° 51'. 

PARNEIR. — A town in the British district of Ahmed- 
Duggur, presidency of Bombay, 20 miles W.S.W. of Ahmed- 
noggur. Lat. 19°, long. 74° 29'. 

PARO. — A town in the native state of Bhotan, situate on 
the left bank of the Guddada river, and 64 miles E.N.E. from 
Daijeeling. Lat. 27° 22', long. 89° 18'. 

PARO. — A town in the British district of Chota Nagpoor, 
presidency of Bengal, 56 miles S.S.E. of Lohadugga. Lat. 
22° 43'. long. 85° 6'. 

PABSIDEYPOOR,* in the district of Salon, territory of 
Oude, a town five miles N.E. of the left bank of the Saee, 60 
S.E. of Lucknow. Butter estimates* the population at 4,000, 
almost all cultivators ; and of the number, 8,000 Mussulmans. 
Lat. 26° 4', long. 81° 34'. 

PARUNGALOOB. — A town in the native state of 
Poodoocottah, or possessions of Rajah Tondiraan, situate 28 
miles S.E. by S. from Trichinopoly, and 69 miles N.E. by E. 
from Madura, Lat. 10° 30', long. 79°. 

PARUPUNADA.* — The principal place of a tallook or sub- 
dirisioD* of the same name, presidency of Madras. The town is 
also called Vaipur, Veypur, and Beypoor, under which last 
name it is described in the alphabetical arrangement. Paru- 
panada or Beypoor is in lat. 11° 10', long. 75° 51'. 

PARVUTTIPURAM. — A town in the British district of 

ss 


* Mundj.Sk«tch«i 
Id InUiD, 1. 230. 

* Tour* in Upper 
India, I. SOU. 


■ Bombay Public 
Dtop. 9 Ort. 1044 

E.I.C. M*. Doc. 


E.I.C. M*. Doo. 


S.I.C. M*. Doe. 


B.l.C. M*. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


I E.I.e. Ms. Doe. 


• Topoeraphj of 
OuUli, 133. 


B.l.C. Ms. Doe. 


> E.I.C. Ms Doe. 

* Buchanan. Narr. 
of Joumej from 
Madras, through 
Mysore, Canara, 
and Mahibar, 

II. 434. 470. 471. 

E.X.C. .Ms. Doo. 


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realpatidar.com 

E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


E.I.C. M*. Doc. 

B.I.C. M«. Doe. 

• Moorcr. PunJ. 
Dukli. li. -270. 


* P. Von IliiKcl, 
Kuvchmir, II. 5?4. 

E.I.C. kit. Doc. 

I E.I.C. Mb. I>«>c. 

< KMlimIr, II. 107. 


PAH— PAT. 

Vizngapatam, presidency of IMadras, 77 miles N. by E. of 
Yizagnpatain. Lnt. 18° 48', long. 83° 3(y. 

PAKYUB. — A town in the British district of Tinnevelly, 
presidency of Madras, 70 miles N. of Tinnevelly. Lat. 9^ 44', 
long. 77° 61'. 

PASKYUM. — A towTi within the dominions of Gbolab 
Singh, the ruler of Cashmere, 83 miles E.N.E. from Sirinagiir, 
and 119 miles N. from Kangra. Lat. 84° 29', long. 70° 2<y. 

PAS LEE, in the British territory of Saugur and Nerbtxdda, 
licutenant-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
on the route from Seuni to Hoosung^bad, 24 miles W.N. W. 
of the former. Lat. 22° 10', long. 79° 20'. 

PATA. — A town within the dominions of Gholab Singh, the 
ruler of Cashmere, 178 miles E. by N. from Sirinngur, and 178 
miles N.E. by N. from Chamba. Lat. 34° 28', long. 78°. 

PATAN. — See Patuk. 

PATAN,* in Cashmere, a village 25 miles N.W. of the town 
of Sirinagur. It is situate close to a kariwah or table-land of 
fertile soil, once well cultivated, as is evident from the remains 
of canals constructed for the purpose of irrigation. At present 
it is a complete waste. 

This seems to have been an important locality during^ the 
predominance of Hindooism in Cashmere, as in the vicinity 
are the remains of two ancient buildings in a style similar to 
the celebrated temple at Matan.® Patan is still a place of 
pilgrimage for the superstitious Hindoos.* Lat. 34° 7', 
long. 74° 23'. 

PATANAGO. — A town of Burmah, situate on the left bank 
of the Iraw’ady, and 83 miles N. from Prome. Lat. 19° OS', 
long. 94° 61'. 

PATAPOOB,* in the British district of Cawnpore, lieutenant- 

* Vigne,' who took much interest in the nrchitectunU relics in CAab- 
mere, gives the following description of the mins at Patan : — ** jLftcr 
Martund, the old min at Putun [Patan] is perhaps the best specimen of 
the square ruined temple to be fonnd in the valley. The walls and colon- 
nade of the peristyle are no longer in existence, and the interior of the 
remaining building, with its well-oarved and graceful 6gures of Visbnn and 
Luchni, are well worth the inspection of the traveller, being scaroely 
inferior to those at Martund. At a little distance from it are tbo mlaedCOITI 
walls of a smaller and separate building, and both and all are built of the 
mountain limestone occurring near Putun.*^ 

SS 


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goreniorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the cantonment of Cawnpore to that of Cal pee, and 
20 miles^ N of the latter. The rood in this part of the 
route is bad, the country partially cultivated. Lat. 26^ 19', 
long. 80° 1'. 

PATABI,^ in Gurwhal, a village five miles from the left 
bank of the Bhageerettee, as the Ganges is called in the upper 
part of its course. It is situate in a lofty, mountainous 
eoQDtry, but well wooded and romantic.^ Lat. 80° 48', 
long. 78° 25'. 

PATCH MARHEE,^ in the territory of Nagpore or Beror, 
t town situate among the Mahadeo Hills, situate on a table- 
knd of such elevation* that the climate is well suited for the 
regetable productions of the temperate parts of Europe,^ and 
oongenial to the constitutions of Europeans. In this secluded 
tract Appa Sahib, the fugitive rajah of Nagpoor or Berar, took 
refoge after his flight from his capital in 1818 ; but was ex- 
pelled by the judicious and persevering operations of the 
British troops commanded by Col. Adame, who penetrated* the 
most difficult recesses, reduced the strongest fastnesses, and 
thoroughly established the British power over that part of the 
Mahadeo Mountains. Distant from Hoshungabad, S.E., 53 
miles ; S. from Saugor 100 ; N.W. from Nagpoor 96. Lat. 
22° 25', long. 78° 80'. 

PATCHWABEE, in the British district of Beerbhoom, 
presidency of Bengal, a town among the highlands in the north 
of the district, on the south-west route from Berharopoor to 
Bhagulpoor, 68 miles N.W. of former, 60 S.E. of latter. 
Lat 24° 81', long. 87° 30'. 

PATEETA,* in the British district of Mirzapoor, lieutenant- 
goremorship of the North-West Provinces, a town^t sur- 
rounded by rampart and fortress, five miles south of the fort of 
Ckunar. In 1781, when Cheyt Singh, the refractory zemindar 
of Benares, raised the standard of rebellion against the Eost- 
India Company, he garrisoned Patecta, which was stormed* by 
Major Popham, though with considerable loss to the captors. 

• According to a recent publication,* the elevation above the sea is 
4,5(K) feeL In the Asiatic Journal* an elevation of about 8,000 appears 
iBlimated. 

t Hodges gives a view of it under the name of Fort* of Peteter.** 

F7 


* Oiirdm, Tshl#s 
of Ro(iCr«, 1 10. 


* K.I.a Ms noe. 
B.I.e. Trifoe. 
Surv. 


• As. Rrs il 4i0 
— R*per, Sunrsy 
of Oang4^. 

• B.I.C. Ms. Itoe. 


* As Jnum. Ann. 
18.51, Jan 'April, 
pari I. «48. 


• Bfarkrr, Mctn. 
of Op^mttons of 
Uritlsh Armj, 

408. 

l*rlnaep,Tninasrta, 
In India, II. 818. 


E I.O. Ma Doe. 


* E.I.e. Ma. I>oe. 

* Ilod»«,Tmr#to 
In InillN, 54, 65. 


* Thornton, 111*1. 
nf llritisli liidifi, 

II 300. 

1 IWnsal and 
A Era Guid^ 1848. 

Mill. 7«Ma«^'ealpatidar.com 

April, p. 848. 

I Visits In India, 

▼ol. II. view 80. 


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E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


E.I.C. Mr Doc. 


■ P. Von lloffol, 
Kuchmif, 120. 


* Jniim. A« S*v. 
|{4*nz. IS II, p. Ill 
— Broome and 
riinninphain. 
Jour, to S<»uree« 
of Punjab Itivera. 

* B l.C. Mt. Doc. 

* Garden, Tabtoa 
of Koulaa, 1. 


B.l.C. Ms. Doc. 


* Kirkpairkk, 
Account of No* 
paul, 161. 


* Olijihanr, Jonm. 
to Nopal, 126. 

■ E.I.C. Ut. Doc. 


PAT. 

Distant S.W. from Benares 18 miles ; N.W. from Calcutta, by 
Hazaribagh and Sasseram, 420. Lat. 25° 4', long. 82° 54'. 

PATGAOX. — A town in the native state of Kolapoor, 
territory of Bombay, 44 miles S.S.W. from Kolapoor, and 43 
miles W.N.W. from Belgaum. Lat. 16° 8', long. 74°. 

PATGONG. — A town in the British district of Bungpore, 
presidency of Bengal, 44 miles N.N.W. of Bungpore. Lat. 
26° ir, long. 89° 3'. 

PATHAXKOT^ (Afghan’s Fort), in the north-east of the 
Punjab, and in the southern range of the Himalaya, 14 miles 
W. of Nurpur, and on the route to Cashmere. The fort has a 
fine appearance, is built substantially of brick, has a ditch and 
glacis, and being situate on level ground, is not commanded in 
any direction ; it consequently admits of an obstinate defence. 
A lofty citadel in the interior rises above the ramparts. It was 
built by Shah Jehan, the Mogul emperor, during his attack on 
Nurpur. Notwithstanding its advantageous position and great 
strength, it seems to be allowed to fall to decay. Blevation 
above the sea 1,205^ feet. Lat. 32° 18', long. 75° 42'. 

PATHOWLEE,^ in the British district of Agra, a village 
on the route from the city of Agra to Jeypoor, and six^ milea 
W. of the former. The road in this part of the route is good, 
the country well cultivated. Lat. 27° O', long. 78°. 

PATIALAH. — See Putteeala. 

PATIAB, in the north-eastern quarter of the Puujaub, a 
town situated 13 miles E.N.E. of Kangp:a, and 92 miles N.N.E. 
of the town of Loodianah. Lat. 32° 6', long. 76° SCf. 

PATN.* — One of the principal towns in the valley of Nepaul, 
situate on a rising ground about two miles to the south-east of 
Khatmandoo, and near the confluence of the Bhagmutty with 
the Meenuskra and Fookacha. The town is adorned by several 
handsome edifices, and is said to be a neater town than Khat- 
mandoo. It is also much older than the present capital, having 
been built by the Newars,^ the aborigines of Nepaul, before 
the invasion of the Ghoorkas. Lat. 27° 38', long. 85° 17'. 

PATNA.^ — A British district under the presidency of 
Bengal, named from its principal place. It is bounded on the 
north by the Gauges, separating it from the British districts 
Sarun, Tirhoot, and Monghyr, by which last-named district 
is also bounded on the north-east and south-east ; on the south 

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H is bounded by the British districts Monghyr and Behar ; and 
on the west and north-west by the river Son, separating it 
from the British district Shahabad. It lies between lat. 
2o® S' — 25° 38', long. 84° 46' — 88° KV ; is eighty-five miles in 
length from east to west, and forty-five in breadth : the area 
is 1,828^ square miles. The Ganges flows along its frontier in 
s stream ^ fully as large^ as in any part of its course,*’ being 
usually a mile wide, with a very rapid^ current during the rainy 
season, and at all times crowded with craft. The navigation 
of the river connected with this district is eighty-two miles in 
length. The bonk, though of clay,* is rather high at the town 
of Patna, but in some parts of its vicinity the surface becomes 
depressed, and subject to be overflowed. The Son forms the 
western and north-western boundary of the district for thirty- 
fife miles, and is for that distance navigable* for craft of con- 
siderable burthen. The Poonpoon, and the leaser Poonpoon, 
also traverse the district, which, in the season of the periodical 
rains, is everywhere intersected by torrents and watercourses. 
It is altogether a very fertile and highly-cultivated tract, pro- 
ducing abundant crops of fine rice, wheat, and barley, and 
btfing its aspect enlivened by numerous orchards and groves 
of fmit- bearing and other trees. Much opium, of fine quality, 
is produced about Muneer and Pholwarree, in the western part 
of the district.^ 

The winters here are in general very mild. The hot season 
commences about the middle of March, and terminates about 
the end of June : the heat is very great along the banks of 
the Son and the Ganges, being increased by the radiation 
from the sands in the beds of those rivers. The rainy season 
occurs in the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. 
On the banks of the Ganges, towards the Son, the west winds* 
usually prevail from the middle of January until nearly the end of 
March. From thence to the middle of June, the prevalence 
of the east and west w'iuds is nearly equal. From that period 
to the end of July, the east winds are dominant ; after which, 
until the end of August, the west winds again blow. From 
tbeuoe to the end of October, the east winds return ; and 
subsequently, until the middle of January, the east and west 
winds are nearly balanced. In the rainy season, near the 
Gauges, there are occasionally north and south winds, and on 

80 


* Parllamcnlarr 
Return, ISSl. 

* Buchanan. Sur- 
▼ejr of Eaatcrn 
India. I. 40« 

* lx>rd Valmila. 
Travela, I. <17. 
< 16 . 

* Buchanan. I. 90. 


• Printep, Steam 
Navlantion In 
lirllUh India. 6. 


^ Ocn^nl and 
Aara Guide. 1841. 
\ol. II part I. <44. 


* Hurhanan, 1. 19. 


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PATNA. 


• Purllmnmfnry 
n<*ium, IdAl. 


* Rot. DUp. lo 
Ik*nicnl. dMiotJ 14 
Aug. idno. 


> E.I.C. IW. 


• Riich.innn, Siir- 
TOT of Mii«i<*rn 
Jiiilij, I. X'i. 


1 i. 41. 

• Shakonpoar, 
col. 374. 


tlie banks of the Sod, it is alleged that whatever wind maj 
prevail in the course of the day, every rooming the wind blows 
from the south. 

The district coroprises the following talooka or subdivisions : 

— Mussourah, Af.imabad, Bhiropur, Biswak, Bykutpoor,Muneer, 
Pillitch, Sanda, Gyaspoor, Phoolwari, Tillarah, and Shahje- 
hanpur. The population is 1,200,000.* 

The roost considerable towns — Patna, the sudder or chief civil 
station, as well as Dinapore, the roilitary cantonment, and 
some others — are noticed under their respective names in the 
alphabetical arrangement. 

In 1837,^ with a view to effect a more equal division of the 
business in the revenue and judicial departments in the two 
collectorates of Behar and Patna, several pergunnahs were 
transferred from the former and attached to the latter; by 
which arrangement the land revenue of Patna was of course 
considerably increased, and that of Behar diminished. The 
routes a];e — 1. From north to south, from Bankipore and Patna 
to Gaya, and thence continued to join the great north-western 
route from Calcutta ; 2. from east to west, along the bank of 
the Ganges, from Berhampore, through Bhaugulpore, Bar, 
l^atna, Dinapore, and thence across the Son to Arrab, in the 
British district of Shahabad ; 3. from north-east to south-west, 
along the right bank of the Son, from Dinapore to Daudnagar, 
and thence to Hooseinabad ; 4. from north-east to south-west, 
from Bar to the town of Behar. 

Patna was included under the grant of the Dewanny of 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, made in 1735 by Shah Alum to the 
East-India Company. The revenue is permanently settled* 

PATNA.** — The principal place of the British district of 
tlie same name, under the presidency of Bengal. It comprises 
the city or fort, inclosed by a wall of rectangular ground-plan, 
and extensive suburbs. The city extends* a mile and a half in 
length from east to west, along the right bank of the Gtuiges, 
and three-quarters of a mile landwards from it. Many of the 
houses are built of brick, but the greater number of mud ; 
they are generally tiled, a few only are thatched, but all, with 

little exception, look mean and slovenly. The eastern and 

realpaLidar.com 

* According to Buchanan/ the name is Pattana, or "the city,^* pren 
to it emphatically on account of it« celebrity. 

90 


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western ramparts hare each a gate in the middle, and a main 
street, rather wide, runs from one gate to the other ; but even 
this principal thoroughfare is neither straight nor regularly 
built,^ and the other streets or passages are narrow, crooked, 
and irregular. In the rainy season, the roads and passages 
become in many places sloughs, and in dry weather the dust is 
thick and suffocating. During the rainy season, there is in 
the city a considerable jhil or lake,^ and on the evaporation of 
the water during the dry season, the bed becomes a dirty and 
malarious expanse. Buchanan concludes his account of the 
city by saying, ** It is difficult to imagine a more disgusting 
place.” Yet it is a favourite residence of the native popula* 
tion ; and in consequence, the houses are very densely crowded 
together. Numerous ghats, or flights of stairs, give access to 
the water of the Gauges. Within the city is the grave* 
of the British prisoners murdered in 1763 by Sumroo, the 
German adventurer, in obedience to the order of Cossim Ali, 
the expelled nawaub of Bengal : it is covered by a pillar of 
uncouth form, built partly of stone and partly of brick. There 
are many mosques,* but they receive small care, and are 
regarded with so little reverence, that most of them are let as 
warehouses. Even the principal mosque, a handsome stone 
building, is occupied in this manner, and the chief Mussulman 
place of worship at present is in the western suburb. Adjacent 
to this last-mentioned mosque, is a much-frequented imambara,* 
where 100,000 persons sometimes congregate. The principal 
suburb on the eastern side, called Marusganj, contains the 
chief market, and many storehouses for grain. The buildings 
being generally constructed of wood and mats, have been often 
burned^ down ; yet no precaution is taken to prevent a recur- 
rence of the calamity. This suburb is joined by another, 
denominated that of Giafir Khan. On the other side of the 
city is a long, narrow suburb, extending to Bankipore, a distance 
of about four miles. The breadth seldom exceeds half a mile, 
and there are many interruptions from gardens. This is the 
quarter of Europeans, whose houses are scattered through it, 
and principally along the bank of the river ; but they are in no 
great numbers, and of no very imposing appearance. Con- 

* A buildiog in which the great Mahometan feetival Mohamim is 
celebrated. 

91 


BMclirHbung von 
Blndu»tiin, 1.901. 


* Duclinniiii, I. 36. 


» Id. I. 40. 


* Id ut siipni. 


f Id. I. 96. 


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PATNA. 


• I. 38. 


* Rrnncll. Bengnl 
Atlii*, No. 15. 

* Uiicltaiian, i. SO. 


< Id. 1. 40. 


* Dovldaon. 
Trains, it. 33. 


sidered in its most extended dimensions, Buchanan estimates^ 
the length of the whole place (citj and suburbs) along the 
bank of the river at nine miles, and the area which it occupies 
at twenty square miles. The place is ill supplied with water, 
as that obtained from the river must be carried with much toil 
to those parts which are at all distant, and in the rainy season 
it is dirty. The drudgery of bearing it devolves on women. 

There are wells, but those near the river are deep, and their 
water brackish ; but some of those farther off are shallower, 
and yield better water. 

On approaching the town from the land aide, it is not dis- 
cernible, even at a short distance, as no building overtops the 
intervening trees ; and even from the river, the appearance of 
the town, especially in the dry season, is wretched, the pre- 
dominant feature being an irregular high bank of clay, without 
herbage, and covered with all manner of impurities. The 
rampart,® formerly thirty feet high, with a ditch from fifty to 
seventy feet wide, and from seven to eleven deep, is now 
totally ruined and this circumstance adds to the neglected 
aspect of the place. It is alleged, and not without an appear- 
ance of probability, that at no very distant period the town 
scarcely, if at all, extended beyond the limits of the rampart, 
and its present enlarged state and ** prosperity® seemed to have 
been owing to the European commercial factories ; for at one 
time the English, Dutch, Danes, and French had factories 
here, and traded to a great extent, especially in cotton cloth.” 

It is still a thriving place, having an extensive and lucrative 
commerce, and considerable banking business. The Ganges, 
opposite the town, though the navigation is much impeded 
by sandbanks, is covered with ‘‘ thousands® of picturesque 
boats, for transporting merchandise, each differing from its 
neighbour.” 

The civil establishment here consists of eleven Europeans ; 
viz., a civil and sessions judge, a collector, a magistrate, a joint 
magistrate and deputy collector, two assistants to magistrate 
and collector, a principal sudder aumeen, a surgeon, a super- 
intendent of survey, and uncovenanted deputy collector. The 
native staff comprises a principal sudder aumeen, three mon-^^^j^^^ coin 
siffs, and three uncovenanted deputy collectors. Here is a 
school, under the control of a committee, cousistiug of nine 

V2 


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members, two of whom are natives. The English language 
and literature, history, and the mathematics, enter into the 
course of study, which is conducted by a head master and two 
assistants. Beside these, there are an Oordoo master and a 
Hindee master. In September, 1850, the number of boys on 
the books was fifty-seven. There are also some Ilindee schools 
unconnected with government. Within the last few years a 
penitentiary and house of correction have been erected within 
the city.** 

During the hot season, the temperature is very high at 
Patna, being increased by the heat reflected and radiated from 
a naked expanse of sand on an extensive island in the Ganges, 
opposite tlie city.^ 

Buchanan estimates* the number of houses at 52,000, and 
allows six inmates to each. On this estimate, he observes, 
“ the whole population will therefore amount to 312,000 ; which 
1 do not think liable to any considerable error. There are be- 
side?, a great many persons, — sepoys, camp-followers, travellers, 
boatmen, Ac., whose number fluctuates, but is generally pretty 
considerable.” The population-estimates of Buchanan are 
found, when scrutinized, to be generally too high, and in a 
recent semi-official publication,^ the number of inhabitants of 
the town of Patna is stated at 284,132, much exceeding the 
population of any other city within the presidency of Bengal, 
except Calcutta. 

Patna is a place of great antiquity, and is conjectured by 
Wilford® to have been identical with Padmavati, the capital of 
Nanda, who, according to Prinsep,® reigned over Magadha or 
Behar 415 years before the Christian era. Subsequently, it 
probably formed part of the dominions of the nijah of Kunnouj, 
on whose defeat, in 1194,* by Shahabuddin, sovereign of Ghor, 
Patna, with the rest of Behar and Bengal, fell to the conqueror, 
who annexed his acquisition to the empire of Delhi. Patna 
appears to have for the most part continued, ostensibly at least, 
a portion of the empire until the death of Shir Shah, the Patan, 
who deposed and expelled Humayon. Muhamad, a relative of 
Shir Shah, made himself master of Patna in 1545, but was 
•oon after subjugated® by Akbar. Aurungzebe conferred the 
government of Behar on his son Azim, who resided at Patna, 

from that circumstance generally named Azimabad*'* by the 

os 


* B^njral Jiidiclftl 
Di»M. 0 June, 
1847. 

Id. 90 S«|»t. 1848. 


• Biirhan.nn. Siirv, 
III I. 90. 

® p. SO. 


^ Dcncnl And 
Acrn Ouidr, 1811. 
\ol. ii. pari 1. V44. 


* Aa. Rn. li. 08. 
HI. II.). 

^ fndln Tables, 
il. 00. 


I Bird. Pivface 
to Hiat of Ouie- 
rat. 81. 


* BIpblnatone, 

Hitt, of indie.'ealpatidar.com 

II. 010. 

* Uuchjiian. 1. 88. 


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Miissulmnna. Tlio Eoglish eetablished factoriea here at an 
early periodj and carried ou on extensive trade in opium, rice, 
and other articles. In 1763 disputes arose between the Com- 
pany’s serTaots and Meer Cossim, upon the subject of trani^iu 
duties. The former claimed ait entire exemption from duty, 
though a heavy tax was paid by all native traders ; and the 
claim was supported by a majority of the council at Calcutta, 
who sent a deputation to the nabob at Patna, to request be 
would conBrm it. He was, however, unyielding, but at length 
gave way to an extent not contemplated or desired. In place 
of remitting duties on the Company’s trade only, be abolished 
all custom a- duties whatever, whether on British or native goods. 
Mortified, however, at the result of an act which in a moment 
of exasperation be had committed, and which must have mate- 
rially diminished his revenue, he took every means to annoy the 
British, and before long resorted to an act of open hostility, by 
seizing soma English boats which were lying in the river* 
Mr, Ellis, the chief of the EuglisK factory, upon this provoca- 
tion made a precipitate attack upon the city, and took poeaes- 
sion of it. The British were, however, soon driven from it by 
Meer Coaaim, who, following the fugitives to their factory, 
destroyed tnany of them, and made prisoners of all the rest 
who were not so fortunate as to effect their escape. This was 
on. the 24th June, 1763. During the four following naontha, 
several actions took place betweeu Meer Cossim’s forces and 
the English, which always ended in the defeat of the former* 
In the beginning of October, his capital town, Monghyr, wan 
besieged and taken by storm. This so enraged him, that he 
decided on the perpetration of a deed exceeding in atrocity the 
murder of the Black Hole. He ordered the eocecution of all the 
English prisoners he had in bis possession ; and thus, in cold 
blood, 200 defenceless Englishmen, whom he had imprisoiied in 
Patna and other places, were shot or cut to pieces under the 
direction of a European, named Sumroo, who was in the serrice 
of the nabob. Among the number was Mr. Ellis ; the only 
one who was spared was Mr. FuUarton, a surgeon, who after- 
wards effected his escape. The British took Patna by storm 
on the 6th November following, whereupon the nabob and hia. 
army fled to the dominions of the soubahdar of 
whom be had lately entered into a treaty, lu ^lay following, 


lOgiC 



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tbe British were attackc^d by Meer Cossim uuder the walls of 
but after a long day’s desperate fighting, the enemy 
were routed, with great loss. Thereupon the English remained 
in quiet possession. 

Patna is distant E. from Dinapore, by land, 10^ miles, by 
water 12 ; E. from Benares, by Ghazeepore, 157,* by water 
205;* N.W. from Calcutta, land route, by way of Gaya and 
Hazaribagh, 377 / by water 464.® Lat. 26® 36', long. 86® 16'. 

PATNA,* a raj in the country under the superintendence 
of the political agent for the south-west frontier of Bengal. It 
is bounded on the north by Bora Samba and Sumbulpoor ; on 
the east by Sonepore and Boad ; on the south by the rirer 
Tell; and on the west by Keriall. Its centre is in lat. 20®4(y, 
k)og. 83® 16' : it has an area of 1,168 square iniles.^ Some 
years since, the country was officially reported to be con- 
tinually in a state of the most wretched anarchy, incurable 
except by placing it under the direct management of the 
British gOTernment. The annual estimated revenue is 26,000 
rupees : the tribute, which is small, — only 600 rupees, was paid 
with regularity. The population is believed not much to 
exceed 62,000.^ The principal town, bearing the same name, 
is in lat. 20P 36', long. 83® O'. 

PATNA. — A town in the British district of Bel gaum, pre- 
sidency of Bombay, 20 miles W. of Belgaum. Lat. 16® 62', 
long. 74® 18'. 

PATODEE. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Jodhpoor, 
48 miles W.S.W. from Jodhpoor, and 108 miles S.E. by E. 
from Jessulmeer. Lat. 26®. O', long. 72® 24'. 

PATON, in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Almora to the Rakus Lake, 53 miles N.E. of the 
former. Lat. 30® 10', long. 80® 20'. 

PATOWDHI.* — A small jaghire inclosed within the terri- 
tory of Jujbur, subject to the lieutenant-governorship of the 
North-West Provinces. The grant* was made early in the 
present century, for services against the Mahrattas, by Lord 
Lake, to Fyze 'Tullub Khan, brother-in-law to Nawaub Nijabiit 
All Khan, who, at the same time, was granted the jaghire of 
Jujhur. The present jagirdar is Muhammad Akbar Ali Khan, 

who derives an annual revenue of 60,000 rupees from his 

yi 


^ Oarden, TiibiM 
of Routes, lai. 

• Id. ▼!. 

• Id. ICI. 

7 Id. 104. vL 

• Id. 101. 

' E.I.C. Doe. 


* Stati»iic« of 
Native SUlut. 


* Parliamentarj 
Return, ISOl. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ha. Doe. 


E.I.C. Me. Doe. 


> E.I.e. Me. Doc. 


* De Crus, Pol. 
Relatione, 87. 


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PAT. 


* Onnion, Tnli’ct 
of KtiuU**, 14*i. 


* E.I.C. M*. Doc. 


Irt IliiMTMry of 
Wcvtrrii lii'lij, 51. 


E.I.C. M* Doc. 


E.I C. M». Doc. 


• E.I.C. Trigon. 
Sury. 

• Rarr, March 
from IK'llil to 
Caiibul. W. 


• Garden, TaWoa 
of noiitM, 172, 
17 . 1 . 

E.I.C. M». Doc. 


I E.I.C. M«. Doc. 


jaghiro. Piithowdi, the principal place, is on the route from 
Delhi to Narnol, and 40 miles® S.W. of the former. It has a 
bazar, and is well supplied with w’ater. The surrounding 
country is slightly undulated in low irregular swells, with a 
sandy soil, partially cultivated. The road in this part of the 
route is sandy and heavy, and bad for carts. Lat. 28° 18', 
long. 76° 50'. 

PATKEE,* in Guzerat, or territory of the Guicowar, a town 
at the south-eastern angle of the Eunn or Great Salt Marsh. It 
has a fine tank, and is surrounded^ by three walls, the inner- 
most of which has a ditch ; but, though formerly of considerable 
importance and strength, it is now much decayed. The chief, 
styled the Dessaye, has an annual revenue of 18,000 rupees, of 
which he pays annually a tribute of 5,652 rupees to the British 
government. Distant W. from Ahmedabad 52 miles. Lat. 
23° 10', long. 71° 44'. 

PATREE. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, 
situate on the left bank of the Godavery river, and 188 miles 
N.W. from Hyderabad. Lat. 19° 16', long. 76° 30'. 

PATROOD. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or 
dominions of the Nizam, 192 miles N.W. by W. from Hyder- 
abad, and 100 miles E. from- Ahmednuggur. Lat. 19° 7', 
long. 76° 17'. 

PATTARSEE,' in Sirhind, a village on the route from 
Kumal to Loodiana, and 75 miles N.W. of the former place. 
It is situate on a small eminence,^ overlooking a level and 
fertile country, but in many places swampy, and in general 
slightly cultivated. The road in this part of the route is good, 
and water and supplies are abundant. Distant N.W. from 
Calcutta 1,040 miles.® Lat. 80° 34', long. 76° 85'. 

PATTERGH ATTA. — A town in the British district of 
Dacca Jelalpoor, presidency of Bengal, 54 miles S.W. of Dacca. 
Lat. 23° 10', long. 89° 48'. 

PATUN, called also BUTISI and TONRAWUTTEE.*— A 
small Rajpoot state, bounded on the north-west by Sheka- 
wuttee ; on the north-east by Jhujhur ; on the east by Ulwar ; 
and on the south-east and south by Jeypore. It lies between 
lat. 27° 31'— 27° 56', long. 75° 48'— 76° 12': it is thirty miles 
in length from north to south, and twenty in breadth. 

time of Boileau’s visit, in 1835, it was ruled by Roo Luchiuun 

06 


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Singh, chief of the Tour tribe of Bajpoots, who anticipated. the 
proper period of succession hj the murder of his father, but 
v&s subsequently so haunted by remorse, that he abandoned his 
palace, in which the foul crime was committed, and took up his 
abode ia a temporary residence in the vicinity. The spirit^ of 
the murdered chief was supposed to inhabit the chamber which 
be occupied in life ; and a couch, rose-water, and a few other 
articles, were kept constantly in readiness for his use. The 
country is a tract of barren hills and fertile valleys : it is tri- 
butary to Jeypore. The least accessible parts are inhabited 
bj a tribe called Minas,^ who formerly subsisted by cattle- 
stealing and other plunder, and who, in the exercise of their 
STocation, undertook long journeys, either on foot or mounted 
OD small dark-coloured camels of great speed and endurance, 
united at some settled point, committed their depredations, 
and returned, sometimes singly, sometimes in small bodies, to 
their fastnesses, where they divided their spoil. These 
marauders, however, have been much checked by the British 
forces, which have destroyed nearly all their forts, so that 
many from necessity have had recourse to agriculture for sub- 
sistence. Patun, the principal town, is rather a considerable 
place, situate in a strong position, at the foot of a hill sur- 
mounted by a citadel. The palace is on the side of the hill, 
about half-way between the base and summit. Distance S.W. 
from Delhi lOO miles. Lat. 27® 47', long. 76® O'. 

PATUN,* within the limits of the territory of Bhoondee, in 
Bajpootaila, a town situate on the left bank of the river 
Cbumbul, 22 miles S.E. of the town of Bhoondee. It is the 
principal place of a pergunnah, of which (though locally situate, as 
above stated, within the confines of the state of Bhoondee) two- 
thirds belong^ to the fbmily of Scindia, having been granted by 
the Peishwa, who himself received it from the rajah of Bhoondee, 
in remuneration for aid afforded against Jeypore. The other 
third, which had been wrested from Bhoondee by Holkar, was 
ceded by him to the British government, under the 4th article 
of the treaty of Mundissor.* The rajah of Bhoondee was 
especially anxious to secure possession of Scindia*s portion of 
Patun, as it contains his ancestral palace, as well as a magni- 
ficent temple'* built and endowed by his family ; and by the 
la-aty concluded with the rajah in 1818, the British goveru- 

6 97 


t DoIImu, RiU’ 
warm, S. 


* Pmnklln, Mem. 
of TtHimM, 84. 


* E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Bemrul and 
Aero Guide. 1841. 
Tol. IL part li. two. 


* Treatiea with 
Nnih e Powera, 
lasxvl. 

l*Hu"7,.N.“.;alpatidar.com 

of Joumej from 
Agra to Oojeln. 


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PAT— PAtr. 


E.La Urn, Doe. 


* E.I.C. lU. 


■ Dllnirn, Tnhfn 
of Itouln, 07. 


K.L.C. Ml Doe. 


F.rc. M*. Doe. 
Frintepf Pol. nod 
HlllUry Tmnvect. 
ii. «4i. w. 
Bldcker, Memoir 
of Qpenitinni of 
aritifli Aroif. «7S. 
F.I.C. Ml Doc. 


> Joom. . 41 . Soe 
Brois* p. ][M 

— Meeknofi, Acc~ 
of Wad.r'i Voyage 
down tlic 


> FeHibm, I. 4aa, 
PrloTp 

dm Hilt. )IL 74V. 
Jicnncllp 81. 


ment engaged that thia portion of the territory should be 
restored to its original possessor, who in return engaged to pay 
an annual tribota of 40,000 rupees ; but Scindia refusing to 
give up the possession, those clauses of the treaty were not 
carried out. By the treaty of Q-walior, in 1844, however, the 
management of this part of Fatun was transferred to the 
British; and probably this may lead to an arrangement by 
which the long-cherished wishes of the Bhoondee rulers may 
be gratified. Bat. 26° 16', long. 76^ 2'. 

PATUNSAONQEE. — ^ A town in the territory of Nagpoor 
or Bemr, situate 13 miles N.N.W. from Nagpoor, and 98 miles 
E. by N, from Ellichpoor. Lat, 21° 20^, long. 79° S'. 

PATUBGHATTA/ in the British district of Bhagnlpoor, 
presidency of Bengal, a small town or village on the right bank 
of the Ganges, four miles N. of the route from Berbampoor to 
Dinapoor, 184 miles N.W. of former, 164 E. of latter.^ Here 
are several caves and cells excavated in the rock facing the 
water. Lat. 26° 19', long. 87° 16', 

PATTTS. — A town in the British district of Poonah, presi- 
dency of Bombay, 42 miles E. of Poonah. Bat. 18° 28', long. 

74° ai'. 

PAUDUBKAOBA, in Hydetabad, or territory of the 
Nizam, a town near the north-east frontier, towards Nagpoor 
or Berar. Distance from the city of Hyderabad, N., 178 miles ; 
Nagpoor, S.W., 90. Bat. 19° 65', long. 78° 49', 

PAUGA. — A town in the native state of Bhotan, situate on 
the left bank of the Guddada river, and 65 miles E. by N. from 
Darjeeling. Bat, 27° 16', long, 89° 20', 

PAUK PUTTEN ' (Pure Town), in the Punjab, a town 
situate ten miles west of the river Bavee, and fourteen miles 
from Mamoke Ghat, a much-frequented ferry over it, A 
perfectly level plain of four miles wide extends towards the 
river from the town, which, viewed at some distance, has the 
appearance of a citadel situate on the summit of a lofty 
eminence. It is built on the site of the ancient fort of 
Ajwadin, Ajodin, or Adjoodhun, and is celebrated as the place 
close to which Mahmud of Ghuxnee, Tamerlane,® and several 
other invaders of Hindostan, crossed the river boiindaiy of the 
Punjab on the east. The name of this town is considered toiidar.com 
indicate ita peculiar sanctity, in consequence of its having been 

08 


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for many years the residence of a celebrated Mahometan saint, 

Shekh Farid-u-Din, of whose miraculous powers many traditions 
are recounted by the natives. It is related, among his other 
wonderful deeds, that when hungry, he threw into his mouth 
handfuls of dust or pebbles, which immediately became sugar ; 
and as he effected similar transmutations in innumerable 
instances for the benefit of other persons, he obtained the 
name of Shakarganj, or ** Sugar-store.” The tomb or shrine is 
situate in a spot depressed below the rest of the mound on 
which the town is built, and which has an elevation of about 
forty feet above the plain. It is an unornamented and incon- 
siderable building, having but one small apartment, containing 
the remains of the saint in a grave, covered with faded 
drapery. There are in it two small doors, one to the north, 
the other to the east. The last is called the ** door to Para- 
dise,” and is only opened on the fifth day of the first 
Mahometan month, called Mohurram, and considered peculiarly 
holy, in reference to the belief that during the ten first days 
the Koran* was sent from heaven for revelation to men. This ’ o’Herwio#, ii. 
doorway is about two feet wide, but so low that it cannot be 
passed without stooping ; and the chamber itself is of such 
contracted dimensions, that it can contain only about thirty 
persons. Those who rub their foreheads on the saint's grave 
are considered safe from perdition ; the first who enters the 
chamber is believed to secure thereby a peculiarly high degree 
of felicity in a future state ; and as the crowd of pilgrims, com- 
prising Hindoos as well as Mussulmans, is immense, the crush 
is tremendous. The natives, however, assert that no accidents 
occur, in consequence of the tender care which the saint has 
for his votaries. Among other relics preserved here, is a piece 
of wood in the shape of a cake, which, it is said, was used {>y 
the saint to solace himself when assailed by hunger during his 
long fasts. Pauk Putten is supposed by Masson^ to have been * bbi. ai^. Punj. 
the site of the colossal altars erected by Alexander to mark the ** ^*** 
eastern boundary of his conquests. Lat. 30° 17', long. 73° 25'. 

PAUXiY. — A town in the Kajpoot state of Jeypoor, situate e.i.c. m». doc. 
on the lefl bank of the Chumbul river, and 88 miles S.E. by S. 
from Jeypoor. Lat. 26° 60', long. 76° 37'. 

PAULYTANNA,* or PALITHANA, in the peninsula of » e.i.c. 
Kattywar, province of Guzerat, a tovm in the district of 

H 2 » 


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PAU. 


* TninMctt. of LiL 
8oc. BoinlMy, I. 
MO — Macmurdo, 
Romarks oo Kat- 
tlwar. 

* Tud, Travela In 
Waaiarn India, 
t74. 

« Id. WO. 


R.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


I E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Madras Joum. of 
Lie. and Sclanca, 
al.I«~ Mon tail h, 
Aeoount of Opera* 
tlon«f«»r WidrtiInK 
the Paumbaiim 
Pasaaca. 


* Joum. Rojral 
Oaofrraph. Soe. 

Iv. 10 — Lushitif- 
ton and Sim, on 
Pasaaite between 
Ccjlon and the 
Mainland of India. 


GK>hilwar.^ It is situate at the eastern base of the Satrunja, 
a mouiitain sacred to Adinath,^ the deified priest of the Jains. 

As an instance of the liberal endowments and ofiTerings made to 
this divinity, it is mentioned^ that lately a rich banker of 
Ahmedabad presented a crown of massive gold, studded with 
sapphires, and of the estimated value of 8,500/. The extensive 
summit of the mountain, surmounted by numerous steep peaks, 
is crowded with temples, shrines, images, and viharas or 
monastic retreats, connected with the belief of the Jains. The 
town itself is walled, and contains many relics of antiquity of 
various eras. Distance from Ahmedabad, S. W., 120 miles ; 
Baroda, S.W., 105 ; Surat, N.W., 70 ; Bombay, N.W., 190. 

Lat. 21° SCy, long. 71° 47'. 

PAUMANEE. — A town in the territory of Nagpoor or 
Berar, 10 miles N.W. from Jugdulapoor, and 162 miles N. 
from Bajahmundry. Lat. 19° 20', long. 81° 51'. 

PAUMBAUM,^ in Barnes waram, presidency of Madras, a 
town and the only collection of dwellings on that island, 
except the tow'n of Barnes w'aram, is situate at the eastern 
extremity, near the mainland of Bamnad. The regular in- 
habitants consist chiefly of boatmen^ and pilots ; and their 
only occupations are passing vessels through the reef, loading 
them, and discharging their cargoes. There are no artificers, 
and the bazar has but a few shops, chiefly .for the sale of pro- 
visions, being deficient for the most part in regard to other 
articles, though generally to be obtained elsewhere. Lately 
the prosperity of the place received a stimulus from the 
presence of a number of strangers employed in improving the 
passage betw'een the Point of Paumbaum and the Cape 
Tonitorai or Bamen, on the mainland, and commonly de- 
nominated the Paumbaum Passage.^ This passage was formerly 
impracticable for ships, in consequence of the obstructions 
caused by two parallel ridges of rocks about 140 yards apart ; 
the north ridge being considerably the higher, and termed the 
first or great dam, in most places visible at low water, though 
nowhere sufficiently connected to prevent entirely at any time 
the passage of the water ; the line of the south ridge or dam 
being also distinctly traceable at low water, but only a few 
detached rocks on it even then appearing above. The whole, ar.eom 
or greatest part of the space betw'een these two ridges, was 

uo 



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filled up by large masses of rock in yarioas positions, but 
geoerally in directions nearly parallel to the principal ridges, 
and usually several feet lower. Of those rocks, composed of 
aandstone, the strata, when observed in situ, are found to be 
horisontal. It has been surmised, on geological and historical 
probabilities, that at one time there was an isthmus connecting 
tbe island of Rameswaram with the mainland. Tradition 
couDteDsnoes this belief; and the original disruption by an 
inroad of the sea, caused by a hurricane, is by some believed 
to have occurred as late as the early part of the fifteenth 
century. Across this double ridge of rocks were two channels ; 
one affording passage for the larger craft, the other used by 
small boats only. A series of operations for improving the 
passage commenced in 1837, and extended over several years. 
It necessarily involved a considerable outlay, but the success 
was commensurate with the expenditure. The cost of the 
operations, from their commencement in 1837, until the 30th 
Apn1, 1844, was 155,949 rupees.^ The result was, that a 
channel was formed eight feet deep at low spring tides between 
tbe reefs, and about nine and a half feet deep through what is 
called the Horse-shoe Bank ; the advantages of which are 
demonstrated not only by the rapidly increasing resort of 
trading-vessels to this place, but by the fact of two war- 
steamers — the Tluto and the NemesU — having passed through 
it safely. 

Of a place like this, in what may be called a transition-state, 
it is difficult to furnish statistical particulars that will possess 
more than a temporary approach to accuracy. In 1843, 
Paumbaum contained about 200 bouses. A European officer, 
with a detachment of about 100 sappers and miners, and a 
gang of 150 convicts, were stationed there ; the camp-followers 
amounted to about 300. A considerable influx of money, 
causing a visible improvement in the condition of the in- 
habitants, was noticeable ; and tbe advancement of trade, and 
Bteadj increase in the number of shipping visiting the place, 
afforded indications favourable to its permanent prosperity. 
Anchorage and customs are levied by the British government. 
Lat. 9® 17\ long. 79° 17'. 

PAUMBEN. — See Paumbauic. 

PAUMOOB. — A town in the British district of Nellore, 

101 


* Ifadrms Ifarbw 
Di«p. <8 Jalj, 
1845. 

Id. 30 Julj, 1851. 


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PAU— PAY. 


B.t.C. Ml, Doe. 


E.IX. Ml. Doe. 


B.t.O. Hi. Hoe. 


E.I.C. Hi. Doc. 


Kuhmlrp 

II. to. 


preflidency of I^ladr&e, 53 mOea 9.S.E. of Nellore. I>at. 15*^ 7% 
long. 79^ Z<y. 

PAUNDOHKAUN. — A town in the native etate of Nepal, 
112 milea W.N.W. from Khatmandoo^ and 123 miles N. from 
doruckpoor. Lat. 28^ 27', long. 83° 42^- 

PAUPUdNEE.^ — A river rising in the Mysore dominions, 
in lat. 13° 30', long. 77° 50', and, flowing north-eaeterly for 
forty miles through the Mysore territories, and ninety milee 
through the British coOectbrate of Cuddapah, falls into the 
Pennar, on the right side, in lat. 14° 36', long. 78° 46'- 

PAUTEPASKACUBANELEOOR.— A town m the 
British district of Madura, presidency of Madras, 83 mQea 
S.E. of Madura. Lat. 9° 35', long. 78° 31'. 

PAVANASI. — A town in the British district of Tanjore, 
presidency of Madras, 12 miles N.E. of Tanjore. Lat. 10° 66', 
long. 79° 19'. 

FAWdlTE. — A town in the native state of Mysore, 123 
miles N.N.E. from Seringapatam, and 77 miles 8.S.E. from 
Bellary. Lat. 14° 6', long, 77° 20'* 

PAYANd YAY. — A town of Bunnah, situate on the left 
bank of the Irawady river, and 120 miles S.W. from Ava, 
Lat. 20° 40', long. 94° 39'. 

PATE ISLAND, — One of the numerous cluster of islands 
known as the Mergui Archipelago* It is situate 13 miles 
W- from the coast of Tenasserim. Lat. 11° 27', long, 98° 3G'- 
PA YECH, in Cashmercj a very ancient ruin, situate at the 
northern base of the Kariwah, or table-laud of No Nagur. It 
is of small dimensions, but in a tasteful and impressive style of 
architecture. It ia thus described by Vigne, probably the only 
European by whom it has been surveyed : — “ The interior and 
exterior ornaments are particularly elegant. The building is 
dedicated, I believe, to Vishnu, as Surya or the sun-god, small 
sitting figures of whom are inserted in niches on the cornice 
outside. The ceiling of the interior is radiated so os to repre* 
sent the sun, and at each comer of the square, the space inter- 
vening between tlie angle and the line of the circle is filled up 
with a gin or attendant, who seems to be sporting at the edge 
of his rays/* Pa Tech is in lat. 33° Stf, long. 74° 45'. 

PATNB GUNGA BIVER rises in lat. 20’’ 32', long, 76»4', 
near the eastern boundary of the British district of Caudeish, 

1Q£ 




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and, flowing through the Hyderabad territory in a very cir- 
cuitoua but generally easterly direction, for 820 miles, falls into 
the Wurda river, on the right side, in lat. 19° 60', long. 79° 16'. 

PEAK, a river of Berar or Nagpore, rises in lat. 22° 20', 
long. 78° 47', and, flowing south-easterly for fifty miles, falls 
into the Pench river, in lat. 21° 65', long. 79° 18'. 

PEDDAPULLY. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, 
or territory of the Nizam, 110 miles N.E. by N. from Hyder- 
abad, and 182 miles N.N.W. fiom Quntoor. Lat. 18° 48', 
long. 79° 26'. 

PEEDDA WAG, a river of the Nizam’s dominions, rises in 
lat. 16° 69', long. 78° 82', and flowing south-easterly for seventy 
miles, falls into the Kistnah river, in lat. 16° 88', long. 79° 18'. 

PEELKUCHLA, in the British district of Jounpoor, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
on the route from Jounpoor to Fyzabad, 19 miles N.N.W. of 
the former. Lat. 26° 68', long. 82° 87'. 

PEEMING, a pass in the district of Koonawur, in Bus- 
sahir, traverses a loH^y ridge of mountains, which, rising from 
the left bank of the Sutluj, holds a southerly course, dividing 
that rugged region from the table-land of Tartary, and at the 
same time forming the boundary between the British and 
Chinese empires. Gerard, who had been previously, with the 
utmost difficulty and peril, making his way amidst the rocky 
ravines and fearful precipices of Koonawur, found, on reaching 
the Peeming Pass, a total change in the aspect of the country. 
‘*This is the line of separation between Busahir and Chinese 
Tartary, and there could scarcely be a better-defined natural 
boundary. In front, the face of the country is entirely changed, 
as far as the eye can reach eastward ; mountain masses succeed 
each' other; no rugged peaks rise into view, but a bare expanse 
of elevated land, without snow, in appearance like a Scotch 
heath.” ^ At a short distance to the north, the vast Pargeul 
Mountain rises from the right bank of the Sutluj, to the 
height of 18,500 feet, or to the total elevation of 22,488 feet 
above the sea. The elevation of the Peeming Pass above tlie 
sea is 13,5182 feet. Lat. 81° 49', long. 78° 46'. 

PEENOO, or PIM, a river in the valley of Spiti, rises in 
lat. 81° 40', long. 78°, and, flowing northerly for thirty-eight 
miles, falls into the Spiti river, in lat. 82° 6', long. 78° 12'. 

ifKi 


E.I.C. U*. Doe. 


* Liojd and 
Orrmrd, Tour In 
Hlmnlnja, II. IdO. 

* Joam. Aft. Soc. 

Beng. 1849. p. 871 
— Oorard, Jotim. 
to Shipkft. 

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PEE. 


• BoilMui, RO* 
wars, 147, 918L 


• p. tBO. 


E.I.C. Ma Doe. 


I B.I.C. Ma. Dor. 
AniuUa. 


• PHnwp. IndU 
TabJM, II. 157. 

* Horabanrh, 
E«*t-lndl« Direr- 
toi7. I. 618. 


B.I.C. Me Do«. 


* B.I.C. Up. Doc. 


PEEPAE,* in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a town on the 
route from the citj of Jodhpoor to that of Ajtneer, and 87 
miles N.E. of the former. A mud wall incloses the town, and 
there is a small citadel in the middle of it. There are 3,000 
houses, supplied with good water from a fine tank immediately 
opposite the south gate. The population, according to Boileau,^ 
is 14,710. The road on the south-west side, towards Jodh- 
poor, is indifferent, being grayelly, and occasionally encumbered 
with stones or cut up into ravines : in the other direction, 
it is stated by Boileau to be execrable. Lat. 20^ 24', long. 
73° 40^. 


PEEPCHOO. — A town in the British district of Ramgur, 
presidency of Bengal, 49 miles N.N.E. of Bamgur. Lat. 

24° 21', long. 85° 47'. 

PEEPLEA. — See Hath ka Pesplea. 

PEEPLEOD. — A town in the native state of Gwalior, or 
territory of Scindia’s family, situate on the left bank of the 
Suktha river, and 67 miles N.W. by W. from EllichpKX>r. Lat. 

21° 39 , long. 76° 40'. 

PEEPLEY,^* in the British district of Balasore, presidency 
of Bengal, a town on the left bank of the river Soobunreeka, 
ten miles above its fall into the Bay of Bengal, formerly oi 
some commercial importance, but now much decayed. It was 
the first place in which the English were formally permitted to 
trade, the privilege being in 1634 granted^ by Shahjehan 
Padshah of Delhi. The Soobunreeka is from this town 
denominated the river ^ of Peepley, and a shoal opposite the 
mouth is called Peepley Sand. Peepley is distant S.W. from 
Calcutta 90 miles. Lat. 21° 40', long. 87° 22'. 

PEEPBA, in the British district of Qoruckpore, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small town on 
the south-eastern frontier, towards the British district of 
Sarun, two miles from the right bank of the river Jharia. 
According to Buchanan, it contains 100 houses ; an amount 
which would assign it a population of about 600 persons. 

Distant S.E. from Goruckpore cantonment 52 miles. Lat. 

26° 18', long. 84° O'. 

PEEPBAICH* (EASTERN), in the British district of Go- 
ruckpore, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces^,^^'^^'^-^^'^ 
* Pipl^ of BoDDell. 

1U4 


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a tom on the route from Gomckpore cantonment to Mulye, 

10 ^ miles N.W. of the former. Buchanan,* describing its state •o«rden, T«bi« 

forir years ago, observes that it is better built than is usually » 

the case in that district ; and adds, ** It is said, contains only 

about 100 houses, although, so far as I can judge by passing 

through, I should think that it contains at least twice that 

number.** It has a bazar^ at present, and is well supplied * o»rdfn, ut 

with water. The road westward, or towards Gomckpore, is 

hearj and bad, running through jungle almost the whole way ; 

to the east it is good, and passes through a cultivated country. 

Lit. 26® 47', long. 83° 36'. 

PEEPRAICH* (WESTERN), in the British district of * e.i.c. ii« doc. 
Gomckpoor, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Pro- 
rinces, a small town 10 miles N. of the left bank of the river 
Chighra. It contains 200* houses, and consequently, allowing « Buchanan, sur- 
Bii persons to each house, a population of 1 , 200 . Distant 
W. from Gomckpoor cantonment 38 miles. Lat. 26° 42', long. 

82® 48'. 

PEEPRAON,' in the British district of Allahabad, lieu- • e i.c. mi. Dor. 
tenint-goveraorabip of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route, by the Kutra Pass, from the cantonment of Allahabad 
toEewa, and 19* miles S.E. of the former city. The road in • oardm. Tabira 
this part of the route is cut up by ravines, the country cul- 
tiuted. Lat. 25° 19', long. 81° 69'. 

PEEPRY. — A town in the peninsula of Kattywar, province 
of Guzerat, situate 66 miles S. by E. from Rajkote, and 159 
milsB S.W. from Ahmedabad. Lat. 21 ° 20', loug. 71°. 

PEBPULKHEEREE, in the territory of Bhurtpore, a town r.i.c. M«.Doe. 
on the N.W. extremity towards Alwar, 40 miles N.W. of the 
hjwni of Muttra and Bhurtpoor. Lat. 27° 38', long. 77° O'. 

PEEPULSANA, in the British district of Bijnour, lieu- r.i.c. if ■. Doc. 
tenaot-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a village nouIrt/ 1 ^ 7 ^'*^ 
oa the route from Moradabad to Hurdwar, and 41 miles 
N.W. of the former. The road in this part of the route is 
]?ood, and passes through an open and partially cultivated 
country. Lat. 29° 20 ', long. 78° 32'. 

PEEPUL'THON. — A town of Malwa, in the native state of 
Bhopal, 26 miles S.W. by S. from Bhopal, and 42 miles 
^ N.W. from Hoosungabad. Lat. 22 ° 68 ', long. 77° 10 '. 

PEERAO. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Jodlipoor, 187 

106 


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B I.C. M». Doe. 

B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 

E.l.C. Ms. Doc. 

I B.I.C. 11«. Doe. 
Hsber, Nsrrat. 
of Journ. 1. 100. 

• Osrdcn, Tables 
of Routes, too. 

E.I C. Ms. Doc. 

* £.1 C. Us. Doc. 

■ Irvine, Topo*. 
of AJroeer, 41. 


I Vojaf. Ir. 144. 

* Annals of 
tlian, I. 77i. 


PEE. 

miles W. by S. from Jodhpoor, and 82 miles S.W. by S. from 
Jessulmeer. Lat. 26®, long. 70® 11'. 

PEERGUNJE. — A town in the British district of Dinaje- 
poor, presidency of Bengal, 26 miles N.W. by W. of DinajejKMr. 

Lat. 26® 47', long. 88® 20'. 

PEERGUNJR — A town in the British district of Rung- 
pore, presidency of Bengal, 28 miles S.S.E. of Rungpore. 

Lat. 26® 18', long. 89® 24'. 

PEERGUNJE. — A town in the British district of Pnmeah, 
presidency of Bengal, nine miles S.S.W. of Pumeah. Lat. 

26® 39', long. 87® 30'. 

PEER POINTER,^ in the British district of Bhagolpoor, 
presidency of Bengal, a small town on the right bank of the 
Ganges. It is situate at the foot of a detached hill, and on 
the summit of a cliff impending over the rirer is the tomb of 
Peer Pointee, a reputed Mussulman saint ; whence the place has 
its name. The rocks in the vicinity are excavated into numerous 
small cells, now unoccupied, but formerly the retreats of soli- 
tary ascetics. Distant £. from Bhagulpoor by Colgong 34 
miles, by the course of the river 37 from Rajmahal, NT.W., 
by Sikrigidi, 40 ; from Calcutta, by the course of the river, 

289. Lat. 26® 17', long. 87® 26'. 

PEERPOREE. — A town in the British district of Nuddea, 
presidency of Bengal, 77 miles N.N.E. of Calcutta. 

23® 39', long. 88® 48'. 

PEESANGUN,*® in the British district of Ajroeer, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town, the 
principal place of a pergunnah of the same name, having a 
population^ of 16,740 persons. Distance 16 miles W. of Ajmeer, 
N.W. of Nusserabad 22 miles. Lat. 26® 26', long. 74® 30'. 

PEETAR.t — A village of native Gurwhal, on a feeder of 
the Tons, and about five miles from the right bank of thmt 
river. It is situate near the crest of the woody range dividing 
the valley of the Tons from that of the Pabur, and producing 
the celebrated Pinus deodar, the first of that magnificent 
species observed by Jacquemont^^ in his progress westward 

I 

• Poosaugur of Tod.* + Tlie “Peteri ** of Jacquemont. 

X Jacquemont states that he can find scaroelj any difference between .COITI 
the deodar and the cedar of Lebanon planted by Toumefort in the garden 
of the king of France. 


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tboQgh the Himmlaja. Peetar ia at the elevation of 6,684^ 
feet above the sea. Lat. 31®, long. 78° 1'. 

PEETUMPOO'B,^ in the British district of Cawnpore, lieu- 
teoaDt-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
tbe route from Allahabad to Etawa, and 47^ miles S.E. of the 
latter. The road in this part of the route is good ; the 
ooontij level, and partially cultivated. Lat. 28° 24', long. 
W4(y. 

PEETUMPOOB, in the British district of Boolundshuhur, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
DO the route from Boolundshuhur to Allygurh, 20 miles S.E. 
of the former. Lat. 28° 11', long. 78° lO'. 

PEGU. — A British province of Eastern India, recently 
acquired from the Burmese by the result of war. It is bounded 
on the north by the Burmese territories ; on the east by the 
river Sitang,* separating it from the Tcnasserim provinces ; on 
tbe south by the Bay of Bengal ; and on the west by the Bay • 
of Bengal and by the Youmadoung Mountains separating it 
from the province of Arracan. It extends from lat. 15° 49' to 
19^ dO, and from long. 94° 11' to 98° 55' : it is 210 miles in 
length from north to south, and 170 in breadth. 

The principal river is the Irrawaddy, which, reaching the 
southern frontier of Burmah in the latitude of Meaday, crosses 
into the province of Pegu, and pursues its course in a southern 
direction for a further distance of between 200 and 300 miles, 
reaching the Bay of Bengal by several mouths, which form the 
delta of the Irrawaddy. Some distance below the city of 
Prome, the river diverges into two main branches, the more 
easterly of which flows by the town of Bangoon, while the 
western branch passes by the town of Bassein. 

The government of India during the late war having deter- 
mined to annex Pegu to the Bntish empire, it became necessary 
to make arrangements for the administration of the province. 
The task was not beset with any extraordinary difficulties. 
Upon inquiry, it became obvious that the whole social and 
administrative system closely resembled those of Arracan and 
Tenaaserim ; and it was wisely resolved that the details of the 

* The narrow etrip of the Arracan province etretebing southward from 
fhe Kintali Pass to Cape Negrais, and washed by the Bay of Bengal, now 
a portion of the province of Pegu.* 

lu; 


* Jaequetnont, 

Iv. 142. 

I E.I.C. M*. Doe. 


* Garden , Tables 
Routes, 32. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* IndU Pill. Dlea. 
22 June, 18%3. 


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I India Pol. DIsp. 
ut supra. 


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administration for the new provincOj not less than its general 
form, should be taken from the Bjstema which had long pre- 
vailed in the adjacent districts. Accordingly, in the departments 
of civil and criminal judicature, the regulations have been 
assimilated to those of Tenasserim. Aa a temporary measure, 
the land revenue is levied on each yoke of cattle, according to 
the cuetotn of the country ; hut the regulations to be perma- 
nently adopted in the revenue department are those of 
» Pol. Diip. to Arracan,* The duties upon imports and exports are levied 
IMS?' **‘*^*^’ according to the tariiF in use at Calcutta. 

The earlier history of Pegu would scarcely repay the reader 
for the labour of tracing it with minuteness. It may suf&ce to 
state, that Fegu was formerly an independent state, and that 
Ava was subordinate to it. After a time, however, Ava 
revolted, and succeeded in reducing Fegu to a state of depen- 
dency. That country in turn revolted, and reasserted with 
success its claim of supremacy over Ava. Through the energy 
of an adventurer named Alompra, this claim was, however, 
questioned ; the Peguers were expelled from Ava, and war 
carried into their own dominions* It terminated in rendering 
Pegu a province of the kingdom of Ava, in which condition it 
remained until it became British territory* The events which 
led to the conquest of Pegu, and to its hnal incorporation with 
tlie British dominions, will be found noticed in the article 
Burtnah. The result has been to sever from the Burmese 
empire the richest and most fertile of its provinces, and to 
deprive the court of Ava of its principal resources for main- 
taining an army in the field. Under British rule, the country 
promises decided improvement and commerce, which never 
could prosper under such a government as that of Ava, will 
now find opportunity for developing the full resources of Pegu* 

PEGU* — One of the principal towns in the newly- acquired 
British province of the same name, situate on the left bank of 
the river having a similar appellation, and which further south 
falls into the eastern branch of the Irrawaddy. The old city 
was destroyed by Alompra in 1757, on his final triumph over 
the Peguers. The plan of the new town is a quadrangle, the 
main street running east and west, and being crossed by others 
at right angles. The streets are for the most part spacious;! 
and paved with brick ; but the houses are of wood, supported 

tOfl 


d Gocgfe 


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on posts, with roofs lightly covered. The building in the town 
clueflj Attracting attention, is the temple of Shoemadoo, which, 
sooordiDg to Symes,^ ** is a pyramidical building, composed of 
brick and mortar, without excavation or aperture of auy sort, 
ociagonal at the base, and spiral at the top.” This author 
gives a rather particular description of the building; but as 
fiAj-four years have elapsed since the publication of his volume, 
u ruin bad at that time begun to invade the walls of the lower 
terrace, and as on the British visit in 1824 the edifice was 
found in a very neglected condition, and much injured by the 
vestber, it is probable that the account above quoted w*ould 
require very considerable modifications to adapt it to present 
circumstances. 

Pegu was captured by the British in 1824, and restored upon 
the tennination of the war. During the second war in 1852, 
the town, previously taken and abandoned, w as a second timo 
occupied. A determined attempt on the part of the Burmese 
via made once more to recover it, but it was met by the oflBcer 
in command (Major Hill, of the Madras Fusiliers) with a 
combination of skill and decision which enabled him to main- 
tain it, though under great difficulties, until relief arrived. 
Distant N. from Bangoon 62 miles. Lat. 17® 4(y, long. 

9e^ir. 

PEHARI,* in Bundelcund, a village on the route from 
Banda to Gw’alior, 88* miles ANT. of the former, 116 S.E. of the 
htter. It has a bazar, and water from wells and a tank, but 
supplies are rather scarce. It is the principal place of a small 
jaghire or feudal grant, ** comprising* four square miles, con- 
taining 800 souls, and yielding a revenue of 800 rupees.” 
The jaghiredar, who receives a small tribute from lands appro- 
priated by the neighbouring rajah of Jhansee, is stated to 
maintain fifty infantry. Lat. 25® 33', long. 79®. 

PEHONA. — A town in the territory of Nagpoor or Behar, 
aihiate on the left bank of the Wurda river, and 62 miles 
SAW. from Nagpoor. Lat. 20^ 20', long. 78® 47'. 

PEINLULLAH, in the British district of Hoosungabad, 
^«iitory of Saugur and Nerbudda, lieutenant-governorship of 
^ North-West Provinces, a town on the route from Hoosung- 
to Seuni, 25 miles E. by S. of the former. Lat. 22 ? 39', 
long. 78® 8'. 

luu 


* KiuIimij U>At«, 
188 . 


> K.I.e. Mt. l>oc. 
Mufuly, Sketches, 
II. tia. 

* Garden, Tiiblra 
of Routes, 74. 

* l)e Crus, Pol. 
Relntlona, 4a 


E.I.O. kl«. IKm. 


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PET— PEJ. 


I Stattetlca of 
flaUT* Staley 80. 


• Bombay Pol. 
84 Dire. 

)M4. 


B.I.C. M«. iMtr. 


I E.I.C. M». Doc. 

• Tmnf. of Phyii. 
and Med. Sor. of 
Bombny. I. 01 — 
Oibenn, Sketch of 
Guicrat. 


* Lloyd and 
Oerard, Tours In 
Himalaya, II. 900. 


PEINT, with HUBSOOL, a petty native state within the 
presidency of Bombay, bounded on the north by the raj of 
Dhumimpore and the territory of the Daung rajahs ; on the 
east by the British district of Ahmednuggur ; on the south 
by that of Tannah, which also, with Surat, bounds it on the 
west. It lies between lat. 20° P — 20^ 27', long. 72° 58' — 

73° 40' ; is forty-six miles in length from east to west, and 
twenty-eight in breadth ; and contains an area of 750 square 
miles, with a |x>pulation of 55,000.^ 

On the death of the rajah of Peint, in 1842, without male 
heirs, the claim of his daughter to succeed to a Mahomedan 
chiefship was deemed untenable, and the estate was taken 
under the management of the British government. An inti- 
mation was, however, made to the Begum, that the estate 
would be transferred to the husband she might marry, provided 
he were a fit person to be intrusted with the management. 
Subsequently the Begum was informed that she was at liberty 
to marry whom she pleased, but that unless her choice was con- 
sidered by government in all respects unexceptionable, the 
estate would be continued under British management, in trust 
for herself and the issue of such marriage ; but that her hus- 
band, in virtue of his marriage, would acquire no rights over 
the principality.^ Its alfairs still continue under the adminis- 
tration of the British. Peint, the principal place, is situate 
73 miles S.E. by S. from Surat, and 102 miles N.N.E. from 
Bombay. Lat. 20° 17', long. 73° 31'. 

PEIBGAUM. — A town in the British district of Ahmed- 
nuggur, presidency of Bombay, 39 miles S. of Ahmednuggur. 

Lat. 18° 33', long. 74° 45'. 

PEITAPOOB,' in Guzerat, or territory of the Guicowar, a 
town on the right or western bank of tho river Saburmuttee. 
Population 7,000.* Distance from Ahmedabod, N., 15 miles. 

Lat. 23° 14', long. 72° 4 ^. 

PEITHAN. — A town in the native state of Nepal, 153 miles 
W. from Khatmandoo, and 90 miles N.N.W. from Goruckpoor. 

Lat. 2r 53', long. 82° 60'. 

PEJXJB,* in Bussahir, a river, or rather large torrent, in the 
dit<trict of Koonawur, rises on the south-eastern declivity of 
the Lipi Pass, about lat. 31° 47', long. 78° 18', and holdsta ar.com 
south-easterly course of about twenty miles, to the village of 

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Chilon, near which it is joined by the Munglung, a consider- 
ible torrent, and below the confluence haa the name of Titi, 
desmbed by Jacquemont^ as a very impetuous and great * ^7. 

stream, one of the largest feeders of the Sutluj, into which, 
tiler a total course of about twenty-five miles, it falls, in lat. 

31® 88^, long. 78° 29'. 

PELEW GEWEN ISLAND, situate at the entrance of 
tbe Martaban river. The means by which the British became 
poatessed of this desirable island are curious and interesting. 

Afler the treaty of Yandabo was agreed to by the East-India 
Company and the Burmese, the river Martaban being decided 
opoo as the northern boundary of the former’s possessions, a 
qoeatioQ arose as to whom the island of Pelew should belong. 

This it was agreed should be decided by the course a gourd- 
titell ihoold take, being placed in the river above Martaban ; 

▼is., if the shell floated to the west of the island, it should 
become the property of the Company ; but if it took the eastern 
ehaimel, the Burmese should claim it. The ceremony took 
plioe, and the gourd slowly floated down the stream, entering 
tbe sea by the western channel, thereby making it the undis- 
poted property of the Company.^ Lat. 16° 20', long. 97° 37'. 

PELLUH. — A town in the British district of Nell ore, pre- e.x.c. doc. 
ndeacj of bladras, 72 miles N. of Nelloro. Lat. 15° 29', long. 


PEN , — A town in the British district of Tannah, presi- e.i.c. m*. doc. 
deucy of Bombay, 25 miles S.E. of Bombay. Lat. 18° 43', 
long. 73° ir. 

PENANG. — See Pbittc* of Wales Islakd. 

PENCH NUDDEE. — A river of Berar, rising in lat. 22° 11', 
kng. 78° 45', a few miles north of tbe town of Omrait, and, 

•owing first easterly for sixty-five miles, and south for fiily- 
ibree miles, forms a junction with the Kanhan river, in lat. 

21° 18', long. 79° 12', near the town of Kamptee. 

PBNGBA BAZAK. — A town in the British district of e.i.c. m*. doc. 
Seebpoor, in Upper Assam, presidency of Bengal, 13 miles 
8.W. of Seebpoor. Lat. 26° 51', long. 94° 32'. 

PKNGUGUBEAM. — A town in the British district of e.i.c. Mt. do«. 
presidency of Madras, 38 miles N.W. by N. of Salem. 

12° 6', long. 77° 55'. 

PENN ACONDA. — A town in the British district of Bellary, e.i.c. ms. doo. 

Ill 


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PEN. 


E I.C. M*. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


■ B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* Mackcntie, In 
Dalrjtnpl^, Orlco* 
ImI Repertory, U. 


* E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


*Med To]tof. 
and St^iliallca of 
llyaore, 3. 


* Journ. Aa. Soe. 
Benfc. 1834, pp. 
488, 474. 

* Statlstlral Fran- 
menta, 30. 

E.I a Ma. Doe. 


presidency of Madras, 87 miles S.E. by S. of Bellary. Lat. 

14® long. 77® 39'. 

PENNAGUNCHYPBOLE. — A town in the British dis- 
trict of Masulipatam, presidency of Madras, 81 miles N.W. by 
W. of Masulipatam. Lat. 1(>® 56', long. 80® 18'. 

PENNAOUK. — A town in the British district of Chinglc- 
put, presidency of Madras, 52 miles S.W. of Mxkdras. Lat. 

12® 39^, long. 79® 44'. 

PENNAB (NOBTHEBN).* — A river having its origin in 
the territory of Mysore, about lat. 13® 23', long. 77® 43', and 
deriving its earliest supply from a square stoue^ tank, in the 
centre of the ruined fort of Chandradroog. The tank over- 
flows in the rainy season, and the redundant water, falling into 
a deep cleft in the rock, issues in a stream from the side of the 
mountain, about 200 yards lower down. This source fails 
during the dry season. The stream, flowing to the north-west 
for thirty miles, then crosses the northern boundary of the 
territory of Mysore, and takes a northerly course for ninety- 
five miles, to Ooderpee Droog, where it turns eastward, and, 
continuing to flow in that direction for 230 miles, passes in its 
course by Nellore, and falls into the Bay of Bengal in lat. 

14® 38', long. 80° 13' ; its total length being 355 miles. Its 
principal tributaries on the right side are the Chittrarutty, the 
Paupugnee, and the Cheyair ; on the left side, the Koondaur. 

PENNAB (SOUTHEBN).^ — A river of Mysore, rising north 
of the Nundydroog Hills, and in lat. 13® 32', long. 77® 45'. 
Beceiving the redundant water^ of a series of tanks at that 
place, it flows circuitously, but generally south, for fifty-five 
miles, to Mootanhalli, where it crosses the south-eastern fron- 
tier of Mysore into the Carnatic, through which it holds a 
south-easterly course of 190 miles, and falls into the Bay of 
Bengal, in lat. 11® 45', long. 79® 51', a mile north of Fort St. 

David ; its total length being 245 miles. Gold is found^ in its 
sands, in its passage through the Carnatic. Heyne erroneously 
states^ that this river falls into the river Cauvery. 

PENT. — A town in the British district of Butnageriah, pre- 
sidency of Bombay, 40 miles N.N.E. of Butnageriah. Lat. 

17® 30', long. 73® 35'. 

PENT KYOUNG BENTINCK, or MIDDLEjaPO-jar.com 
LONGO, the centre of three islands at the entrance of the 

irj 


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rea I pati d a r. com PEO — PEfi, 

Anean river* It ie about twentj-aix mUea in length, and aix 
b breadth ; mountamoufl,^ woody, and rugged ; without any 
ippetnnce of inhabitanta or cultivatioti. The centre of the 
iduid b ia lat, 20^, long. 93^ 4'. 

PEOfiA,^ in Birhiod, a amali town on the route from 
Thaneoir to Kythul, and 15 miles W. of the former town. It 
ii situate on a small river or torrent, access to the water of 
vbich is given by several neat ghats or stairs. It rises in a 
■trUiug manner over the jungle which surrounds it, being 
likuted ou a rough mound, formed by the ruins of a more 
ladeut town. The bouses are buOt of good brick, but are 
ooDiiisedly mtennixed with ruins in every stage of decay* 
Dirtsut N.W* from Calcutta 1,003 miles*^ Lat* 29° 50', long* 

PEOKAHJ in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- 
goverDorehip of the North-West Provinces, a village, with a 
|mblio buDgalow or reception-house, on the route from Aim ora 

Bareilly, and nine miles S. of the former* The road in this 
part of the route, though passing over a very rugged^ country, 
sod ixiteraected by torrents, is rather good ; and supplies may 
be obtained* Elevation above the sea 5,238 feet. Lat* 29° 31', 
long. 79° 40'. 

PEPEBGAON, in the British district of Furruckabad, lieu- 
tcoanbgovemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Purruckabad to Mynpooree, five miles W.S* W. 
of tbe former. Lat. 27^ 22', long. 79° 34'* 

PEEAI,* in the British district of Allahabad, lieutenant- 
goTcmorahip of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route by Bajapoor feny, from the cantonment of Allahabad to 
Buds, and 18 miles^ W* of the former* The road in this part 
of tbe route is bad, tbe country level, and well cultivated, 
list, 25° 26', long. 81° 34'. 

FEEANTUBEI. — ^A town in the British district of Coim- 
batoor, presidency of Madras, 46 miles E.N*E. of Ooimbatoor. 
Ui. ir 16', long. 77° 38'* 

PESBOOTPOBE,^ in the British district of Ghazepoor, 
beateuant-goveraorship of the North- West Provinces, a village 
on the left bank of the Ganges, 632 miles* N. W* of Calcutta 
by water, or, if the Sunderbund passage be taken, 709 ; E* of 
tlbazepoor eantonment 50. Lat, 25° 43', long. 84° 20'. 

« ^ lU 


^ HonJHirgli. 
Dtf«elar^^ [L S. 


■ E I.C. Trlcua. 
Siirr. 

B/t.C. Ht. Doc. 
In India, 1. aatt. 


* 0«rd«D, TaSlM 
of Houtcii, ITS. 

< E.I.C. Hi. Doe. 
E.I.C. Trlgoa. 
Sarr. 

Oerdcn, Tablet of 
Route*, bO. 

* Heber, lourn. 
la iDdlA, L 401. 


B.I.C. Hi. Doe. 


I B.I.C. Mi. Doc* 


* Oirilcn. Tnblci 
of Kuuiea, S 8 . 


B.t.O. Doc. 


■ E.I.e. Hi. Doe. 


* Oerden, TebJe* 

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* R.I.C. Mt. I>or. 


* Buchanan. Sur- 
vey of Baatem 
India, ik *04. 


« E.I.e. Mt. Doc. 


* Burhanan, 
II. 110. 


* Id. II M. 


* Id. II. 04. 
Wilks, Historlcnl 
Sketches, I. 03. 


• Buchanan, 

II. Ofl. 

Wilke, III. 104. 

• Id. III. 818. 

• Journey from 
Madras, through 
Mysore, Canara, 
and Malabar, 11.08. 
'Hist. Sketches, 
1. 40. 


PER. 

PERI,' in the British district of €k)ruckpore, lientensDtr 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, s small town of 
about 100 bouses,^ near the south-eastern frontier, towards the 
British district of Sarun, distant 50 miles S.E. of Gkiruck- 
pore cantonment. Lat. 26^ 20^, long. 84^ 12'. 

PERIAPATAM,' • in the territory of Mysore, a town near 
the south-western frontier, towards Coorg, in an elevated tract 
on the eastern declivity of the Western Ghats, and about 4,000 
feet* above the level of the sea. The surrounding oountey is 
well watered, containing many small lakes, besides nuinerouB 
tanks ; the latter, however, being in a ruinous state, either 
from neglect or wilful injury during tha frequent wars with 
which the country has been a£9icted. The soil is rich, and 
the climate rather moist and fertile ; hence its name, indicating 
“ favoured town.” Formerly a flourishing place, protected by 
two forts, the inner of mud, surrounded by another of stone, 
it was utterly wasted by the troops of Tippoo Sultan. When 
visited by Buchanan in 1800, the inner fort was quite ruinoua, 
in consequence of the defences having been blown up ; and the 
place had become so infested by tigers, as to be dangerous to 
enter even at midday : some families of Brahmins, who had 
houses in the outer fort, were obliged to shut themselves up at 
nightfall. There are two temples* of the Brahminical, and one 
of the Jain persuasion, in the town. The mahal or palace 
consists of a square area, surmounted by a dome and sur- 
rounded by apartments. This place was formerly the capital 
of a petty rajah, who, in 1644, being besieged by Kanthi Bao 
Marso, the kurtar or ruler of Mysore, in despair destroyed his 
family, and rushing forward recklessly, died sword^ in hand in 
the midst of his enemies. In 1761 it was occupied by tbs 
British army of Bombay, under the command of General 
Abercromby, with the view of co-operating with that of Lord 
Cornwallis before Seringapatam ; but the siege of that place 
being then relinquished, Abercromby precipitately retreated, 
leaving behind him part of his battering-train and a large 
quantity of powder, which Tippoo Sultan caused to be ex- 
ploded, to destroy* the great Jain temple in which it bad been 
stored. In the following year Periapatam was again occupied* 
by the army of Bombay, and subsequently oncer in .com 

♦ Priyspstiina of Baobanan ;* Poriapatam of Wilka* 

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1799, hj the army of that presidency, under G^eneral Stuart, 
marching to join Qenerml Harris, then besieging Seringapatam. 

Just previously to the time of its occupation by Glexteral 
Abercromby, it contained 1,600 houses which number, ac- Em bamn. 
cording to the usually received ratio of five inmates to each ^ 
bouse, would indicate a population of 7,600 persons. Tippoo 
Sultan not only dismantled and ruined the forts, but destroyed 
the houses also. After the overthrow of Tippoo Sultan, in 1799, 
the inhabitants returned, and the place has since been slowly 
recovering from its disasters. Distance from Seringapatam, W., 

43 miles ; Bangalore, S.W., 110 ; Mangalore, 8.K, 90 ; 

Madras, W., 29a Lat 12° 21', long. 76° 

PERI KHALEE. — A town in the British district of the b.i.c. Mt. Doc. 

Soonderbunds, presidency of Bengal, 83 miles E. of Calcutta. 

Lst. 22° 80', lon^. 89° 43'- 

PERIM.* — An island in the Gulf of Cambay, off the harbour > e.i.c. ms.doc. 
of Oogo, in Guserat, on the west side of the gulf, and in the 
British district Ahmedabad. The island^ is about two miles in t joam. At. soc. 
length and half a mile in breadth, and is separated from the 
mainland of Guserat by a channel, which in parts is seventy* j»me* on Po«ii 
five fathoms deep, while its breadth, according to one au- ******** ^ 

thority, is* 500 yards ; according to another, two miles.^ The > poiuaiMa. m 
geological structure of the island is generally conglomerate, THoiiburib. 
overlaid with a stratum of sandstone.* In the island are the E««i-inuia Dirce- 
remains of a considerable fort, and of an antique temple, con* a». soe. 

taining an image of Buddha. Water is found at a depth of 
twenty feet, by sinking through the strata of conglomerate and Northern coficen. 
sandstone. Among other curiosities of the island, are two 
figures of elephants, cut out of the rock : the dimensions of one 
are stated to be eight or nine feet in height, and ten feet in 
length. There is a tradition among the natives, that the 
island was formerly joined to the mainland by a bridge, and the 
remains of buildings resembling piers may still be seen in the 
water ; bat it is obviously impossible that such a structure 
could have been made at a time that the channel had its 
present depth of water ; and should the tradition be accepted as 
authentic, the difficulty can be solved only by concluding that 
earthquakes, not unknown in this region, must have effected 

changes on a large scale. This island has received much atten- realpatidar.com 

tion from geologists, from the great quantity of organic 

I 2 


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* Journ. Aft. S«)c. 
Benf . 1837, p. 78. 


"f Id. 1888, p. S88 
— Rftccnt dlft- 
cov«rjr of PomII 
Bonftft Id Prrim 
IftUind. 

* Act of OoTl. of 
Indlft, No. L of 
1886. 

E.I.C. lift. Doe. 


E.I.C. lit. Doe. 


* E.I.C. lift. Doc. 

* As. Res. tl. 09 
— Huoler, Narrmt. 
of Journ. from 
Agra to Oujeio. 
K.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


* Court. Mem. on a 
Map of IN*»liawur. 
Elpli. Account of 
Canbul, 88. 
llnsson. Bal. Afg. 
Pat^. 131. 
lloorcr. Pui\J. 
Dukh. II. 837. 
liuroea, Pol. Pow. 
of the 8ikhs. 9. 

Id. Dokh. 1. 80; 
ii. 310 

Id. Pers. Nnrr.llO. 
Wood. Ojius. 134. 
Forster. Jour. 
Dong. Eng. 11. 60. 
Hough. Narr.Exp. 
In Afg 891. 
Havelock. War In 
Afg. 11. 100-100. 
Atklns«>o. Esp. 
Into Afg. 384. 
Baber. Memoir. 
002-303. 

• Uepoft on Pun- 
jab. pura. 40. 


PEB— PES. 

remains found imbedded in the conglomerate. They are those 
of the elephant,^ mastodon, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, hog, 
deer, ox, tortoise, and saurian reptiles. Baron Hiigel obtained 
forty-one pieces of fossil bones, the greater part belonging to 
the Mastodon latidens, of which the teeth left no doubt. Of 
these he says, ** Some^ of the bones are of an immense size ; 
one fractured piece of the tusk measuring, from the centre to 
the outside of the circle, 5i, which gives 1(H inches diameter, 
or thirty-four inches in circumference.*’ A lighthouse has 
been erected on this island.® Lat. 21° 88', long. 72° 19'. 

PERIPOLLIAM. — A town in the British district of 
Chingleput, presidency of Madras, 22 miles N.W. of Madras. 

Lat. 18° 17', long. 80° 7'. 

PERMACOIL. — A town in the British district of South 
Arcot, presidency of Madras, 38 miles N. of Cuddalore. 

Lat. 12° 10', long. 79° 45'. 

PEROWA,* in the territory of Tonk, or possessions of 
Ameer Khan, a town on the route from Ooojein to Kotah, 

69 miles^ N. of former, 72 S. of latter. Lat. 24° 9', long. 

76° 4'. 

PERRIMBIRE. — A town in the British district of Chingle- 
put, presidency of Madras, 60 miles S.W. by S. of Madras. 

Lat. 12° 23', long. 79° 60'. 

PERTABPORE. — A town in the British district of Midna- 
pore, presidency of Bengal, 28 miles E. of Midnapoor. Lat. 

22° 24', long. 87° 50'. 

PERTAUBQHUR. — See PiraTABOHUB. 

PESHAWUR.* — A province of the British principality of 
the Punjab, occupying the extreme north-western corner of the 
empire, and lying between the Indus above and below Attock 
and the Khyber Mountains, through which is the great Khyber 
Pass. It is bounded on three sides by the Khyber, Mohmund, 

Swat, and Khuttuk bills : in the east it is open to the Indus. 

It lies between lat. 88° 42' and 84° 80', and long. 71° 85' and 
72° 42'. In the extent here assigned to this territory, it is 
sixty-five miles long, fifty miles broad, and about 2,400^ square 
miles in extent. Its climate is very hot in summer, the 
thermometer frequently reaching 110° or 112° in the shade. 

The heat, however, is occasionally mitigated by the breeeeSjr.com 
fW>ni the neighbouring mountains ; and as the country, naturally 

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realpatidar.coi PESHAWUB. 

fertOa, IB weU watered by the Indus, the Kabool river, and its 
tnbuttriea, the chief of which are the Swat and the Bara, and 
u, moreoTer, well cultivated, it is amasinglj productive. The 
Viter is applied to the purposes of cultivation by means of 
canals and innumerable small channels, from whence it is 
drum ap by means of a pole having a fulcrum in the middle 
and a backet suspended at one end, which is raised by the hand 
pressing the other end ; or where the depth is too great for 
this mode of operation, the water is obtained by the use of the 
Persian wheel, worked by camels or bullocks. Here, water is 
in general too near the surface to require the use of the draw- 
vefl In consequence of this abundant supply, the country 
continues verdant during the whole year.^ The principal crops * Burn««. u. ass. 
are wheat, barley, maize, millet, and various other crops suitable 
to warm climates. Peshawur produces the finest rice in the 
vorld. It is called Bara rice, because grown on ground irrigated 
bj that river ; and Kunjeet Singh, ever watchful to secure to 
himself the best of everything prized by man, exacted part of 
his tribate in this valued article. Esculent vegetables are 
coltiTited with much success. Many of them are of the kinds 
known in England — carrots, turnips, radishes, cabbages, cauli- 
flowers, onions ; others are there of common occurrence in 
India. As a substitute for hay, com and certain green crops 
*re cut before ripe and dried for fodder. Barley, and some- 
times wheat, are cut before they form ears, and used for this 
purpose ; and this treatment does not injure the crop. What 
called here paulaiz, is a very important portion of the crop, 
tnd comprises musk-melons, water-melons, scented-melons, 
iod various kinds of cucumbers, pumpkins, and gourds, pro- 
duced in the greatest luxuriance, and consumed in the hot 
waion in large quantities. The castor-oil plant is cultivated : 

^ oil, however, is not intended for culinary or medicinal pur- 
poses, hut for any other in which a coarse oil may be required. 

Settmum, mustard, and some other plants, are reared for the 
uke of their oil. The sugarcane is raised to be consumed as a 
sweetmeat ; sugar itself being obtained from Hindostan. 

Gioger, turmeric, tobacco, and cotton, are also extensively 
cultivated. The ground is moved by the plough, the spade 
being little employed. Scythes are unknown, and crops of all 
kinds are cut with sickles. Oxen are used for ploughing, 

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« Irvlo, iM. 4B, 


* Report, ul 

• iipr*, p«ra. M 


• MU. 

Diap. 17 UmrDh, 
ISM. 

^ Report on the 
Fupjai^ Outlloo 
Map. 

* Id. para. 8R 


PESHAWX7IL 

harrowing, imd treading out the com. Mulbeny-treeB abound, 
and silk is produced in moderate quantities. The principal 
fruits are plums, figs, peaches, pomegranates, mulberries, and 
quinces ; but, though large, all except the last have an inferior 
flavour.^ The quince of Peshawer is said to surpass those of 
all other countries. 

Elphinstone, who entered the country in March finom the 
gjeat defile through which the route from the south passes, 
describes the scene formed by the mountains, crowned with 
eternal snow, surrounding the luxuriant and picturesque plain, 
as at onoe grand and beautiful in the highest degree, and he 
found that a nearer survey increased bis admiration. At the 
time of Elphinstone’s visit, the population was so dense, that 
thirty-two villages were counted within a circuit of four miles. 
It may be doubted whether the impressions of the European 
visitors on this occasion were not somewhat over sanguine, but 
it was their belief, ** that never was a spot of ground better 
peopled.” Since its annexation to the British dominions, the 
province has been held by a regular military force of 10,fi00 
mm, in which are comprised two regiments* of European 
infantry and a detail of artillery. 

Through this fine province lies the great route from 
Khorasan and Kabool into India, by the passes of the Khyber 
mountains and across the Indus at Attock. It is also traversed 
by the grand trunk road from Lahore to the city of Peshawur, 
along which is located the army of the Punjab. The former of 
these routes being open to the wild inhabitants of the moun- 
tains, it was found necessary to adopt a comprehensive plan of 
defence for the security of the valley.* The territorial division 
of Peshawur includes, besides Peshawur proper, the districts 
of Huzara and Kohat.^ 

PESHAWUB, or PESHA WEB, the capital of the province 
of the same name, is situate about eighteen^ miles east of the 
eastern extremity of the Khyber Pass. In the early part of 
the present century, when visited by Elphinstone, it was a 
flourishing town, about five miles in circuit, and reported to 
contain 100,000 inhabitants. Twenty years later, Bunjeet 
Singh, after defeating the Afghans in the decisive battle of 
Noushera, took Peshawer, demolished the Bala Hissar, at 
the capital and state residence ; destroyed the fine houses of 

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the chief Afghans ; desecrated the mosqaes, and cutting down 
the groyee and orchards about the city, laid waste the sur- 
rounding country. Subsequent exactions and oppressions 
prerented for a time its revival. The numerous mosques, many 
built in a splendid style of oriental architecture, were inten- 
tionally polluted by the Sikhs, and the commerce of the city 
Isoguiahed under their stern rule. The fortress erected by 
them on the site of the Bala Hissar, is a square of about 220 
jirda, and is strengthened by round towers at each angle, 
every curtain having in front of it a semicircular ravelin. 
There is a fausse-braie all round, of substantial towers and cur- 
tains, with a wet ditch. The height of the inner walls is sixty 
feet, of the fausse-braie thirty, all constructed of mud. Within, 
are capacious and well-constructed magazines and storehouses. 
The only gateway is on the northern face, and it is protected 
by towers. The present population of the city is returned at 
56,045,* of whom 7,706 are stated to be Hindoos, and the 
remainder Mussulmen. Peshawur was built by the Mogul 
emperor Akbar, who affixed the name, signifying advanced 
poet,*’ in reference to its being the frontier town of Hindostan 
towards Afghanistan. Elevation above the sea 1,068 feet. 
Since its occupation by the British, all restrictions have been 
removed, and trade is rapidly expanding. The suburbs and 
environs are also represented as having improved in appear- 
ance.* Lat. 64°, long. 71° 38'. 

PETHOBA GUB.H,t in the British district of Kumaon, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a can- 
tonment for troops stationed to protect the frontier towards 
Nepal. It is situate about 10 miles W. of the right bank of 
the Kali river, and on a low ridge in the middle of Shore 
valley. The site is injudicious and unfortunate,* being in the 
midst of rice-swamps, flooded during rains, and causing remit- 
tent and other fevers, and dysenteries. The water is also very 
bad, and injurious to the digestive organs. In the rainy 
season, the low tract is covered with a dense growth of tall 
grasses and other herbaceous vegetation, which is fired at the 
commencement of the dry season, with the double view of 
expelling the wild animals’ lurking in it, and making room for 
the growth of fresh pasture. There is a bazar attached to the 
cantoument, and also a large airy hospital, built of stone, and 

no 


• India Rer. I>l«p. 
10 Jan. ISaS. 


* Rapori, at 
•upra. 

* E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 
B.I.C. Trlfon. 
Sunr. 

Aa. Rea. ivl. 140 
Siatla- 

tlcal Sunraj of 
Kamaon. 

s Dollard. Medical 
TopnjcrM|4iy of 
Kalaa Kemaooo, 
40. 


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B l.C. Ha. Dor. 


B.I.C. Ml. Dor. 


B.I.C. Uiw Doc. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


I B.I.C. Ml. Doe. 


* Clardm. Tnblei 
of Rotiin. 177. 

• Tledbotliiler, 
BiMK'hrcibunf rnn 
HindtMUn, I. 177. 


• Snnreyor* 
(coenil’i Map. 


PET— PE Y. 

roofed with slates. A hundred yards west of the lines is Fort 
Ixiudoun, a neat and well-arranged structure, which coEnmands 
the whole place. The elevation above the sea probably does 
not exceed* 1,600 feet. Distance N.W. from Calcutta 1,200 
miles. Lat. 29° 35', long. 80° 16'. 

PETRAB AB. — A town in the British district of Bamgiir, 
presidency of Bengal, 21 miles E. by S. of Bamgur. Lat. 

23° 40', long. 85° 50'. 

PETT. — A town in the province of Quaerat, or dominions 
of the Guicowar, situate 92 miles N.N.E. from Baroda, and 
89 miles N.E. by R from Kaira. Lat. 23° 30', long. 73° 46'. 

PETT AH. — A town in the British district of Masulipatazn, 
presidency of Madras, three miles N.W. of Masulipatam. 

Lat. 16° 11', long. 81° 10'. 

PETTEE, in the Baree Dooab division of the Punjab, a town 
situated 11 miles from the right bank of the Sutlej, 45 miles 
E.S.E. of the town of Lahore. Lat. 31° 17', long. 74° 54'. 

PETTEI. — A town in the British district of South Arcot, 
presidency of Madras, 40 miles N.W. of Cuddalore. Lat 
12° 7', long. 79° 26'. 

PEYHANEE,* in the kingdom of Oude, a small town on 
the route from Futtehgurh cantonment to that of Seetapoor, 

48* miles N.E. of the former, 34 W. of the latter. It is 
situate between the rivers^ Goomtee and Saee. It has a baaar, 
and abundance of good water, but supplies, if required in con- 
siderable quantities, must be collected from the surrounding 
country. The road to the south-west, or towards Futtehgurh, 
is bad, running through a level country, scantily cultivated 
and much under jungle ; to the east, or towards Seetapoor, it 

The Jhulghat, or pauage orer the Kali river, ten miles eaat of tbe 
cantonment, is 1,789 feet* above the sea ; the elevation of the bed of tbe 
river Snijoo, about eight miles south-west of the cantonment, is estimated 
at 1,500 ; and consequently, the oonfluenoe of those rivers, a little lower 
dowm, must be at a less elevation than the latter amount. Tbe Okol, a 
small stream draining tbe valley in which Pethora Gurh is situate, and 
rising near tbe cantonment, has a course of about twelve miles, falling into 
tbe Kali close to the confluence, or at an elevation not exceeding 1,500 
feet ; and as its course lies through swaiqpe, its descent probably does not 
exceed ten feet each mile, or 120 in all. From which oonsiderations it may 
be concluded that tbe elevation of the site of Pethora Gurh is bstweeoir.COm 
1,500 and 1,600 feet. 

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is good : the country is open, level, and rather well cultivated. 

Distant N-W. from Lucknow 70 miles. Lat. 27^ 43', long. 

80° IT. 

PEYNT.— See Pehtt. 

PEYTAHN. — A town in the native state of Nepal, situate 
on the left bank of the Jimru river, and 206 miles W. by N. 
fiom Khatmandoo. Lat. 28° 84', long. 82° O'. 

PEYZOO, in the Daman, a division of the Punjab, situate e.i.c. m«. doc. 

16 miles W. from the right bank of the Indus, 133 miles 
8.S.W. of the town of Peshawar. Lat. 32° 13', long. 70° 62'. 

PHAGEH. — A town of Burmah, 191 miles N. by W. from b.i.c. Ms. doc. 

Ava, and 96 miles E. by 8. from Muneepoor. Lat. 24° 84', 
long. 96° 30'. 

PH AGQEE,^ in the state of Jeypore, in Bajpootana, a town, i e.i.c. ut. Doe. 
with bazar, on the route from Delhi to Neemuch, 192 miles 

8.W. of former,* 180 N.E. of latter. Lat. 26° 34', long. • oanien. Table* 

75° 38' Route*, 148. 

PHAJUDEE. — A town in the native state of Bhotan, 
situate on the right bank of a branch of the Guddada river, 
and 68 miles N.E. by E. from Daijeeling. Lat. 27° 29', long. 

89° 19'. 

PHALGU, or PHALGOO,® in the British district of e.i.c. m*. doc. 

Behar, presidency of Bengal, a vast torrent, formed by the of"ElLuIir 
junction of two great mountain-streams, the Mehanee and '*• 

Lilsjun, which, rising in the British district of Bamgurh, 6ow 
northward, and making their way through the mountains on 
the south frontier of Behar, 6ow through this latter district in 
a northerly direction. From the junction near Gay ah, and 
about lat. 24° 44', long. 86° 3', it has an enormous volume of 
water during the rainy season in the latter port of summer, 
when it rushes down with great violence and rapidity, filling 
its channel, from 600 to 800 yards wide, bounded on each side 
by high and rocky banks. It thence proceeds first through 
Behar, and finally through Patna, in a course a little east of 
north, to lat. 26° 25', long. 85° 80^, where, about 180 miles from 
its remotest source, it takes an easterly direction, which it 
generally holds to its fall into the Ganges, on the right side, in 
lat. 25° 11', long. 86° 10', having fiowed a total distance of 

about 246 miles. It sends forth a great number of branches realpatidar.com 

^ Leelsjan of Tassin's Map of Bengal and Behar. 

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E.l.C, Mf. Doe. 


■ E.I.G. Ul Doc. 


l^eiclirelbunfi von 
Hlnduatan. i . 108. 
® Gkirdctif TaNra 

of HoutHp 87. 


* Frinwpp Stwm 
NATtnatlan in 
IndUp 
84. 


^ PHcnd of Jnillfli. 
June, 1888. p. 874. 

e.I.C. TrJfon, 
Surv. 

aerdcn. Tablet of 
RouM, 


E.I.a He Docw 


K.I.C. M«. Doe, 


PHA~PH1. 

right and left, ao that during the raui;f aemaon its ramificatioiui 
everywhere intersect the country^ and partially lay it under 
water. In the lower parts of its course, it beara the name of 
Mehanee, in the higher parts, Julwara and Kutbor ^ that of 
Pbulgoo being oondned to the middle portion, ertending about 
tweoty-dve mUes, and considered sacred, from its vicmity to 
Gay ah, 

PHAIjIAH, in the Jetch Dooab division of the Punjab, s 
town situate six miles N* of the right hank of the Gbenaub, 

73 miles N.W* of the town of Lahore. Lat. 32° 27', long. 

73° 38'. 

PHAPAMOW,^ in the British district of Allahabad, lieur 
tenaDt-govemorship of the North-West Province^ a town on 
a small eminence^ on the left bank of the Ganges, the bed^ of 
which ia here a mile and half wide, the stream during the diy 
season occupying one-aixth of this space. It is on the route 
from the cantonment of Allahabad to that of Lucknow, and 
four miles N. of the former. Supplies are abundant, the 
country being fertile and studded with small villages. The 
road in this part of the route is bad ; the navigation of the 
river in the dry season uncertain, difficult, and impracticable 
for craft having a draught exceeding two feet. The current^ 
is rapid and powerful, the channel shallow and uncertaist 
shiflmg through extensive flats of sand. Distance by river, N. 
from Allahabad, seven miles ; N.W. from Calcutta SIS. This 
place is stated to have been selected for the location of tha 
government powder- maoufactoiy.^ Lat. 26° 32'^ long. 81° 66'- 

PHBNA, in the British district of Bijnour, lieutenant 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the town of Moradabad to that of Mozuffumuggur, 
and 34 miles N.W. of the former place. It is situate in m 
open and partially cultivated country, from which water and 
supplies can be obtained. The road in this part of the route is 
sandy, and heavy for wheeled carriages. Distant N.W. iiniD 
Calcutta 922 miles. Lat. 29° 5\ long. 78° 26'. 

PHENCHOOGUNJE.— A town in the BHtish district of 
Silhet, presidency of Bengal, 16 miles S.S.E. of Silhet* Lst. 

24° 41', long. 91° 67'. 

PHILLOUB, in the Julinder Dooab, a dlmion of the com 

Punjab, a town situate on the right bank of the Sutlej, eight 

m 


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PHI— PHO. 


miles N.N.W. of the town of LoodianAb. Lat. 81^ 1', long. 
75 ® M. 


PHTRANDEE. — A town in the natire state of Cutch, 22 
miles 8. fix>m Bhooj, and 18 miles E.N.E. from Mandavee. 

Lat 22® 5r, long. 69° 41/. 

PHlTTI, or PITTT BIVER. — One of the largest, deepest, 
and best-defined of the mouths of the Indus, and generally 
frequented by the Indus steamers to and from Kurrachee. On 
the south side of the entrance, two flagstaff beacons hare 
recently been erected,* which may be seen in the offing six or * Ftmr, Memoir 
seren miles. The mouth of the Phitti is in lat. 24° 42^, long. ^ **** 

67° 12^. 


PHO AH. — A town in the British district of Umballa, in the 
Cis-Sutlej territory, 32 miles S. by W. of Umballa. Lat. 
29° 58', long. 76° 40'. 

PHOBOOM. — A town in the British district of Amherst, 
one of the Tenasserim provinces, presidency of Bengal, 82 
miles 8.E. by E. of Moulmein. Lat. 16° 12', long. 98° 6'. 

PHOOKANUH, in the British district of Muauffumugur, 
Ueutenant-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
on the route from Muzufiumugur to Bohtuk, 22 miles W.S.W. 
of the former. Lat. 29° 19', long. 77° 29'. 

PHOOL,^ in Sirhind, a town forty-eight miles from the left 
bank of the Sutlej, and on the route from Delhi to Ferozepore 
by Munuk. It forms part of the possessions of a Sikh chief 
under British protection and control. Distant N.W. from 
Calcutta, by Delhi and Munuk, 1,045* miles. Lat. 30° 22', 
long. 76° 14'. 

PHOOLGHUR.* — A small raj under the superintendence 
of the political agent for the south-west frontier of Bengal. 
Its central point is in lat. 21° 15', long. 88° ; the area is 890* 
square miles. Great part of the country is flat, but there is a 
portion considerably elevated, which enjoys the advantage of a 
cool temperature. The soil throughout is rich, and adapted for 
successful cultivation ; but little is reported to be done to improve 
its capabilities, and herds of wild buffaloes overrun the neglected 
territory. The administration of the government was found to 
be such as might be expected from the idle and lawless 
character of the people, and security for life or property to be 
unknown. The country has been computed to produce a 

123 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


t E.l.C. Ma. Doe. 


* OardeOp Tablea 
of Routea, 171. 

* B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* SUtlatlea of 
NatUe Staiaa. 


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PHO. 


* pari lam 
Return, 

KJ.C. Mi, Dne, 


> E.LC, Mi, Dcm;. 


■ Oanlen, TnblCi 
of Rciutefl, 93. 


■ E.T.C. Me. Doe. 


* Gafdfln. Tablo* 
of Roulei, 7 * 


E.l.a M». I»*r» 


revenue of 6,000 rupees ; the amount of the tribute is 440. 
The post road from Bombay to Raepore traverses this district 
for some distance ; and in consideration, a deduction of eighty 
rupees is made from the tribute* The population is estimated 
at 40,000 « 

PHOOLMURBT, in Hyderabad, or territory of the Niratn, 
a town near the north-west frontier, towards the British district 
Ahmednugur* It is situate on the upper part of the river 
Gurka Poomah, a considerable tributary of the Godavery. 
Tile situation is pleasant, amidst groves of man go^ trees, tama- 
rinds, and eocoauut- trees. It is surrounded by a wall, danked 
with towers of masonry in stone, and is the residence of a 
petty nawaub, or, more properly, jaghiredar. Distance from 
Aurungabad, N., 20 miles | Hyderabad, N.W., 280. Lat. 20^ 9^, 
long. 76^ 28'. 

PHOOLPOOEr,* in the British district of Allahabad, lieu- 
tenant-governors hip of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from the city of Allahabad to Jouupoor, and 19* 
miles N.E. of the former* It is situate twelve miles from the 
left bank of the Ganges, and on the right bank of the small 
river of the same name. It has a bazar,* and is supplied with 
water from a tank and wells* The road to the south-west^ or 
towards Allahabad, is good ; to the north-east, heavy. The 
country is well cultivated, and studded with villages. Lat. 
25^ 33^ long. 82"^ 0'. 

PHOOLKETBE,* in the British dbtrict of Etawa, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the cantonment of Agra to that of Etawa, and 
14^ miles N.W* of the latter* The road m this part of the 
route is generally good, though in some places sandy. Water 
is plentiful ; the country cultivated, and studded with small 
villages. Lat. 26° 66', long. 78° 66'. 

PHOOLTAMBA. — A town in the British district of Amed- 


< iRfwrii^iori of * stated, "Prior to 1802 a eooftidenblo oomiueroe wm 

HltidufttU], 1. iiVy, (^rried on mi Phootpoor, in pergunnah Socundm, to the north of tba 
Ganges. Tbe commoditiea circulAted were snlt, oottou, iron, drugs of 
various kinds, copper, zinc, lead, broad-cloth, and otber »rtiolefl from 
Bengal ; but the traders were then so tnudi oppressed by the nabob of 
Dude's oflScsers, that they retired with their capital to Minapoor, and 
other places of greater security. Shahzadpoor and Phoolpoor are still 
much resorted to by troden from the nabob of Dude*® neaerved dominioiu.'' 

124 


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realpatidar.com PHO — PHU. 

nuggur, presidency of Bombay, 50 miles N. of Ahmednuggur. 
Lat. 19° 48', long. 74° 40'. 

PHOOLTULA. — A town in the British district of Jessore, 
presidency of Bengal, 68 miles E.N.B. of Calcutta. Lat. 23°, 
long. 89° 24'. 

PHOOLWAREE. — A town in the British district of Patna, 
presidency of Bengal, nine miles W.S.W. of Patna. Lat. 
25° 30', long. 85° 8'. 

PHOONDA. — A town and pass in the native state of 
Kolapoor, presidency of Bombay, leading to Viziadroog, in the 
British district Rutnageriah, distant 34 miles S.W. from 
Kolapoor. Lat. 16° 22', long. 73° 57'. 

PHOONDI, or COONDEE RIVER.— One of the mouths of 
the Indus, having five feet at low water. “ This stream com- 
municates with the Buggaur, and, during the swell of the 
Indus, discharges fresh water. People are here employed in 
pearl-fishing.’*' The mouth of the Phoondee is in lat. 24° 38', 
long. 67° 13'. 

PHUQWARA, in the Julinder Dooab division of the 
Punjab, a town situated 15 miles N. from the right bank of 
the Sutlej, 14 miles E.S.E. of the town of Julinder. Lat. 
31° 14', long. 75° 45'. 

PHULOWDEE,' in the Rajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a town 
on the route from Beekaneer to Balmeer, and 147 miles N.E. 
of the latter. It is built on a rising ground, and appears to 
have been once surrounded by a wall, of which a ruinous 
portion remains on the southern side of the town. On the 
west side is the bed of a torrent, which runs only during the 
rainy season. There are some lofty well-built houses of 
merchants of the Jain persuasion, who are considered to be 
the wealthiest in Marwar. There are three small Jain temples, 
and some pagodas of the ordinary Hindoo persuasion, but 
meriting no particular notice. There is a stone fort, 100 yards 
long, seventy yards wide, based on a rocky foundation, with 
walls about forty feet high, but having neither ditch nor renee. 
The gate is in the east face, and is covered by a small outwork. 
There are a few guns mounted on the walls, which are of weak 
section ; and it is altogether a place of no strength. The 
lower half of the fort, and the fronts of the houses of the 

wealthy merchants, are built of a deep-red sandstone, quarried 

126 


E.r.C M«. Doe. 


E.I.C. M«. Doo. 


* Fenner, Menaolr 
of Ihe River 
Indut, 0. 

E.I.C. Ut. Doc. 


■ Boileeu, Raj- 
ware. OS, 180, 2IS. 


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PHU. 


* 0*nlen, TsbiM 
of RootM. 

108, 188. 


I E.I.C. M«. Doc. 

* Oardcti, Tablet 
of Route*. 1. 

* JoutTi. i. 008. 


« Id. lb. 


at Jalora, about ton milee aouth-eaat of the town. Four 
tanks have been dug on the west and south sides of the town, 
but thej are now dry ; and brackish water is only obtained 
from numerona wells, between thirty and forty feet deep. The 
number of houses is nearly 3,000. The road in this part of the 
route is good, lying among scanty cultivation and thin jungle. 

Distant N.W. from Calcutta, by Agra, Nusseerabad, and Nagor, 

1,180* miles. Lat. 27° 8', long. 72° 28'. 

PHULSOOND, in the Eajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a town 
in the depressed tract near the south-west f^ntier. The sur- 
rounding country is, during the rainy season, liable to inunda- 
tions from a torrent flowing from the north ; and in 1824 a 
neighbouring hamlet, with many people, was swept away by 
the flood. Lat. 20° 24', long. 71° 57'. 

PHULTUN. — A town in the Sattara jaghire of Phultun, 

56 miles S.£. from Poonah, and 37 miles N.E. from Sattara. 

Lat. 17° 59', long. 74° 31'. 

PHULUNG. — A town in the native state of Bhotan, 
situate on the left bank of a branch of the Monas river, 
and 87 miles N.W. by N. from Durrung. Lat. 27° 28', long. 

91° 20'. 

PHUMABA. — A town of Sinde, within the territory of 
Ali Moorad, situate on the right bank of the Naroo river, and 
32 miles S.S.E. from Khyrpoor. Lat. 27° 10', long. 09° 1'. 

PHUBSABAHA. — A town in the native state of Jushpoor, 
on the south-west frontier of Bengal, 73 miles N.N.W. frOm 
Sumbnlpoor, and 102 miles S. by W. from Palamow. Lat. 

22° 25', long. 83° 32'. 

PHUBSOO,* in the territory of Bhurtpore, a village on the 
route from Agra to Ajmeer, 45 miles W. of the former,* 183 
£. of the latter. It is situate on the Bangunga, which, in 
the periodical rains, is a brisk stream ; but when Heber* 
visited the place in the middle of January, its course was 
indicated merely by a dry sandy channel. ** The village^ con- 
tains a fortified bouse of the rajah’s, now empty and ruinous, 
but built in by no means a bad taste, and having its surround- 
ing court ornamented with a range of hadsome stone cloisters, 
lining the inside of the mud rampart.” The surrounding 
country, though naturally of little fertility, is indefatigably jdar.com 

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realpatidar.com ^ — FIL- 

irrigated with water drawn &om wella, and it richly cultivated 
under gram-cropa. Lat. 27® 8', long, 77® 28^* 

PKYItIA, — A town in the natiT6 etate of Nepal, 87 mile# 
NR from Kbatmaudoo, and 184 tnilea N. hy Wi from l>ur-« 
buDga. Lat- 28“ 3^, long, 85® 45'- 
PICHAOTJBJBB, in the British diatrict of Muttra, lieu- 
tezumt-goyemorship of the North- West Provinoea, a email 
town or Tillage on the route by Muhabun from the city of Agra 
to the cantonment of Muttra, and 17 miles S.E, of the latter. 
Lat. 27° 23', long. 77® 69^. 

PICHOB-E,^ in the territory of Gwalior, a town near the 
S*E. frontier, towards Dutteah- According to the description^ of 
Xieffenthaler, about eighty years ago, here was a large fort of 
masonry, with three gates, battlements, and towers, and situate 
on a rocky eminenoe, the town lying below it, The rajah, a 
Jat, formerly possessed territories in the vicmity of Gwalior 
yielding an annual reyen ue of from 80,000^, to 40,0002. ^ but 
they were wrested from the family by Scindta, who left it no 
more than a jaghire or feudal grant of 1,5002. annually. In 
consequence of the high lineage of the jaghiredar, his daughter 
was in 1832 married to Bulwunt Singh, son and heir of Baldco 
Singh, rajah of Bhurtpore. Pichore is 25 miles S.E, of Gwalior, 
85 W. of O^pee. Lat. 25® 67', long. 78® SCf, 

PICKALOW. — A town in the British district of Cuttack, 
presidency of Bengal, 18 miles R by N. of Cuttack. Lat- 
20P aa, long, 86® ir. 

PILAKOOND, in the British district of Moradabad, lieu- 
tenant-goyemorship of the North-West Proyinces, a yiUage on 
the route from the town of Moradabad to that of Mozuffer- 
nuggur, and 26 miles N-W. of the former place- It is situate 
in an open cultiyated country, yielding supplies and water in 
abundance: the road, howeyer, in this part of the route is 
sandy and heavy in many places. Distant N.W. from Calcutta 
914 miles- Lat. 28® 69^, long. 78® ZQf. 

PILLEEBHEET.^ — A town, the principal place of the 
pergunnah of the same name, in the Bntieh district of Bareilly, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces. It is 
situate on the left bank of the river Gurrah, the bed of which 
is here 250^ yards wide^ but the strSam in the dry season, 

117 


B.LC. If*. Dor- 


1 E.I.C. Ml. IVw. 

• Bc«br«ibunf 
von Hlfidiiilftnp 

I. 


■ J«ink. Af. Sot. 
lass, p. 97S 

— Luibtnftnn, ctti 
tbe ICirrlacB RJIbb 
of tlM JSlf of 
Bhumlpur. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


Outiflp, Tsbies 

IlDUtct, SSS. 


f E.I.C. Mf. Doe. 


s Osrdni, TsblflS . ... 

ofRaut.i»T. ealpatidar.com 


Gc 


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* Oardpn, THblei 
of Routes, 87. 

* SutUtlc* of 
N.W. Pros. 90. 

* Delhi Oasette, 
Ibid, p. 400. 


• Heber, Journ. In 
India, I. &19. 


^ Garden. Tablet 
of Routet. 


S.I.C. Hi. Doe. 


* &.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


• Mera. of War in 
India, did. 
a At. Ret. vl.7d-> 
Hunter, Narrat. 
of a Joumej from 
Agra to Oujeln. 


E.I.C. Ht. Doc. 


S.I.C. lit. Doe. 


* India Oaaettear, 
II. iOd. 


riL— piM. 

from December to June, bo shallow as to be fordable, though 
at other times passable only by ferry. The town is of con- 
siderable extent, and the route from Bareilly to Petoragah 
passes through it.* • 

The population was officially returned in 1848 at 25,157.^ 
Pilleebheet is the mart of a considerable traffic,* by which 
timber, pitch, wax, honey, wool, borax, metals of rarious kinds, 
and other produce of the Terai, or marshy forest of Kumaon, 
and of Chinese Tartary, are exchanged for goods furnished 
from the plains. The Pilleebheet rice, much prized through- 
out India for its whiteness, firmness, and fine flavour, is 
produced in the south of Kumaon, in the fertile valley down 
which the Kosilla flows to the plain, and has received the name* 
by which it is generally known in commerce, in consequence of 
being brought to market here. Elevation above the sea 517 
feet ; distance N.W. from Calcutta 802^ miles. Lat. 28^ 38', 
long. 79° 52'. 

The territorial division of which this town is the principal 
place, formerly constituted a separate district : it is now in- 
corporated with the district of Bareilly. 

PILLITCH. — A town in the British district of Patna, pre- 
sidency of Bengal, 28 miles S.8.E. of Patna. Lat. 25° 12^, 
long. 85° 27'. 

PILOWDA,* in the Hajpoot territory of Jeypore, a town on 
the route from Agra to Kotah, 90 miles S.W. of former, 130 
N.E. of latter. According to Thom,’ it is a large town, built 
on the side of a hill. It is stated* to have 1,000 houses ; an 
amount which would assign it about 5,000 inhabitants. Lat. 

26° 37', long. 76° 53'. 

PIM RIVER.— See Peinoo. 

PIMPULGAUM. — A town in the British district of 
Ahmednuggur, presidency of Bombay, 17 miles N.E. of 
Nassick. Lat. 20° 10', long. 73° 59'. 

PIMPULNEIR. — A town in the British district of Can- 

* HamiltoD Btatos' that it '*waa greatly enlarged by Hafes Rehmnt 
(the Rohilla Patban chief), who erected a moeque here, eleg^t in stme- 
ture, but deficient in magnitude, and which, in consequence, makee a 
more superb show as a picture than the reality justifies. He also built s 
spacious pettah (suburb) four miles in circumference.** realpatidar.COm 

J2S 


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PLN. 


deish, presidency of Bombay, 89 miles N.W. of Malligaum. 
Lat. 20° 65', long. 74° 4'. 

PINAHT, or PINNAHUT,^ in the British district of 
Agra, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a 
town w'hich with Bah gives name to the pergunnah of Bah 
Pinnahut. It is situate two miles from the left bank of the 
Cbumbul, 30 miles S.E. of Agra, and contains a population of 
C,592 inhabitants.^ Lat. 26° 51', long. 78° 28'. 

PIN AY A. — A town within the dominions of Gholab Singh, 
the ruler of Cashmere, 70 miles S.S.W. from Sirinagur, and 
112 miles N. by E. from Lahore. Lat. 33° 11', long. 74° 26'. 

PIND DADUN KHAN, in the Punjab, a town lying near 
the right or western bank of the Jhelum, from which it is 
separated by a narrow verdant plain. It consists of three 
small collections of houses, situate close to each other, and 
about four miles from the river. The houses are built of mud, 
with a framework of deodar or cedar, the materials for which 
are floated down the river from the mountains to the north. 
Pind Dadun is a short distance south of the Salt range, and 
salt is raised in the vicinity for the supply of a great part 
of the Punjab. Lat. 32° 86', long. 73° 5'. 

PINDEE PUTHAN, in the Beechna Dooab division of the 
Punjab, a tow'n situated six miles from the left bank of the 
Chenaub, 71 miles N.W. by W. of the town of Lahore. Lat. 
32°, long. 73° 16'. 

PIND MULIK ONLEA, in the Sinde Sagur Dooab divi- 
sion of the Punjab, a town situated 10 miles S.E. from the left 
bank of the Indus, 64 miles S.E. by S. of the town of Peshawar. 
Lat. 33° 14', long. 72° 8'. 

PINDBAEE, in the British territory of Saug^r and Ner- 
budda, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, 
a town on the route from Jubbulpoor to the territory of Nag- 
pore, 46 miles S.E. by S. of the former. Lat. 22° 34', long. 
80° 17'. 


* E.I.a lls. Doe. 


s SUlbfIet of 
N.W. Prov. 101. 


Du met, Bokh. 
1. 4l». 


B.I.C. Mft. Doc. 


E.I.C. M«. Doc. 


B.I.e. MB. Doc. 


PIN DUB. — A river rising in the British district ofKumaon, 
in lat. 30° 19', long. 80° 6', from three snow-beds on the 
western declivity of a summit* of the Himalaya, having an 
elevation of 22,491 feet. It takes a course generally south- 
west for forty-five miles, to Cbiringa, w'here it turns north- 
* Doeigoaiea by Webb* “No. XV. 

6 K 1 » 


B.1X:. lit. Doe. 


„:«i)atidar.com 

— Memoir of Sur- 
rey uf Kemeon. 


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PIN. 


I E.I.C. Us. i>oe. 


• Oarden, Tablaa 
of RouUa, 14. 


> B.I.C. Ma. Due. 
R.I.C. THf. SurT. 
* Moorcroft, PunJ. 
Bokb. I. S4. 


* l.lojd and 
Oerard, Journ. to 
Himalaya, I. 147. 


westward, Bowing in that direction thirty miles, to Kurnprag, 
ill lat. 30^ 15', long. 79^ 16', where it joins the Aluknunda. 

PINOERI,^ in the British district of Agra, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the city of Agra to that of Muttra, and 19 milcs^ 
N.W. of the former. The road in this part of the route is 
heavy and sandy, the country open and cultivated. Lat. 
27® ir, long. 77® 53'. 

PINJOR,^ on the north-eastern boundary of Sirhind, a 
small ruined town belonging to the rajah of Putteeala,^ is 
situate at the confluence of two feeders of the river Ghigor.. 
The rajah has here a residence and pleasure-ground, which 
cannot be better described than in the language of an intelli- 
gent visitor:^ — “We next proceeded \o a most delightful 
place. It is a garden, which has been laid out on the natural 
slope of the ground in six separate and successive terraces, one 
below another. A canal of about ten feet wide, of the clearest 
water, runs through the centre. In this is a line of fountains, 
extending from the entrance to the end, abundantly supplied 
with water from the hills above, which flows through the canal, 
and falls in chuddurs [sheets] or broad cascades from, terrace 
to terrace. Behind these crystal curtains there are recesses 
for lamps, which are lit during nights of festivity. Similar 
lines of fountains branch off, right and left, to the other parts 
of the garden. In the centre is an artifleial tank, and in the 
middle of it a small mahal [house], surrounded with fountains, 
which during the hot months must be a delicious retreat. A 
profusion of roses, with other flowers, shrubs, and handsome 
trees, ornament this beautiful spot. From the mahal there is 
an enchanting view ; the valley on one side being closed by 
high mountains, crested with dark-green pines, and overspread 
with woods, rich fields, rocks, hamlets, and hill forts ; while 
nearer heights, covered with jungle of all shades, broken by 
shreds of culture, and dotted with circular towers of g^hees 
[small forts] and numerous villages, partially hide it on the 
other side from the plains, which are occasionally seen between 
the gaps in the range, and now covered with the ruddy golden 
base of sunset. The valley itself is thickly wooded, although 


in parts there is cultivation ; and it is besides richly diversified 
by the tall broken banks of the Kosilla, which runs through 


idar.com 


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realpatidar.com PINJOB. 

it, adding a thousand smiles to this re-created Eden/^ The 
garden, cODtaiuing about sixty acres, is well stocked with trees, 
bearing the mango, orange, pomegranate, apple, and some other 
fruits. The fort of this place was dismantled by Bouixjuin,^ a 
French odreuturer iu the service of Doulut Bao Scindia. The 
inhabitants of Pinjor at present ore few but the care dis- 
played in the construction and embellishment of a large baoLl 
or well, and the numerous fragments of Hindoo sculpture and 
architecture scattered about, bear evidence of former populous- 
ness and wealth, Pinjor gives name to & valley or doon* 
teeming with vegetable and animal life. Moorcroft describes 
it as abounding with peafowl, wild fowl, black and grey par- 
tridges, elephants, bufiaioes, leopards, tigers, lions, wild cats, 
various kinds of deer, such as the chital or spotted axis, the 
para or hog-deer, the kaka, resembling the roebuck, and the 
stag. Baber is full and accurate, as usual, in his description 
of this tract. “ This dun is a very pleasant dale i ^nd there are 
meadows all along the stream. In several places they sow rue. 
Through the middle of it runs a stream, large enough to turn 
three or four mills. The width of the dale is one or two kos 
[two or three miles] * in some places it is even three kos [four 
or iive miles]. Its hills ore very small, like hillocks, and all 
its villages stand on the skirts of those hillocks. Where there 
are no villages, there are abundance of peacocks and monkey s« 
There are also many fowls, resembUng barn-door fowls ; they 
resemble them in shape, but generally are of & single colour.’' 
A more recent traveller^ supposes the valley may have in parts 
A breadth of six miles^ and estimates its length at thirty. Its 
surface is generally level, and the hills on its southern frontier 
ore of much less elevation than those of the Derah valley. 
From the south-eastern angle of the valley the streams run in 
one direction, southerly, towards the Ouggur, and in another 
north-westerly, tfo the Siirsa Nuddee, a feeder of the Sutlej. 
There is, how'ever, a dreadful drawback on the attractions 
ascribed to this place, in the pestiferous climate, which, as in 
all low fertile tracts stretching along the southern base of the 
Himalaya, is so deadly during the rainy season, that all the 
inhabitants whose circumstances allow quit the valley at that 

♦ Dun, valley.'^ Baber saye ** la the Uncage of Hladoataa, they 
call a julga (or dale) duD.’’ 

It 2 


";r ; - 7 d 


* Uuurunjrt, 1 , 34 . 


^ Archer. Toun lb 
U|jpvr IrifUfif 

I, eos. 


* Hcrhert, In R«- 
(tort on Hltiw- 
IbjUt Jbum. AtL 
Soo, &«nf . 1 S 4 S, 
Append. xvJivl. 


realpatidar.com 

^ Hvraoln^ 290 . 


Goegfe 


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PIN— PIP, 


^ M undj r Skf tchn 
Id lodia, K 3ICU 


• ut Hjpn, 

L 130, 


* Oard«Q» Tiibla 
of Rouiov, 
aai. 


lima I and those unable to take that precaution perish^ io great 
numbers, or have their const itutions irretrievably ruined, from 
malignant fevers or similar endemic diseases. The fatal 
miasmata result probably from the rank Tegetatlon acted on in 
the close valley by great heat, as Pinjor is only 1,900 feet® • 
above the sea. The town is distant N,W, from Calcutta, vid 
Kurnaul and Umballah, 1,053 miles,® Lat, 80^ 48', long, 
76^ 69'. 


Bttrfioi (iamet), 
H iHlcm 14 S jndr, 
40. 

Bumf* (Al«i ), 
ItokS. III. 

Pntt. nm. 

Wood, Offlclil 
R«p. in OlfJni, 
J?. 


PIKTABEE, in Sinde, a great branch of the Indus, parting 
from the main stream on the eastern or left side, at Bunna, in 
lat. 26^ 2', long. 68° 22'« A little below this place Burnes 
found the channel of the Pinyaree, during the low season, to 
be a mile broad, with a large sandbank in the middle. It is 
navigable downwards as far as Mughribee, where a bund or 
dam, forty feet broad, was thrown across it by one of the 
ameers in 1799. At Mughribee this great watercourse is 
called the Qoongroo. Below this dam it is navigable south- 
wards to the Seer mouth, in lat. 23° 41', long. 78° 11', at which 
it is two miles wide. 


iLl.C. Ml. live. 
E.I.e. Tricon. 

SUFT. 

QiiFd#n, TfihiM 

of Route*, !2S4. 


K.i-c, ja*.noe. 


■ E.I.G. Mm, Doc. 


* Ai, R«. ivur. 

unneicd 
to Ofolo^ of 
BundtHtbuDfl. 

* Oftirdcn, 'I able! 
of Rouicvj, 77. 


' A*. H««. xt, IfiS. 


PIPCHA, or BAUD AN PIPCHA.— A town within the 
dominions of Gholab Singh, the ruler of Cashmere, 124 miles 
E.3.E. from Sirinagur, and 105 miles N.N.E. from Kaiigra. 

Lat. 33° 25\ long, 77° P. 

PIPELI, in the British district of Bijnour, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Moradabad to Mo^uffurnuggur, and 44 miles N.W* 
of the former. It is situate in an open country, partially cul- 
tivated, and from which w'ater and considerable supplies can 
be obtained. The rood in this part of the route is sandy, and 
heavy for wheeled carriages. Distant N.W. from Calcutta 
932 miles. Lat. 29° 11', long. 78° 17'. 

PIPERA, in Bundelcund, a town situate In the petty raj 
of Bijawur, on the right bank of the river Dhasan, 90 miles 
S.W. of Banda. Lat. 24° 46', long. 79° 24'. 

PIPEBEAH,^ in Bundelcund, a ghat or pass by which the 
route from Banda to Jubbulpore ascends from the more de- 
pressed tract of Lobarganow to the plateau on the range 
called by Franklin^ the Bandair Hills. It is 106 miles® S. ,of 
Banda, 90 N.E. of Jubbulpore • and is steep, but neitherlong^ ' ar.com 
* Gersrd' mUites the height nt I, BOO feet. 



I 


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sor rerj difficalt. There is confined encamping-ground on the 
left bank of the river Cane, at the foot of the ascent and north 
of the pass. About two miles from the pass, the Cane rolls over 
the rockj brow of the mountain, and forms the falls of 
Pipereah. ‘‘Thej^ are well worthy the notice of the passing 
stranger, on account of the singular forms presented by the 
rock, which receives the river and conceals its course for many 
miles.’* Lat. 24® 16', long. 80® 23'. 

PIPEBENDA,* in the British district of Banda, lieutenant* 
goreroorship of the North-West Provinces, a small town on 
the route from Cawnpore, by Chila Tara Ghat, to the town of 
Banda, 10 miles^ N. of the latter. It has a baaar and abun- 
dance of water. Liat. 25® 88', long. 80® 28'. 

PI PLATE, in the Kajpoot state of Jeypore, a considerable 
walled town with fort, situate in an extensive sandy plain 
55 miles S.E. of the town of Jeypore. Lat. 26® 81', long. 
76 ° 36 '. 

PIPBAGANOW,* in the British district of Mirzapoor, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the right bank of the Ganges, three miles N. of the city of 
Mirzapoor, or lower dow'n the stream ; 718* N.W. of Calcutta 
bj the stream, or 895 if the Sunderbund passage be taken. 
Lat. 25® 12', long. 82® 39 ^. 

PIPEAH,* in the district of Sultanpoor, territory of Oude, 
a town 80 miles S.E. of Lucknow. It is situate in a dense 
jungle,* extending six miles in every direction from the town, 
although much of it has from time to time been cut dowm by 
order of the government. The inhabitants are notorious free- 
booters, as their forefathers have been, and maraud at night 
in parties of from ten to twenty, stealing everything valuable 
which can be removed ; but they do not murder. Some years 
ago, the governor of the district punished them severely, and 
burned their town ; since which event their depredations have 
been rather restricted. Distant N. from Gonda eight miles. 
Lat. 26® O', long. 82® 4'. 

PIPRA KHAS. — See Peepbaich. 

PI PROWL, in the British district of Budaon, lieutenant- 
gOYemorship of the North-West Provinces, a ferry over the 
Ganges, on the route from Agra to Bareilly, and 81 miles N.W. 

of the fomoer. The stream of the Ganges being in some 

las 


* Joarn. A*. Boe. 

1841, p. 407 
— Adam, O^. oi 
Rtind^lrand. 
Trmnaacta. Rof. 
A*. Sor. I. 
Fmnklln. Mam. 
o«i BuiMlelkhund. 

I E.I.C. Ma. Dor. 


• Oardm, Tablat 
of Route*. 7S 

E.f.C. M«. Doe. 
Thom, Mam. of 
War In India, SiS. 


I E.I.C. Mt Doe. 


« n ardm. Tablet 
uf Route*, ISI. 


• E.I C. Mt. Doe. 


* Rutter, Topof. 
of Oiidh, 106. 


Oardem, Tablet of 
Route*, 5. 


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B.l.C. Mf.Doe. 


R.I.C. M*. Doe. 


I B.l.C. M«. Doe. 

* Garden, Table* 
of RouIm, 299, 
SS4. 


* Ylime. 
9Aft. 99S. 


. .V. PIP— Pin. 

realpatidar.com 

seasons divided into several branches at the ferry of Keuchla 
Ghat, four miles below Piprowl, the passai;^ is then found 
preferable at the latter. Piprowl is in lat. 27^ 57', long. 78® 65'. 

PIPUBEAH, in the British district of Shahjehanpore, 
lieutenant-governorsbip of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from Pilleebheet to Oude, and 35 miles 8.E. of 
the former. Lat. 28® 20', long. 80® 14'. 

PIBII. — A town in the native state of Nepal, 53 miles E. 
by S. from Khatmandoo, and 103 miles N. from Durbunga. 

Lat. 27® 37', long. 86® O'. 

PIBKEE, in the British district of Sohagpoor, territory of 
Saugor and Nerbudda, lieutenant-governorship of the North- 
West Provinces, a town on the route from Sohagpoor to 
Ruttunpoor, 44 miles S.E. by 8. of the former. Lat. 22® 47', 
long. 81® 48'. 

PIRNAGAR,^* in the territory of Oude, a village on the 
route from Lucknow to Scetapoor, 37 miles^ N. of the former, 

14 8. of the latter. It has a small baaar, is well provided with 
water, and supplies are procurable to a moderate extent from 
the surrounding country, which is partially cultivated, though 
having much jungle. On the north of the village is encaro ping- 
ground on the banks of a stream, traversed by a bridge of 
brick. The road is bad to the south, or towards Lucknow, 
good to the north, or towards Sectapoor. Lat. 27® 23', long. 

80® 45'. 

PIR PANJAL,^ or the SAINT’S MOUNTAIN, a lofty 
range, forming part of the south-west boundary of Cashmere, 
and separating it from the Punjab. Its general direction is 
from north-west to south-east ; its length, from the Baramula 
Pass, at the former extremity, to the Pir Panjal Pass, or that of 
Nandan Sar, at the latter, is about forty miles. Its highest 
point is supposed to be about in lat. 33® 40', and is estimated 
to be 15,000 feet above the sea.* According to Vigne, the 
highest part is basaltic, consisting of amygdaloidal trap, which 
has upheaved ; transition rocks appearing on its borders. 

Quartz, slate, and other primary formations are observable on 
the northern or Cashmere side. At the south-western ex- 
tremity is the pass, generally called the Pir Paujal Pass, or 

• Saint's Town ; from Pir, "an old man or spiritual guide,” and Nagar,'3tidar.C0rn 
“town.” 

194 


• P. Von Hiissl, 
I. 238; II 103. 
Bemlrr, II. 880. 
J4i»orcr. II. 206. 


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realpatidar.com — PIT. 

of Nuidan from a lake of that name near its northern 
rxtremitj. It is about J 2,000 feet high, and, though devoid of 
trees, is below the limit of perpetual congelation. The name 
of Pir or the Pir’a Mountain, has becu given, from one 

of its emnmita being the residence of a or Mahometan 
nint, who gives benedictioDs to those who t^vel over the pass, 
ud slso supplies them with refreshments. This pass, though 
BO elevated, must remain open to a late period in the year, as 
Yon Kug^^ traversed it in the middle of November, with 
■ Dumerons train of porters and other attendants from the 
pluD. 

PIE PANJAI#, a river in Gholab Singh’s temitoiy, rises 
mlat33°dO', long. 74° 43', and, flowing first north-westerly 
for forty-five miles, and subsequently south-westerly for aiity- 
fliree miles, falls into the Jhelum, in lat. 83° 10^ long. 73° 88'. 

PISTHULUH,' • in the jaghire of Bulubgurh, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route firom Delhi to Muttra, and 84^ miles S. of the former. 
Water may be bad lk>m the tank and from weOs, but supplies 
■re tcarce, and must be collected ftom the neighbourhood. 
The road northwards, or towards Delhi, is low, and laid under 
Viter during the rains, but good towards the south. Lat. 
28^* 13', long. 77^ 21', 

PISEENY-~A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or 
temtory of the Nixam, 144 miles N.N.W. from Hyderabad, 
■ad 12$ miles S, by E. from EUichpoor. Xat. 10° 24', long. 
78° S'. 

FITLAUD,^ or PITLAWDD, in the territory of Indore, or 
pomeeiiona of Holkar’s family, a town in the jaghire or feudal 
gnnt of the chief of Jabooa, on the route from Neemueh to 
Btmda, 117^ miles S, of former, 150 N.E. of latter. It is a 
large town,^ the principal place of a pergunnah of the same 
asme. Lat. 23°, long. 74° 52'. 

PITLAUD, — A town in the British district of Kaira, 
presidency of Bombay, 42 miles S.3.E. of Ahmedabad, Lat. 
22° 2T, long. 72° 50'. 

PITOBlA, in the British district of Saugur, territory of 
S«igof and Nerbudda, lieu tenant-governorship of the North- 

• Tuk from Pir, “ miut,*' and T*Jjw 5, pond ” or ** tank." 


* I. 1B7. 


* K.I.C, Ilf. l>or. 


• Ourdf^n. TuMrt 
of Bourn, 14?. 


1 E.I.C. Ma Doa. 


■ Oflinlm, TAblpf 

nf III III Ilf, S74. 

3 Uflcolm, 

to aft of UflvrA, 

S40. 

B t.C. Hf. 


R.rc. Ml. noc. 


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G- 0<;iC 


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PIT— PL A. 


> B.f.C Mt. Doe, 
B.I.C. Tricon. 
Sorr. 


• PfHirr, Joom. 
In HliiMiUi 7 a, 17. 

* Oard«ti, Tnblc* 
of Rouiot, 179^ 
990 

E I.C. Ms. Doe. 


> E.l C. Ms. Doe. 


• nardrn. Tables 
of Routes, 08. 


West Provinces, a town on the route from Sangur to Narwar, 

21 miles N.W. of the former. Lat. 24® 8', long. 78® 37'. 

PITTY RIVER.— See Phitti. 

PLASSEE,^ in the hill state of Hindoor, a small town on 
the route from Roopur to Belaspoor, and 10 miles N.E. of the 
former place. It is situate on the right bank of the Sursa, a 
small river discharging the waters of the Pinjor Doon into the 
Sutlej. Here, at the close of October, 1814,* the British army 
under Oeneral Ochtcrlonj took post on the advance against 
the Goorkba garrison in Malown. Distant N.W. from Calcutta 
1,080® miles. Lat. 31® 2', long. 76® 44'. 

PLASSEY. — A town in the British district of Purncah, • 
presidency of Purneah, 89 miles S.E. by E. of Pumeab. Lat. 
25® 27', long. 88® 2'. 

PLASSY,^* in the British district of Nuddea, presidency of 
Bengal, a town on the left bank of the Hooghly, or rather, 
perhaps, the Bhagruttee,t and on the route from Calcutta* to 
Berhampore, 96 miles N. of the former, 22 S. of the latter. It 
was here, on the 23rd June, 1757, that the memorable battle 
was fought between Clive and Sooraj-oo-Dowlah, soubahdar of 
Bengal, which ended in the total defeat of the latter. The day 
before the battle, a council of war bad been held by the English 
commander, which decided against hazarding a conflict, 'riiis 
decision, however, Clive, although he had concurred in it, and 
had been even the first to deliver an opinion in its favour, 
resolved, after some deliberation, to set at nought ; and, acting 
on this impression, he g^ve orders for crossing the river which 
interposed between his army and the enemy. The English 
force consisted of about 650 European infantry, 150 artillery- 
men (including fifty seamen), 2,100 sepoys, and a small number 
of Portuguese, making a total of somewhat more than 3,000 
men, with eight siz-pounders and one or two howitzers. The 
Boubahdar*8 force consisted of 18,000 cavalry and 50,000 in- 
fantry, forty or fifty French artillery-men, with fifty pieces of 


* Palashi of Taasin ; PIassj of the Britiah writers. 

* Mem. of Map of f Bj Rennell ' it it called the Hooghly ; but that name it more usually 
Hlndoetan. arir. applied to it after it bat received the Jellinghee river, tome miloa lower 

* Benfftl Atlaa, down ; Rennell alto denominatea tbia river the Coaatmbazar* river ; from 

the town of Coeaimbasar, situate on ita right bank, tome miles above itiddf. CO ITI 
Plaaay. 

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cannon of heavy calibre, and four pieces of light artillery. 
Clive had been in negotiation with Meer Jaffier, a distinguished 
commander in the service of Sooraj-oo-Dowlah, who aspired to 
supplant his master, and a treaty had been concluded with this 
personage, which was to g^ve effect to his wish. The co« 
operation of Meer Jaffier was consequently to be looked for, 
and warlike operations had been commenced in the anticipation 
of receiving it. Still the general character of native diplomacy, 
and the individual character of Meer Jaffier, forbade implicit 
reliance upon his fidelity to his engagements, and down to a 
late period in the day on which the battle took place, Clive 
remained in a state of much doubt and anxiety. At day- 
break, the army of Sooraj-oo-Dowlah was discovered in motion. 
The cavalry and infantry were disposed in columns of 4,000 or 
5,000 each, and between them were placed portions of the 
artillery. They marched as if intending to surround the 
English force as far as the river would permit ; but as soon as 
their rear was clear of the camp, they halted, and the French- 
men, under an officer named Si nfray, advanced with some guns. A 
general cannonading commenced from the soubahdar's artillery. 
This was felt severely by the English, who had quitted a grove 
in which they had taken their first position, and where they 
were sheltered by a bank, in front of which they were sub- 
sequently drawn up. Clive, on the enemy’s guns becoming 
annoying, withdrew his troops to their former position behind 
the bank. The enemy thereupon advanced their heavy artillery 
nearer, and fired with greater rapidity than before, but they 
produced little effect, the English troops escaping the shots by 
sitting down under cover of the bank. About noon, a heavy 
shower so much damaged the enemy’s powder, that their fire 
became feeble ; but the English, who throughout the day 
answered the enemy’s guns with their field-pieces, continued 
firing without interruption. The death of Moodeen Khan, an 
able and faithful officer of the soubahdar, who fell by a cannon- 
ball, afforded opportunity for the train laid by Clive to take 
effect. Upon the occurrence of this disastrous event, the 
soubahdar, a weak and capricious man, sent for Meer Jaffier, 
with whom he had been on bad terms, and whose fidelity 
he strongly suspected, and in almost abject terms conjured him 
to forget all past differences, and to devote all his energies to 

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realpatidar.com POD — POH. 

the defence of the throne. Mecr Jaffier readilj promised all 
that was required of him, and the first instance given of hia 
sincerity was to recommend a suspension of the conflict till the 
following morning. The soubahdar, after some objection, 
yielded, and consented to the withdrawal of the troops. A 
letter was addressed by Meer Jaffier to Clive, intimating this 
arrangement, and urging the English commander to push on 
for the camp ; but the communication miscarried, and Clive 
was left to act upon his own impression, derived from 
appearances. These satisfied him that Meer Jaffier meant to 
adhere to the English ; and with characteristic energy and 
promptness, he spontaneously took the step which it was the 
object of the letter to suggest. The result was a general 
rout of the army of Sooraj-oo-Dowlab, whose camp, baggage, 
and artillery fell into the hands of the British. The enemy 
were pursued for about six miles, and it is supposed lost in the 
action, and during the pursuit, 500 or 000 men : the loss of 
the English in killed and wounded was about seventy. The 
immediate effect of this memorable battle was the transfer of 
the soubahdarship of Bengal from Sooraj-oo-Dowlah to Meer 
Jaffier ; but its eventual consequences were much more 
important, seeing that in this victory was laid the foundation 
of the magnificent fabric of the British empire in India. I4it. 
23° 46^, long. 88° 15'. 

POD AN GMEW. — A town of Eastern India, in the British 
province of Pegu, situate on the right bank of the Ira wady 
river, and nine miles S.W. from Prome. Lat. 18° 41', long. 
04° 58'. 

B.I.C. M*. Dor. PODYCHAID. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, 

or territory of the Nizam, 51 miles E. from Hyderabad, 
and 110 miles N.W. from Ghintoor. Eat. 17° 23', long. 
79° 19'. 

POGULAPULLY. — A town in the native state of Hyder- 
abad, or territory of the Nizam, six miles from the right bank 
of the Godavery river, and 161 miles E. by N. from Hyderabad. 
Lat. 17° 33', long. 80° 58'. 

* B.T.C. Mt. Doc. POHONEE,^ in the territory of Nagpoor, a town on the 

* jmkin*, Rcfort right or west bank of the Weingunga.* Alter the fall of Apa 

on Nacporo. 8. Sahib, the rajah of Nagpoor, in a.d. 1818, it was occupied 

a British force, but subsequently restored to his successor. 

i.ts 


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Distance from the city of Nagpoor, S.E., 45 miles. Lat. 

20° 47', long. 79° 42'. 

POHOOJ,^ a small river of Bundelcimd, rises from a small ' s.i.c. if».Doe. 
lake near the south-west boundarj, towards Gwalior, 20 miles I” so^. 

S.W. of Jhaosi, and in lat. 26° 18', long. 78° 26'. It holds 
a course sinuous, but generally north-east, for 125 miles, and 
falls into the Sinde, on the right side, in lat. 26° 26', long. 

79° 18'. It is crossed* by ford on the route from Calpee to • oiird«n. Tabu* 

Gwalior, ninety-five miles from its source, and in lat. 26° O', 
long. 79° 6'. 

POHTJB. — A town in one of the recently sequestrated dis- 
tricts of the native state of Hyderabad,or dominionsof the Nisam, 

72 miles W.8.W. from Ellicfapoor. Lat. 20° 46', long. 76° 35'. 

POKHUBN, in the Rajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a toWn on the boHmo, n^wrm, 
route from Phulodi to Jessulmere, and 66 miles E. of the latter. 

It is situate close to a deserted town of the same name, and con- o' Route«. soi. 

tains 3,000 houses, surrounded by a good wall of uncemented 

stone, and about fifteen feet high, including a parapet six feet 

high and two and a half feet thick. The terreplein is four feet 

broad ; the whole being marked by a renee, with a small ditch, 

formed out of the hard red soil on which the walls are built. 

There is a citadel on the west side of the town, and forming 
part of its enceinte. The figure is an irregular oblong, 120 
yards long from north to south, and eighty yards broad. The 
walls, strongly built of cut stone, are thirty-five feet high out- 
side, but only eighteen feet inside up to the terreplein. The 
citadel is mounted with a few guns, is in excellent repair, 
and has a deep narrow ditch, faced with masonry. In the 
interior is the residence of the chief, detached from the 
surrounding defences, and forming an inner citadel, supplied 
with good water. There are two large tanks outside the 
walls of the town, one of them communicating with the 
ditch, for the purpose of inundating it on occasion. A very 
conspicuous temple, in an elevated situation, marks the site of 
the old deserted city, and near it are the monuments of the 
deceased members of the chiers family. Pokhum being on 
one of the great commercial tracks between Eastern Rajpootana 
and Sinde, much money is realized by the transit- trade. The 

country also in its immediate neighbourhood is more fertile realpatidar.com 

than in the generality of Jodhpoor. It is one of the greatest 

ISO 


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POK. 


I E.T.C. Mft. Doc. 
RI.C. Trig 8unr. 
Joum. At. Soc. 

1830. pp. 
471-474— OlM- 
funl, Rt|K>rt on 
Copp«r*Mln« In 
Kumton. 

Rallen. Report on 
Settlement of 
Garhwtl, 43. 

At. Ret xvl. 167 
— Tmin. Sutif 
tionl Siireej of 
Kumton. 

* Irulit Pub. nitp. 
fiO Mtj, 1844. 


* Olttfurd, ut 
tuprt, 471. 
E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


* E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 
llfbcr, Ntrrtt. of 
Juumej, 11. 33. 


• B-flletu. Tour In 
Rtjwtrt. 1411. 

* Tod, Annalt of 
RnJatlhaD, I. 773. 


fiefs in Jodhpoor, the thakoor or chief having an annual 
revenue of 10,000/. ; though it was formerly three times that 
amount, until reduced by the seizure of the greater part by the 
maharajah of Jodhpoor. Distant S.W. from Nagore 134 miles ; 
W. from Nusserabad, by Nagore, 228. Lat. 26° 64', long. 72°. 

POKBEE,^ in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village situate on 
the western declivity of a mountain covered with forests of 
oak, rhododendrons, and pines. Here are copper-mines, once 
so productive that one is represented to have yielded a return 
valued at 5,000/. per annum ; but experiments recently conducted 
there under European management, afforded a return of 780 
rupees, against an expenditure of 8,164 rupees ; and the under- 
taking was consequently abandoned in 1841.^ The richest ore 
is the vitreous, lying in dolomite or talcose schist, and yielding 
about twenty per cent. The main obstacles met with in the 
working are the great quantity of water and the rottenness of 
the ground, which requires continual and strong timbering. 
The village of Pokree, situate: in a ravine furrowing the moun- 
tain on the west side, contains about 100 inhabitants, ebieOy 
of the Chowdry or mining caste. Its elevation is 3,800 feet 
above the river Aluknunda, from which it is nine miles west, 
and 6,1 00» feet above the sea. Lat. 30° 20', long. 79° 16'. 

POKHOUKA, in the British district of Kumaon, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Pethoragurh to Askoth, seven miles N. of the 
former. Lat. 29° 41', long. 80° 16'. 

POKRUN. — See Pokhubn. 

POKUR,^ • in the British district of Ajmere, under the 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town, 
the principal place of a pergunnah of the same name. It is 
situate in a low and swampy valley, and on the south margin^ 
of a lake, stated^ to be in Brahminical eyes the most sacred in 
India. The surrounding scenery is picturesque and striking ; 
the mountains in many places cousisting of rose-coloured quartz. 


* Shakeapear, rol. 
438. 

« WHaon. Sanakrit 
Dirt. M3. 

* As. Rrs. xl. 1«| 
— On lha Sacred 
Isles of the West. 


^ Puahkmr of Tasain. Puahkar in Sanakrit* mesna ** WAter;’* adcI hence, 
on account of the lake here, the name* of a celebrated place of pilgrim- 
age, now called Pokur, in the province of Ajmere, about four milea com 


the city of Ajmere, conaieting of a small town on the hank of a lake, 
is the Pushcara of Wilford.* 

140 


1C 


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displaying bold pinnacles and abrupt rocky aides. Inimediately 
around the town are numerous saDdbilla, among which are 
many shrines and cenotaphs, belonging to the families of 
various rajahs and great men of India, in various styles of 
architecture. By far the most conspicuous is the shrine of 
Brahma ; • of which Tod says i * — “ This is the sole tabernacle 
dedicated to the one Qon which I ever saw or have beard of 
in India.’* The same writer mentions, that it struck him “as 
not a little curious,” and well it might, “ that the sikra or 
pinnacle is surmounted by a cross. The edifice was erected a 
few years ago, by a w-ealthy Mahratta, Qocul Pauk, minister of 
Scindin, at a cost of about 15,000/,, though the materials w^ere 
at hand, and the labour could be got almost for nothing,” 
Ghats or flights of stairs of stone give access^ to the sacred 
water, which is frequented every full moon by great numbers of 
pilgrims, for the purpose of ritual ablution* The full moon in 
October is regarded to have peculiar sanctity, and then the 
concourse is much the greatest: a fair for traffic in horses, 
camels, and kiue, as well as for various wares, is held there ou 
that occasion. The lake is asaerted to be artificial, and to have 
been excavated by a prince of Mandor, to receive the water of 
a natural fountain,** by which it is still replenished ; the rivers 
Looni and Sarasvati carry off the redundant water. The lake 
is of an oval shape, and above a mile^ in circuit : it is deep, 
and never dries up : many alligators® harbour in it, and are 
protected from any molestation. The town, situate on the 
south margin of the lake, has many good houses.t According 
to Heber,® this place ** is renowned for its gardens and vine- 
ysrds ; the grapes are said to be by far the best and lai^est in 
India, and equal to those of Shiraz,” Pistance from Ajmer, 
N,W., five miles. Pat. 26° long, 74° 40"- 

POLACHY, — A town in the British district of Coimbatoor, 
presidency of Madras, 26 miles S* of Coimbatoor- Lat. 10° 39', 
long, 77° 4'. 

♦ Wilfloii ob»«rv«a' that the worahip of Brshnm hw totally dinappaiired 
amoog Hitidua ; bat here ia an oxcoptlon. 

+ BoUeau BiaUe' tho aomber of boiiAOB at 2^000, an amount which, 
according to roceivod pnucipiea of estunAiion, would aHsigu tho place a 
populAiton of 10,000 ; but, according to the offeinJ return,^ the population 
ia only 4,334. 

141 


* 1* 774, 


* Tieffi'nthmli'r, 
OevliTiflbuAa 
HJnduiiUc, I, 231. 


< Tod, 1. 


7 TTpITenlhater, 
I. 22U 
• Irvln«, 
of .ljiiut?r«, 4», 


• IL 3*. 


B.I.C- Mi Doc, 


1 At. R«i. XTt, 4 
— Sketch of Re- 
Mxloui SecU of 
llJndut. 

» frrinc, 41. 



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realpatidar.com POL— POM. 

POLAIB. — A tovm in the hill semindarrj of Jeypoor, pre- 


B.I.a Mt. Doe. 

sideucy of Madras, 61 miles S. from Jeypoor, and 74 miles 

W.N.W. from Vizagapatam. Lat. 18° KX, long. 82° 20^. 

POLAWUKUM. — A town in the British district of Bajah- 
mundry, presidency of Madras, 23 miles N.N.W. of Bajah- 
mundry. Lat. 17° 16', long. 81° 41'. 

POLE. — A town in the native state of Guzerat, or dominions 
of the Guicowar, 81 miles E. by S. from Deesa, and 83 miles 

B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 

N.E. by N. from Ahmedabad. Lat. 23° SO', long. 73° 2(y. 

POLEKUL. — A town in the British district of Bellary, 
presidency of Madras,^ 72 miles N.E. of Bellary. Lat. 15° 50', 
long. 77° 46'. 


> B.IX:. M*. Doe. POLENSHAW,^ in Hyderabad, or the territory of the 
Nizam, a town, with a fort, 13 miles from the right bank of 
• At. Rm. Til. loi the river Godavery. It is situate in a verdant fertile valley,^ 
^a'rouu about four miles wide, which is surrounded on all sides by lofty 


Chunerfarb io 
Yertoagoodum. 

ranges of hills. The fort is a square of about 800 yards, and 
has a tower at each angle : the rampart is faced with masonry, 
and is surrounded by a dry ditch : the town is two miles in cir- 
cumference, and, though containing huts only, is said to be very 
populous. The residence of the rajah is a small house, the top of 
which is visible above the rampart. He is called not only rajah 
of Polenshaw, but also the rajah of Kammummett, from a consi- 
derable town of that name within his zemindarry or feudal grant. 

Distance from Hyderabad, E., 150 miles. Lat. 17° 35', long. 80° 45'. 

B.I.e. M9. Due. 

POLLASUBRA. — A town in the British district of Ganjara, 
presidency of Madras, 27 miles N.W. by N. of Ganjam. Lat. 

10° 41', long. 84° 53'. 

POLLIAM. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or 
territory of the Nizam, situate on the right bank of the 
Godavery river, and 154 miles N.W. from Hyderabad. Lat. 

19° 1', long. 77° 1'. 

B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 

POLLOOB. — A town in the British district of North Arcot, 

E.I.C. Uu Doc. 

presidency of Madras, 33 miles S.W. of Arcot. Lat. 12° 31', 
long. 79° 10'. 

POLY. — A town in the British district of Cuddapah, presi- 

B.l.a Mt. Doe. 

dency of Madras, 31 miles S.E. by E. of Cuddapah. Lat. 

4 - * i ^ f -f iatidar.com 

POMOOBNA. — A town in the lapsed territory of IS agpoor, 

situate nine miles from the right bank of the Wein Gunga 

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realpatidar.com PONANY. 

river, and 95 mUea S.3.E. from Nagpoor. Lat, 19° 53', long* 
79°4(y. 

in the British district of MaJahar, presidency 
of Madras, a seaport town situate on the south side of an 
estuary of m river of the same name, close to its entrauee into 
the Arabian Sea. The river is shoal, and navigable only for 
small craHt and three or four miles to sea is a shoal with about 
four fathoms water on it, but inside, and between it and the 
mainland, having anchorage in six fathoms* The town is 
built in a straggling manner, on a sandy plain, and is inhabited 
principally by Mussulmans, who have forty mosques, and are 
governed by a chief- priest called the Tangnl. The population 
is supported by dshing and by trade, having numerous patemars^ 
or aea-going boats, which ply to Surat, Arabia, Bombay, Madras, 
and even as far as Bengal, exporting principally pepper, betel, 
rice, cocoanuts, iron, and very fine timber,* sent down the river 
from the Ghats. The imports are wheat, sugarcane, molasses, 
oilseeds, groceries, and spices* Salt is also imported, though 
in the vicinity there is some made by evaporating sea- water. 
At the commencement of this oentury, when Buchanan visited 
this place, it had about 500 good houses, built with stone, and 
two stories high, and 1,000 huts* It had formerly been a much 
more considerable place, until nearly ruined by the oppression 
of Tippoo Sultan. Besides the patemars, there are manches^ 
large row-boats, used for navigating the river and for coasting. 
They are about fifty feet* long, ten or twelve wide, and five or 
six deep, and carry sail at sea. They are rudely constructed, 
and venture to sea only in fine weather. Under the system of 
railways by which the Madras territories are about to be 
traversed, the eastern and western coasts of this part of the 
peninsula will be united by means of a line from Ponany to 
the city of Madras. Distance from Bombay, S.E., 600 miles; 
Mangalore, S.E,, 160 ; Calicut, S.E., 34 ; Bangalore, 3.W., 190. 
Bat. 10° 48', long. 75° 58'. 

PONANT.i — A river, named from the town situate on the 
south side of its estuary,® where it disembogues into the 
Arabian Sea. It rises in the British district Coimbatoor, in 
the vicinity of some tanks near Cootie hip a it urn, and in lat. 
10° 19', long. 77° 6', and fiowing north-west, through the great 

* PemuiDi of Tmhhq ; PjibOjakii of BuohuiAa PaoiADi of Hoiriburgh.* 

J4S 


■ m e. Ml. Doe. 


* Joum. 

Am. Soc. No- 1 . IS 
— on Wn- 
tlv6 Vetwlt of 
ladlA. 

* Id. N*. It* mo* 


* Id. Hoy It, a— 
Bdfm, on NbUto 
Vomit of Jodta 
uid CojrloEi. 


' E.I.C, Ifi, Doe. 

■ Buchvian, Harr, 
of Jottmrj fFom 
Mmilnt, thirougll 
JdjMjrcr, CBnixa, 
and Malabar, , 

u. w. realpatidar.com 

I Id. ti. 41V* 

* Eatl-IndUi 
nireeiorji 1. dDL 





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PON. 


a WUka, Htotoricftl 
8ketcb««, II. 411ft. 
Honbunth. KMftt* 
India DIrectorjr, 

1. ftU. 


a Buchanan, iit 
•upra, II. 4^. 


a Joum. Roj. Aa. 
8oe. No. Iv. 34ft 
— Edja, Deacrip> 
Uon of the Sea- 
porta of Malabar. 
Garden, Tablea 
of Routia, 9SK1. 


E.I.C. Ila. Doe. 


> £.1.C. Ma. Doc. 


* HorabuiKh, 

Raat- India Direc- 
tory, 1. 090. 


depression separating the Western Ghauts from* the mountains 
in the vicinity of Cape Comorin, crosses the east boundary of 
the British district of Malabar in lat. 10° 42^, long. 76° 46^, and 
about fifty-five miles from its source. Thereabouts turning 
west, it flows by the fort and town of Palghat, and continuing 
to hold the same direction for twenty-five miles, it in lat. 
10^ 45', long. 76° 32', becomes the boundary between the raj 
or territory of Cochin and the British district of Malabar, 
continuing so for twenty-three miles, to lat. 10° 47', long. 
76° 15', where it enters the district, and flows westward through 
it for twenty-five miles, to the fall into the Arabian Sea, in lat. 
10° 47', long. 75° 58' ; the total length of the course being 128 
miles. It is navigable^ for canoes as high up as Palghat, sixty- 
three miles from the sea. Buchanan, who crossed it during 
the dry season five or six miles above its mouth, found the 
channel very wide, but most of it occupied by dry sands, the 
water clear, the stream gentle, but with difficulty fordable, on 
account of the depth. It can be navigated only by small craft, 
as well on account of a bar with small depth of water at the 
mouth, as shoal water inside, but is very useful during the 
monsoons, when it floats down to the coast* great quantities of 
fine timber, highly valuable for the largest ships of war. 

PONASSA, or POMAWA, in the Eajpoot state of Jodh- 
poor, a village on the route from Nusseerabad to Deesa, and 
157 miles S.W. of the former. • It is situate in a country 
which, though in some places studded with hills, is in general 
rather level, with a gravelly soil, free from jungle and partially 
cultivated. The road in this part of the route is good. Lat. 
25° 2', long. 73° 4'. 

POND A. — A town in the Portuguese territory of Goa, nine 
miles S.E. by E. from Goa, and 66 miles W. from Dharwar. 
Lat. 15° 25', long. 74° 5'. 

PONDALURIA. — A town in the lapsed territory of Nag- 
poor or Berar, 165 miles N.E. by E. from Nagpoor, and 74 
miles S. from Sohagpoor. Lat. 22° 15', long. 81° 26'. 

PONDICHERRY,' on the Coromandel coast, a French 
settlement included within the limits of the British district of 
South Arcot. It is situate at the mouth of a small river 
capable of admitting only coasting-craft of insignificant 
then. “In the fair-weather^ season, from 1st of January to 

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October, the oommon anchorage in the road ia abreast the 
tovo, in seren or eight fathoms, about three-quarters of a mile 
from it. Small ships may moor in fiye and a half or six 
^thorns, but during the season when stormy weather may be 
apprehended, it is prudent to anchor well out, in twelve or 
iburteen fathoms, in what is called the outer road.” The site 
the town is eligible, being to the south-east of a long flat 
hill, and close to the beach, and having numerous buildings, 
and a conspicuous and agreeable aspect, viewed from the sea. 
“Previously® to the war in 1756, Pondicherry was perhaps the 
finest dty in India. It extended along the seacoast about a 
mile and a quarter, and was about three-quarters of a mile in 
breadth, was well built, and contained many public buildings, 
and a citadel, then the beet of its kind in India, but of too 
contracted dimensions. This fine city was first taken by the 
English in 1761, and immediately rased to the ground.” 
During the obstinately -contested wars between the British 
and French in India, in the course of the last century, Pon- 
dicherry, as a military and maritime station, had the advantage 
over Madras of lying to windward of it during the south-west 
monsoon, which was the season for hostile operations. At the 
commencement of the present century, it was described^ by 
Lord Valentia as the handsomest tow^n, except Calcutta, that 
he had seen in India. At present, it is regularly built, and 
divided into two parts, the White Town and the Black Town, 
ieptrated by a canal. The White Town, which is situate to the 
eaftw'ard of the other, and close to the beach, has well-built® 
streets, reg^ularly laid out at right angles to each other, with 
trees along the sides. To the west is the Black Town, inhabited 
bj natives. Boulevards planted with trees are great ornaments 
to the town. The most remarkable buildings are the church 
of foreign missions, the government house, and bazars con- 
•tmcted in 1886. In the same year a lighthouse was finished,® 
exhibiting a light eighty -nine feet above the sea, and which, in 
clear weather, may be seen from a ship’s poop distant sixteen 
or seventeen miles. In consequence of the small depth of 
vater on the bar, and the violence of the surf, landing can be 
cflected only by a sort of rafts or flat-bottomed boats, con- 
structed for the purpose. Pondicherry is the capital of the 

6 145 


s Rtiincll. Mem. 
of Map of Hlndoo- 
•Uo, STS. 


♦ Trarelt, I. 873. 


* Bential and 
Agra OuMe, 1841, 
vol. 11. part 1. 4S3. 


* Horaborgb, 
I. 6»1. 


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V Oftleutt* R*- 
▼tow. Is. 0. 


* and 

Agrm Ouldv. 1849, 
Tol. IL part II. 19. 


* Raport on Med. 
Topof raphj and 
Bialittice of 
Centre iNtlslonof 
M adrae Army, 00. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* B.I.C. Trlfon. 
Burr. 

Joum. As. Soc. 
Benf 1849, p.80B 
— Oermid, Joum. 
to Bbipke. 

* Jacquetnont, 
▼ojafc, I?. 418. 


PON— POO. 

PreDch poBBeBBiona* in India, and the aest of their tupreme 
government. In each of the other eettlements there it i 
government agent, who receives the governor’s orders direct, and 
corresponds with him.^ The territory of Pondicherry oonriBU 
of, — 1. The district of Pondicherry properly so called, containing, 
besides the town, eleven villages ; 2. the district of Yallanor, 
containing forty-five villages ; 3. the district of Bahour, 'con- 
taining thirty-six villages. The total area is estimated at 107 
square miles, and the population in 1840^ at 79,743, of which 
790 were white. The establishment here comprises — 1. ExecntiTe 
and legislative, including governor, and council of administration 
and council general ; 2. judicial, including the Boyal Court, the 
Tribunal in the First Instance, and the tribunal of peace and of 
police ; 3. department of public instruction ; 4. marine ; 5. mili- 
tary. The population of the town is estimated at from 25,000’ to 
30,000. Distance from Madras S.8.W. 86 miles. South of tbe 
town is the village of Ariancoopan, captured by Admiral 
Boscawen in 1748, prior to the unsuccessful siege of Pondi- 
cherry. The town of Pondicherry is in lat. 11° 66 ^, long. 

79° 6*4'. 

PONDUA. — A towm in the British district of Silhet, pre- 
sidency of Bengal, 15 miles N.N.W. of Silhet. Lat. 25° O', 
long. 91° 47'. 

PONGA. — A town in the British district of Bungpore, 
presidency of Bengal, 39 miles N.W. of Bungpore. Lat. 

26° 5', long. 88° 62'. 

PONPUTTA. — A town in the British district of Malabar, 
presidency of Madras, 71 miles S.E. of Cannanore. Lat- 
11° 12', long. 76° 16'. 

PONWAB. — A town in the British district of Shahabad, 
presidency of Bengal, 61 miles N.E. by E. of Sasseram. Lat. 

26° 21', long. 84° 41'. 

POO A BEE, ^ in Koonawur, a district of Bussahir, is a 
village on the left bank of tbe Sutluj, here about 120’ feet 

* ConslstiDg, indepeDdeotlj of Pondicherry, of the following eeitl*- 
menU: — Karioal, on the cout of Coromandel ; Yanaon and the lodge of 
Maanlipatam, on the Orissa coast ; Mahd and the lodge of Calient, on the 
Malabar coast ; Chandemagore, and the five lodges of Cosnmbaaar, Joogdis, 
Dacca, Balasore, and Patna. The possession of these lodges is however -COm 
nominal, and they have been abandoned by the French. 

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wkie, tnd flowing with a gentle but deep’ouirent.* The village, 
200^ feet above the river, consists of about thirtj houses, &om 
tvo to four stories high, chieflj built of pine-wood, and has 
adjacent a level, fertile piece of ground, well cultivated with 
rinds, com, and esculent vegetables. Here, at one time was 
a atnga or wooden bridge, which having been allowed to 
M, through decay, has been replaced with a jhula or rude 
•QspeDsion-bridge, consistiog of a cable made of hair ropes 
itretched across, and traversed bj means of a curved piece of 
wood sliding on it, and bearing the passenger suspended on a seat 
kanging below, and drawn from one side to another bj means of 
a string, as occasion may require. Elevation above the sea 
8,008* feet.* Lat. 31® 33', long. 78® 20'. 

POOBTHUL. — A town in the British district of Burdwan, 
presidency of Bengal, 32 miles N.£. by £. of Burdwan. Lat. 
23= 28', long. 88® 21'. 

POOCH,^ in Bundelcund, in territory of Jhansi, a village 
oa the route from Calpee to Goona, 65^ miles S.W. of former, 
180 N.R of latter. Supplies and water may both be had. 
Lst 25° 50, long. 78® 6'. 

POODOOCOTTAH, or BAJAH TONDIMAN’S 
C0I7NTBY, is bounded on the north by the British district 
of Trichinopoly, on the east by Tanjore, and on the south and 
vest by Madura : it extends from lat. 10® 6' to 10® 46', and 
hwD long. 78® 33' to 79® 16' ; is forty-three miles in length 
from north to south, and the same in breadth, and has an area 
of 1,165 square miles, with a population of 61,745.^ Upon the 
<hsth of Bajah Bagoonath Tondiman, in 1839, arrangements 
were made for conducting the administration by the widow 
<ivring her son’s minority.^ The arrangement, however, was not 
^together satisfactory, and it was shortly after so far modified 
to sdmit of the judicious interposition* of the British 
rosident ; and much benefit appears to have resulted from the 
of thia temporary authority.* The young chief, who 
kis DOW assumed the government, is noted for the excellence of 
kii disposition ; and the hopes entertained of liU successful 
^^ninistmtion have not been disappointed.* Poodoocottah, 

elerstioD is vtsied at 7,083 feet in the table at the end of Herbert's 
bnt that given in the text aooorda better with the estimate of 

0«nrt.’ 

I. 2 ^*7 


• Id. IS. 

* At Rm. bv.SSS 
— Herbert, on 
Lerele of SetkJ. 


* Hertwrt, «t 
supra, SM, 418. 
F.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


I B.I.C. Me. Doe. 

* Oardeo, Tabloe 
of Routae, llS. 


* Statlotlre of 
Nelire Stater, S4. 


* Madras Pol. 
l>l«p. 9S Sept. 
IS40. 

* Id. 16 June, 
1843. 


4 Id. 10 Jan. 1848. 


* Id. 18 July. 
1840. 

* Herbert, ut 
supra, 868, 418. 

* Koonawur, 
Tahla III. No. 88, 
at end of roU 


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POO. 


■ B.I.O. M*. Doe. 

* Oofden, Tablet 
of Roulti, 71. 

> B.I.C. Mt. Doo. 


• Garden. Tablaa 
of Routea, 110. 


B.I.C. M •. Doo. 


E.I.C. Ifa. Doc. 


B.I.C. Mf. Doc. 


I B.I.C. Uu Doc. 


• B.I.C. Ma. Doo. 
BtotlaUoa, 4cc. 


the principal place, is situate on the left bank of the Vcllaur 
river, 59 miles N.E. by E. from Madura. Lat. 10^ 24', long. 

78° 62'. 

POOGHY SAW UE. — A town in the territory designated 
the Daung, within the presidency of Bombay, situate 63 miles 
W. from Malligaum, and 58 miles S.E. from Surat. Lat. 

20° 37', long. 73° 32'. 

POOKAREE,^ in the British district of Banda, lieutenant* 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the town of Banda to Ajegnrh, 20* miles N. of the 
latter. Lat. 25° 7', long. 80°* 29'. 

POOKHRAEN,* in the British district of Cawnpore, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a smalltown 
on the route from the cantonment of Cawnpore to that of Calpee, 
and 10* miles N.E. of the latter. It has a bazar, and supplies 
and water are abundant. The road in this part of the route is 
rather good ; the country well cultivated, and studded with 
small villages. Lat. 26° 14', long. 79° 54'. 

POOLALCHERROO. — A town in the British district of 
Cuddapah, presidency of Madras, 73 miles N. of Cuddapah. 

Lat. 16° 31', long. 78° 69'. 

POOLAVAINDLA. — A town in the British district of 
Cuddapah, presidency of Madras, 40 miles W. by S. of Cud- 
dapah. Lat. 14° 25', long. 78° 17'. 

POOLBADY. — A town in the hill zemindarry of Jeypoor, 
in Orissa, 44 miles S.E. by S. fri)m Jeypoor, and 68 miles 
N.W. by N. from Yizagapatam. Lat. 18° 33', long. 82° 51'. 

POOLP, in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village half a 
mile W. of the right bank of the Kalee (Eastern), 13 miles 
S.E. of Champawut cantonment. Lat. 29° 17', long. 80° 20'. 

POONA. ^ — A British collectorate of the presidency of 
Bombay. It is bounded on tbe north by the Ahmednuggur 
collectorate ; on the east by those of Ahmednug^gur and Shola- 
pore ; on the south and south-west by the territory of Sattara ; 
and on the west by the Tannah collectorate. It lies between 
lat. 17° 53' and 19° 26', long. 73° 20' and 76° 10', and has an 
area estimated at 5,298* square miles. The whole is included 
within the Deccan. 'The face of the country is intersected byidar.com 
numerous spurs or ridges, which part from the eosWrn side of 

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POONA. 


the culminating range called the Western Ghauts, and gene- 
nUj bold a direction south-east, diminishing continuallj in 
height, until they sink^ into the plains of the Niaam’s territory. * Biphiottone, lu- 
The Moola Moota, the Goor, and the Yeil, uniting with 
»ome other streams of less magnitude, which rise in the vicinity ih^p^ishw*, 
of the city of Poona, form the Bheema, which, taking a course 
south-east, receives, at about 160 miles from the source of the 

Ooor, its remotest head, the Neera, a considerable stream ; and * 

below the confluence, continuing to flow in the same direction 
for sixty miles, finally passes into the territory of the Nizam. 

The Neera, which rises within the territory of Sattara, on the 
eastern declivity of the Ghauts, a few miles north of the British 
sanstarium of Mahabulishwur, flowing south-east for about 
eighty miles, forms the boundary between Sattara and this 
coUectorate. Those streams must derive most of their contents 
from the monsoon rains on the Ghauts, as the climate of the 
less-elevated table-lands of the Deccan, and of the more de- 
pressed expanses in its western part, is characterized by aridity. 

The amount of annual rain-fall has been stated^ at 17.83 in.* for * Phiiotoph. 

the year 1830. “The easterly* winds are characterized by 

extreme dryness ; the lips, and the exposed parts of the skin, t«>roiof7 of u>« 

are cut, and become harsh and scaly; windows, doors, and joiners’ • w. iw. 

work shrink, and present numerous interstices ; and to sleep, 

exposed to the easterly wind, is to risk the loss of a limb, or a 

vhole side.” In general, however, the climate is not unhealthy, 

tnd the cantonments at Poona are found to be remarkably 

loited to the ^European constitution.^ • Ja^quemoot, 

The character of the vegetation is indicative of the aridity of 
the soil and climate. Jacquemont found the country in Juno 
a parched waste, and water could nowhere be obtained by 
diggiug; yet in a few days moderate falls of rain covered the 
surCioe with verdure. Trees are very rare in this tract, there 
being only the Melia a 2 :adirachta, intermingled with cactus and 
wphorbia. Much attention has been given by government to 
the culture of the mulberry for feeding silkworms ; but the 
experiment, though conducted by a gentleman from the south 
of Eorope, well versed in the business, proved entirely abortive. 

* It must b« observed, however, thet the Deccan, to which this rmn-fall rGalpatiddr.COITI 

h sttribeted, is a tract of considerable extent, incladiog several districts in 
s^iioti to that of Poona. 

14a 


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f narrative, lU 
tlS. 


* Bombsj R«v. 
Coas. n F«b. 
IS4«. 


* R«v. Conr Dt 
•Mpm. 


POONA. 

The trees attained no reasonable size, many decayed alto- 
gether, and the aspect of the remainder was so sickly, stunted, 
and dwindling, as to forbid all probable bope of sucocse. 
Heber conjectured that the cultivation of the vine would be 
successful f but the average anniial temperature would probably 
be too high. 

The common cereal grains of the Deccan form the staple 
products of the collectorate, the surplus of which finds its way 
to the city of Poona, the great mart of the country, and thence 
to the coast, where salt and European goods are received in 
exchange. The potato* is grown extensively in the northern parts 
of the collectorate, and supplies a large portion of the Bombay 
market, to which easy access is obtained by the excellent road 
that intersects the Northern Pergunnahs. Cotton* is not 
cultivated to any great extent, Indapore being the only pro- 
ducing district. Throughout the collectorate, the cultivation of 
the Mauritius sugarcane has greatly diminished, owing, it ia 
stated, to the poverty of the Deccan soil. In some of the 
districts, but more especially in the pergunnahs intersected I7 
good roads, agricultural stock is on the increase. It is calcu- 
lated that a pair of oxen are equal to the cultivation of ten 
acres of land. In some of the districts the proportion of land 
to stock is greater and this would seem to indicate a more 
slovenly tillage in those districts. 

The principal roads are those from Poona, connecting that 
city with Bombay, Sholapore, Ahmednuggur, Nassick, Sattara, 
by the Neera bridge. Metalled roads, with side-drains, have 
recently been constructed in the Cusba Ghora of the Kheir 
perg^nnah, with funds partly raised by assistance received 
fn)m government, and partly by the voluntary contributions of 
the inhabitants ; a fact showing that the natives are not alto- 
gether insensible to the advantages of improved means of com- 
munication, and that the expectation of interesting them in 
such matters b not hopeless. The line of road of the greatest 
commercial importance in this collectorate is that which, inter- 
secting the Indapoor and Bheemthurry pergunnahs, leads from 
Sholapore to Poona. A considerable export from the south- 

* The following is given ns the svenge smonnt of land to a pair of oxen j^om 
in the distriots named : — Indapore, 26 acres ; Soopa, 21 ; l^nbol, 21 ; 
Havillee, 20 ; Bheemthurry, 18. 

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POONA. 


eastern and central provinces of the peninsula, consisting 
chiefly of cotton-wool, is brought to the coast by this line, 
much of it in carts, for which description of carriage the 
metalled road from Poona, by way of the Bhore Ghaut, to 
the coast, affords great facilities. 

In this collectorate there are no manufactures for export. 
In some of the large towns, coarse cotton cloths are produced 
for consumption in the immediate neighbourhood. Pa^r is 
manufactured at Poona. 

By far the greater portion of the population is Mahratta. 
There are, however, a considerable number of families deriving 
their origin from the Concan, some Guserattees, and not a 
few Mussulmans, the descendants of the ruling race, when the 
country was held first by the sovereigns of Ahmednuggur and 
Beejapore, and subsequently by those of Delhi. There are 
also some of that class of Mussulmans denominated Boras. 
The total amount of population is stated to be 666,006,^ being 
at the rate of about 114 to the square mile. 

The mass of the population is agricultural, and a great 
portion of needy condition and unthrifty habits : the frugal 
and painstaking ryot, however, is tolerably well off. The 
recent revision^ of the assessment, and the encouragement 
given to irrigation by the thirty* years exemption from 
veerhoonda,* all tend to the advance of prosperity. Each 
village,^ or circle of villages, possesses one or more banyans, 
who, providing cash for the revenue payments, monopolize a 
great portion of the raw produce of the soil, which finds its 
way eventually to the city of Poona. Under the levelling rule 
of the British government, the village institutions are hastening 
to decay. The ryot having direct access to the government 
ofiBcer, heeds not the subordinate of the village ; and as 
revenue settlements are now made with individuals, joint 
responsibility is set aside. These innovations doubtless tend 
to future good. The number of villages in the collectorate 
amounts to 1,174, of which 900 belong to the government ; the 
revenues of the remainder being alienated. 

At the close of the year 1862,^ there were in this collectorate 
sundry government vernacular schools, besides the Sanscrit 
and English college in the city of Poona. The Poorhunder village 
* Extra tax on landa waterod from wells. 

161 


* PerlUmenUry 
Return, 1861. 


* Bombay Bar. 
DUp. 96 Fab. 18AS. 


* Bombay Rar. 
C«in« II Feb. 
1840. 


* Report on Bom- 
bay Education, 

186S, pp. 48, 138. 

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POONA. 


schools, which were established by way of experiment in 1836, 
with schoolmasters at very low rates of pay, and principally for 
the purpose of introducing some little instruction among the 
agricultural classes, were not attended with successful results, 
and the Board of Education resolved to avail themselves of 
every opportunity of closing these district schools, and to apply 
the funds in support of a few schools of a higher class. 

The principal towns are described under their respective 
names in the alphabetical arrangement. 

Poona, at the period of its earliest mention in history, ap- 
pears to have formed part of the Mussulman state of Ahroed- 
nuggur ; by the sovereign of which state, a jaghire, of which 
Poona was the chief place, was conferred, in 1604, on an ofBcer 
named Malolee. A son of Malolee, named Shahjee, after 
acting a conspicuous part in the closing events of the kingdom 
of Ahmednuggur, passed into the service of Beejapoor, and 
was continued in his jaghire, which had fallen to that state in 
the partition of the Ahmednuggur territories. Shahjee was 
the father of Sevajee, the founder of the Mahratta dominion, 
which for a time occupied so important a place in the political 
system of India. The son of Sevajee, named Sambajee, 
possessed few of the qualities which contributed to his father’s 
success: he was made prisoner by Aurungsebe, and put to 
death while in captivity. His son Sevajee, subsequently known 
by the name of Saho, at the time of his father’s death was an 
infant and a captive ; circumstances little calculated to benefit 
his claims to sovereignty, more especially in Asia. Saho was 
eventually liberated on the death of Aurungxebe, but found 
the succession contested by his cousin, as stated in the article 
on Colapore, where also an account of the mode in which the 
contest was terminated will be found. A Brahmin, named 
Balajee Biswanat, held under Saho the office of Peishwa or 
minister; an office which, though it ultimately became the 
first in the Mahratta confederacy, and even absorbed the 
authority of the nominal chief, was originally only the second, 

• KipbiuioM, the Priti Nidhi, or delegate^ of the rajah, being superior. By 
Balajee the afiairs of Saho were managed with much address ; 
and by the influence of negotiations conducted by him, a treaty 
was, in 1717, concluded with Hosen Ali, acting on the part dar.com 
the emperor, by which the claim of Saho to the whole of the 

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territory formerly posseBsed by Sevajee, with the addition of 
later conquests, was acknowledged, the emperor agreeing to 
restore all the forts in his possession within that tract ; to allow 
the lery of chout, or Mahratta demand of a fourth port of the 
revenue throughout the Deccan, thus giving a legal title to 
that which was before a mere extortion ; and to make a further 
payment of one-tenth of the remaining revenue, under the name 
of Sirdesmuki. In return, Saho was to pay a certain amount 
of tribute, to furnish a specified quota of horse, and to be 
answerable for any loss occasioned by depredations; thus 
acknowledging himself a vassal of the emperor. On the death 
of Balajee Biswanat, his son Bajee Bao succeeded to the office 
of Peishwa. Bajee Bao was not only a consummate master of 
artifice, but a man of great boldness of spirit, and actuated by 
a restless and insatiable ambition. He had a rival in the 
Priti Nidhi,^ by whom the arrangement with the rajah of « RipTiinKtone, 
Colapore was concluded ; but the success of this minister did ***** 
not enable him to supplant Bajee Bao, whose influence con- 
tinued to extend in proportion to the numerous territorial and 
fiscal acquisitions which he succeeded in making, nominally for 
his master, but actually for himself. This course of aggression 
received a temporary check by the invasion of Nadir Shah ; 
but when the country was relieved by the withdrawal of that 
invader, he resumed the prosecution of his schemes of aggran- 
disement with unabated vigour. In 1789 he conquered Salsette 
and Bassein from the Portuguese. The vicinity of Salsette 
to Bombay, coupled with the fact of Bajah Saho having granted 
all countries conquered from the Portuguese to the Peishwa in 
his own right, alarmed the Bombay government, who began to 
apprehend that the views of this Mahratta leader might not be 
restricted to the dominions of the Portuguese, but might ex- 
tend to the possessions of other Europeans. The Peishwa, 
moreover, was endeavouring to create a maritime force. All 
these circumstances prompted the resort to measures of se- 
curity ; and with the intention of avoiding the dangers which 
seemed to be impending, the Bombay government concluded a 
treaty of fourteen articles with the brother of Bajee Bao, in 
which the claims of the contracting parties were defined and 
confirmed. Not long after the conclusion of this treaty, Bajee 
Bao died, leaving three sons, of whom the eldest, Balajee Bao, 

lis 


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POONA. 

succeeded to the office of Peishwa, though not without serioofl 
opposition from various powerful Mahratta functionanea and 
chiefs, the Priti Nidhi, the rajah of Berar, and the Quicowar. 

The rajah Saho, always indolent, fell, towards the close of his 
reign, into a state of imbecility, which placed him entirely at 
the mercy of those around him. His minister Balajee, and the 
prince’s wife Sawatri Bai, contended for the power of con- 
trolling him ; and the former was so successful as to prevail on 
the demented rajah to sign a deed transferring all the powers 
of his government to the Peishwa, on condition of his main- 
taining the royal title and dignity in the house of Sevajee, 
though Bam Baja, a posthumous son of the second Sevajee, 
whose existence had long been concealed* by his grandmother, 
the Tara Bai ; and who accordingly succeeded to the nominal 
chieftainship on the death of Saho, in 174f9. Balajee, now 
virtually the bead of the Mahratta confederacy, continued to 
exercise his power with varied success, till his death in 1761 ; 
an event said to have been accelerated by the result of the 
battle of Paneeput, so fatal to the interests of the Mahrattaa. 

The power and influence of the Peishwa thenceforth declined. 
Madhoo Boo, the second son of Balajee, succeeded his father; 
but being a minor, his uncle Bagoba was appointed regent. 

A protracted struggle for power succeeded between the uncle 
and the nephew, which ended in favour of the latter. Bagoba 
was deprived of authority, and subjected to confinement 
Madhoo Bao died in 1772. Under the impression that his 
dissolution was approaching, he sent for Bagoba, and for hia 
brother and successor, Narain Bao, and conjured them to adhere 
to each other. For a time, amicable feelings appeared to eiiat 
between them ; but discord arose, and Bagoba was again placed 
under restraint. Within a year from his accession, the young 
rajah was murdered, and the ministerial party and Bagoba 
mutually charged each other with the crime. Bagoba, how- 
ever, was proclaimed Peishwa ; but his security in the possession 
of that title was shaken by the widow of the murdered Narain 

^ The title of thie oooapent of the throne of Sevajee him been qoct* 
tioned, but the weight of authority seeme to be in favour of hie claim. 

Its validity is, however, doubted by Mr. Elphinstone, who also throvi 
suspicion on the fact of Saho having actually executed any deed oonveyiog'^^^ 
the exercise of the supreme authority to the Peishwa. 

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Bao giy'ing birth to a son. Bagoba asserted that the child 
was spurious ; but his title was maintained hj a powerful 
party, and the infant was formally installed as Peishwa. In 
this state of affairs Bagoba applied to the government of 
Bombay for assistance. The importance of obtaining possession 
of Salsette had long and urgently been impressed on that 
govemment ; and the disputed succession of Poona seemed to 
afford a favourable opportunity for the attainment of the 
desired object. The Bombay government accordingly recog- 
nised the title of Bagoba, and opened negotiations with him. 
Pending these negotiations, intelligence arrived that the 
Portuguese were fitting out an expedition at Ona for the 
recovery of Salsette and Bassein. To prevent these places 
falling into the hands of their European rivals, the Bombay 
govemment took immediate possession of them, informing 
Bagoba that the measure was merely precautionary, and not 
intended to affect his rights. 

In 1775, a treaty was concluded at Surat, by which Bagoba, 
in consideration of a certain amount of military force to be 
furnished by the Company’s government for the prosecution of 
his claims, ceded to that govemment in perpetuity certain ter- 
ritories, including Bassein and Salsette. In accordance with 
the stipulations of this treaty, an English force, under Colonel 
Keating, joined the army of Bagoba at Cambay. Advantages, 
though not of a decided nature, were gained ; but the govern- 
ment of Bengal disapproved of the treaty, and of the connection 
with Bagoba, and directed the withdrawal of the British force. 
The Bengal government also deputed Colonel Upton to Poona, 
to treat with the party in power there without the intervention 
of the Bombay government. Colonel Upton concluded a treaty, 
but the conditions were never fulfilled. The Poona ministry 
was divided into two parties, one headed by Moraba, the other 
by Nanah Fumavese. Moraba and his party were disposed to 
make Bagoba regent; Nanah professed views nearly similar, 
but as he proposed to carry them out through the assistance 
of the French, the govemment of Bengal became alarmed, and 
not only authorized that of Bombay to support Bagoba, but 
despatched a body of about 5,000 troops from Hindostan to 
Bombay for the same purpose. A new treaty was hereupon con- 
cluded by the Bombay govemment with Bagoba, in which it was 

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stipulated that he was to exercise the office of regent with full 
power, during the minority of his rival claimant ; while the 
Bombay government engaged to apply for orders from the 
Company to sanction the following extraordinary arrangement: 
that if Ragoba should be able satisfactorily to prove the child 
supposititious, he, Bagoba, should become Peishwa ; but if the 
child should appear to be really the son of the deceased 
Peishwa, then, on his attaining the age of seventeen, the 
government and country should be equally divided between 
him and his uncle Ragoba. Without waiting for the Bengal 
troops, then on the Nerbudda, the Bombay government 
despatched a force to conduct Ragoba to Poona, and to invest 
him with the regency. This force advanced to within a few 
miles of Poona, when those under whose orders the expedition 
was placed suddenly determined on retreat. The force accord- 
ingly fell back on a place called Wargaum, where,* being sui^ 
rounded by the ^lahrattas, a convention was concluded, under 
which it was agreed that Salsette and all the recent acquisi- 
tions from the Mahrattas should be restored, and that the 
Bengal detachment should be ordered back to Calcutta. The 
terms of the convention, which was concluded by a committee 
of persons called field-deputies, were such, however, as neither 
they nor even the Bombay government bod power to grant, 
and it was never ratified. Colonel Gk>ddard, who commanded 
the Bengal troops, knowing that the convention was of no 
force, disregarded it altogether, and, though his return had 
been made one of the conditions, pushed on, and arrived at 
Surat in February, 1779. He was vested with the full powers of 
treating with the Mahrattas, which other parties had prema- 
turely exercised before his arrival. The Poona durbar, how- 
ever, declared that no peace could be made unless Salsette 
were given up : hostilities were accordingly resolved on. 
Colonel Goddard took Ahmedabad and Bassein ; but sub- 
sequently, from the general state of affairs and the want of 
resources, he was compelled to confine himself to the defensive. 

At length Scindia concluded a separate treaty for himself : one 
at an earlier period had been concluded with the Guicowar; 
and after some delay, a treaty, known as the treaty of Sal bye, 
put an end to the war betwe^en the British and those admiuis-*'^-^^'^ 
tering the territory of the Peishwa. By the treaty, Bassein 


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and some other conquests were restored to the Peishwa ; but 
the cession of Salsette and some other islands to the British, 
stipulated for in Colonel Upton’s treaty, was confirmed. 
Various other diplomatic arrangements, calculated to effect 
particular objects, were subsequently concluded between the 
Peishwa and the British government ; but in this brief sketch 
it would be superfluous to notice them in detail. In 1795 the 
Mahrattos became involved in war with the Nizam, a war ter- 
minated by the convention of Kurdlah, the conditions of which 
were highly advantageous to the former. In the same year, 
the Peishwa, Maderow Narrain, died. The next heir was 
Bajee Bao, the son of Hagoba; but Nana Fumavese tried to 
exclude him, in order to secure a continuance of his own 
power. Scindia, however, arriving at Poona with a large force, 
placed Bajee Bao on the musnud, and was thenceforward lord 
of the counsels of Poona. In 1802, Bajee Bao, taking part 
with Scindia in a contest which had arisen between that chief- 
tain, shared in the defeat of his ally, Holkar having gained a 
complete victory in a battle fought near Poona, on the 25th 
October. The Peishwa fled to Bassein, having previously 
sought to avert the ruin he saw impending, by a communica- 
tion to the British Besident at his court, expressing a desire 
to enter into a defensive alliance with the British, on the basis 
of that which they maintained with the government of Hyder- 
abad. A treaty of defensive alliance, known as the treaty of 
Bassein, was accordingly concluded : a supplementary treaty 
was concluded in 1803 ; another treaty, for the settlement of 
territory ceded by the rajah of Berar and Scindia, was entered 
into in 1804. The Peishwa had readily entered into a close 
alliance with the British government, to avert the entire extinc- 
tion of his authority ; but, from his restoration to his deposition, 
be systematically pursued a course of policy having for its 
object the subversion of the British power. 

In 1812 and 1818 the British government was called upon 
to arbitrate an adjustment of the Peishwa’s claims upon the 
chiefs of Colapore and Sawunt Warree, and the Southern Mah- 
ratta jaghiredars. The decision, which was fatal to his pre- 
tensions of sovereignty over Colapore, strengthened the hostile 
feelings which he previously cherished towards the power to 
which be was indebted for the retention of bis position as a 

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POONA. 


sovereign priace, and his escape from the ruin which, without 
British assistance, awaited him ; the condition of a close pri- 
soner, or that of a destitute wanderer, being the altematire 
before him. Trimbuckjee Danglia, a man who, by pandering 
to the profligate passions of his master, had risen from a Tery 
low station to be the most important personage in the court of 
the Peishwa, fanned these feelings, and was ready to take any 
step for their gratification. The British goyemment was 
bound by treaty to arbitrate certain long-standing disputes 
between the Peishwa and the Guicowar, or ruler of Baroda. 

In 1816, the Peishwa became pressing for the settlement of 
the disputed claims, and suggested that Gungadhur Shastry, 
the Guicowar*s minister, should come to Poona, there to assist 
in the investigation and settlement of them. The Shastry 
knew that he was hated by Bajee Hao ; he knew, moreover, the 
character of that prince, and that of his minion Trimbuckjee 
Danglia. It is not therefore surprising that he should have 
been reluctant to place himself in any degree in the power of 
such men. But the British government guaranteed the per- 
sonal safety of the Guicowar*s minister, and, thus assured, he 
ceased to be actuated by apprehensions which probably could 
have been overcome in no other way. The arrival of the Shastry 
was welcomed by Bajee Bao with the strongest demonstrations 
of friendship ; he proposed to unite the family of his visitor 
with his own by marriage ; and it is not unlikely that the flatter- 
ing proposal tended in some degree to throw the stranger off 
his g^ard and diminish his fears, though it did not altogether 
remove them. The Peishwa and the Shastry proceeded to- 
gether on a pilgrimage to Punderpoor, one of those places 
which Hindoo superstition baa invested with sanctity. While 
there, the Shastry was invited by Trimbuckjee to repair to a 
celebrated temple, on some occasion which was regarded as of 
peculiar solemnity. His just appreciation of the villanous 
character of the man who proposed the visit was still sufB- 
ciently strong to induce him to hesitate ; and it was not until 
alter repeated messages that he yielded. He went, performed 
such devotions as Hindoo delusion prescribed, and on his 
return was assassinated by ruffians hired by Trimbuckjee 
Danglia, acting under the atrocious instructions of the master^ r. com 
of whom he thus proved himself so fitting an instrument. 

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The British Besident at the court of the Peishwa of course 
demanded the instant surrender of the wretch who had con- 
triyed the means and superintended the committal of the 
murder. The Peishwa sought to protect him ; but at length 
the British government obtained possession of his person. He 
was confined in the fort of Tanna, whence, however, he soon 
found means of escaping. In the mean time the Peishwa was 
secretlj striving by all the means in his power to induce the 
Mahrattas to unite in common cause against the English : 
Trimbuckjee, after his escape, actively promoted the designs of 
his master, by collecting troops for the meditated contest. 
These steps compelled the British government to pursue a 
decisive course, by demanding from the Peishwa such terms as 
a regard for the peace and security of India required, though 
by no means such as his crimes merited. He had no choice 
but to comply, or to be at once involved in war with the most 
powerful state in India. He was not prepared for the latter, 
and after a severe struggle, he most unwillingly and ungra- 
ciously accepted the terms tendered to him. 

On the conclusion of the consequent treaty, the greater 
portion of the British troops were withdrawn from the 
Peishwa’s territories, preparatory to operations against the 
Pindarries. This appeared to Bajee Bao to afford him another 
chance of gratifying his revenge, and he availed himself of 
the opportunity by concentrating a large force at Poona. The 
small British brigade left at that place was thereupon removed 
to Kirkee, four miles distant, for the sake of occupying a 
better position. At this place they were attacked by the 
Mahrattas ; but though the disparity of numbers was great, 
the enemy was repulsed at every point with great loss. A 
tedious course of warfare followed ; but in all the actions that 
took place, the Peishwa’s forces were defeated. Towards the 
end of May, 1818, Bajee Bao, wearied out by constant defeat 
and hopeless wandering, and perhaps apprehensive of a worse 
fate than that of falling into the hands of the British, opened 
a communication with Sir John Malcolm. The result was, the 
formal renunciation by Bajee Bao of all sovereign power, and 
his acceptance of a grant of pensionary provision, at the 
amount of which even he could not fail to be surprised, and 
which, considering the character of the man, together with the 


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> Jaequ«inonC. 

vl. M4. 

* Hebor, Narrnt. 
of Jouraej, II. 207. 


• Bombnj- Ro». 
C«mt. 11 Feb. 
1840. 


* Bombay Public 

niap- SI May, 

1844. 


POONA. 

facts of his deposal having been formally proclaimed, and his 
country almost entirely reduced, the Oovemor-G^eneral, the 
Marquis of Hastings, was justly warranted in considering 
unnecessarily large. He, however, ratified the terms. Bajee 
Hao lived many years to enjoy, or at least to receive and 
expend, the vast income which had been placed at his disposal. 

With him ended the dynasty of the Peishwa, begun in usurpa- 
tion and terminated in treachery. Out of the territoriee 
placed at the disposal of the British government by the crimes 
of Bajee Rao, a dependent principality was assigned to the 
rajah of Sattara, the representative of the founder of the 
Mahratta rule ; the remainder were incorporated with the 
British dominions. Latterly, the Sattara line of rajahs has 
run out its course, and this portion of territory has lapsed to 
the British government. 

POONA. — The principal town of the British coUectorate of 
the same name. It is situate on the small river Moota,^ 
immediately above its confluence with the Moola, in a treeless’ 
plain, extending eastward from the Ghauts, which, at the 
distance of a few miles, rise to the height of 1,000 feet above 
the town. Poona was originally an ill-built city, without walls 
or fort, the bazars were mean, and the streets irregular ; but 
recent and extensive improvements have changed both its 
character and appearance. In the period intervening between 
the years 1841 and 1846, no less than 400^ new houses were 
built, and several more were in the latter year in the course of 
construction. A stone bridge of excellent masonry across the 
Nagjurree Nullah was also in the last-mentioned year com- 
pleted, at the private cost of a wealthy courtesan, afiording 
greatly-increased facilities to a large class of grain-dealers for 
the transport of their grain into the heart of the town. The 
old Mahratta bridge across the Moota Moola river having 
fallen into decay, was taken down ; and it has been replaced by 
a bridge of stone, at an outlay of 47,000 rupees, or 4,700/^ 
of which the government contributed 3,600Z. The road over 
this bridge, which is at the west end of the city, is on the direct 
routed to Bombay, and by it European imported goods, salt, 
and other articles, are brought from that port, as well as sup- 
plies of provisions and fuel from the neighbouring diatrieta, com 
There is another bridge over the same river, in the vicinity of 

ISO 


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POONA. 


PooD% called the Wellesley Bridge, which was built by the 
gOTemmeDt. The streets^ and thoroughfares of the whole of 
tile eastern portion of the city adjacent to the cantonment 
hare been macadamized. The most remarkable building is the 
palace, formerly the residence of the Peishwa. It is of con- 
nderable extent, and contains a handsome quadrangle, sur- 
rounded by cloisters of carved wooden pillars. It now serves 
the Tarious purposes of a prison, an hospital, and a lunatic 
aBjlnm. The head-quarters of one of the divisions of the 
Bombay army are at Poona. The cantonments are on an 
dcTsted site a mile west of the city, and are perhaps the most 
extenjdye and best^arranged in India. The church is spacious 
ind convenient, but in bad architectural taste, and disfigured 
on the outside by gaudy colouring. Poona is represented to 
hare been long in a declining state. During the height of the 
Mahntta power, the population is believed to have amounted 
to 150, 000.® At the time of the overthrow of the Peishwa, in 
1818, it was estimated at 110,000 ; it was in 1838 rated at 
75470 .^ It is, however, to be observed, that these numbers 
are but conjectural ; and the recent increase of houses, already 
adyerted to, would scarcely seem compatible with any con- 
lidermble diminution of inhabitants. Measures are in progress^ 
for effectiog municipal improvements in the city. 

An ample supply of water for this city had long been a want 
of primary importance,^ as affecting the health and comfort of 
the inhabitants ; and endeavours have been made to obtain this 
desideratum by the repair and enlargement of the adjacent 
tanka and aqueducts. These measures, however, proved in- 
efectua], and it was finally decided to throw a dam across the 
Hoota Moola river, with adequate waterworks for the supply ^ 
of the city. Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy agreed to defray the 
coat, which was estimated at 73,945 rupees, or 7,394/., exclusive 
of the machinery, which this distinguished benefactor of his 
country also undertook to provide. The dam, which was to be 
erected under the superintendence of an officer of the govern- 
oent, was commenced in the year 1844, but twice failed, once 
in 1845, and again during the floods in the following year. Sir 
Jamae^ee having already expended on this work a sum amount- 
ing to 175,000 rupees, or 17,500/., the completion of the work 
in 1847^ authorized at the public expense. The estimated 
• M *"*1 


* Bombftj IUt. 
Ootw. F«b. 184S. 


* ElphllMtOD*, 
Raport 00 tha 
Tarrltoriaa eon- 
quarad from U»a 
PaUhwa, 148. 

^ Ratura to Law 
Oommlaakm. 18S8. 

* Bombay Jud. 
Dlap. IS Oct. 1860. 


* Bombay Pablie 
DUp. 9 Not. 1849. 


• Id. 17 July. 
1844. 


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• Id.SOAuf. 1847. 


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cost 


POONA. 


* Bomtwj Publle 
Dbp. 90 Not. 
1890. 

* Id. 18 Jul/, 
1898. 


* Report on Not. 
Fern. Ed. 1898. 


I 87,775 rupees, or S,777L Late in the year last 
mentioned, further difficulties were encountered in the con- 
struction of the dam, and a third failure ensued. In the year 
1850, however, the works were brought to a termination,^ and 
a full supply of water has been thus secured to the mass of 
population in the vicinity of the cantonments.^ 

There was a government English school in this city, which, 
in 1846, contained 118 pupils. On this number, the large 
majority (eighty-one) consisted of Brahmins ; the remaining 
number (thirty-seven) was composed of Purvoes, Indo-Britons, 
Sonars, and nine other castes. A public examination of the 
school was held in October, 1846, conducted by the bishop of 
Bombay. With respect to the highest class, his lordship 
expressed himself in terms of high praise. This school has 
been recently amalgamated with the Sanscrit College, which 
was instituted in the year 1821, for the preservation, it is 
stated, of the ancient literature of the country. It is placed 
under the special superintendence of a European officer. It 
consists of three departments, Sanscrit, English, and Normal, 
and in 1853 contained 497 pupils, of whom 342 were in the 
English department. An interesting experiment is now in 
progress for promoting female education in this town. In 
July, 1851, the first girls* school in Poona was established by 
a few educated native gentlemen. The number of girls under 
tuition at the end of the first year was fifty. At the close of 
the second, the number of schools had increased to three, 
while the aggregate number of pupils amounted to 237.^ 

With the exception of grain-dealers, and those who trade in 
the raw products of the country, the mercantile classes in 
Poona are said to be declining in wealth. No market is now 
found for jewellery and precious stones, which were much 
sought after when Poona was the seat of native rule. The 
introduction of European piece-goods has caused the disappear- 
ance of native fabrics, which could not compete with them in 
price, and Poona has now scarcely any manufacture except a 
very small one of paper. Judging, however, from the Rnn md 
increase in the number of houses, it is to be presumed that the 
loss of the trade, consequent on the deprivation of a court and 
other causes, has been supplied to some extent from new 
Boiurces. 

182 


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realpatidar.comPOONAHANAH. 

The judicial establiahment conaiata of one European judge 
md aoenona judge, who ia also gOTemment agent for the adjuat- 
meat of claima againat airdara, and one European aaaiatant- 
jodge. There ia a auperintendent of police, and aaaistant- 
nagutrate, who ia a European. The native judicial officers 
are one principal audder aumeen, two audder aumeena, and 
aeren moonaifia. 

The first mention of Poona in history aeema to have been in 
16(4, when it was granted by the sultan of Ahmednuggur aa 
jaghire to Mallojee,^ the grandfather of Sevajee, the Mahratta 
chief. In 1687 it waa^ confirmed by the sultan to Shahjee, 
hiher of Sevajee. In 1668, during the operations conducted 
against Sevajee, by order of Aurungzebe, the imperial viceroy 
Shaista Khan took possession of this open town, from which, 
when sorpriaed a few days afterwards by Sevajee, he had great 
difficulty in making hls^ escape. His son, and most of hia 
guard, were cut to pieces, and he himself wounded. A power- 
ful force, however, immediately reinstated the discomfited 
commander. In 1667, Aurungzebe restored^ Poona to Sevajee ; 
but under the sway of hia sncceaaor Sambajee, it was occupied^ 
hf Kh an Jehan, an officer of the Padshah. On the Peiahwa 
obtaining aupremacy in the Mahratta confederacy,^ the seat of 
government was removed from Sattara to Poona. In 1768, 
Noam Ali, of Hyderabad, sacked^ the town, and burned such 
parts of it aa were not ransomed. In the struggle between 
Ibe I nocesaive peishwaa and their nominal aubordinates Soindia 
and Holkar, Poona Buffered many viciaaitudea, until, in 1802, 
bf the proviaionB of the treaty of Baaaein, the Peiahwa admitted 
a British subsidiary force to be stationed there. After the 
dcpoaai of the Peishwa Bajee Bao (the particulars of which 
mnt are narrated in the article on the Poona collectorate), 
the dty became the locality of the Britiah civil establish ment, 
aa well aa of the principal cantonment of the Deccan. Eleva- 
tioQ above the sea 1,828^ feet. Distance from Bombay, S.E., 
7i milea; from Sattara, N., 68; from Ahmednuggur, S.W., 
70. Lat. 18° 8P, long. 78° 63'. 

POONAHA-WTAH, in the British district of Goorgaon, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Muthra to Bewaree, 40 miles N.W. of the 
fiwner. Lat. 27° 61', loug. 77° 16'. 

m2 


• Du0; Htet. of 
MAbrattM, I. Ut. 
V Id. i.iie. 


• Id. I. lee. 
ElplilDsUMia, HUU 
of iDdK U. 4S6. 


• Duff. HIM. or 
Mahr«tlM,L9fl. 

* Id. 1 . ssa. 


* Id. li. SO, as. 


• Id. IL ITS. 


* PhItoMph. 
Tnins. 188S. p. 170 
— Sjkw,M«t«oro- 
10(7 of Doecaa. 

R.IJC. Mk Doc. 


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B.l.C. Ha. Doc. 


> B.I.C. Ml. Doc. 


* Madras MlllUrj 
Dlsp. 17 Julj, 
1800. 


■ B.I.C. Ms. Doc. 
Fraser, Tour in 
Hlmalaja, 100. 


• Ut mpn, 100. 


POO. 

POONAKULLO. — A town in the native state of Hyder- 
abad, or territory of the Niaam, situate on the left bank of the 
Godavery river, and 126 miles N.N.E. from Hyderabad. Lat. 

19"’ 6', long. 79° 7'. 

POONAMALLEE.* — A town in the British district of 
Chingleput, presidency of Madras, 13 miles W.S.W. of Madras. 
Poonamallee is a military station, and accommodation u main- 
tained for two or three companies of European troops.’ Lat. 

13° 2', long. 80° 10'. 

PO ON ASS A. — A town in the native state of Gwalior, or 
territory of Scindia’s family, 82 miles S.E. by S. from Oojein, 
and 97 miles W. by N. from Baitool. Lat. 22° 10', long. 

70° 30'. 

POONCH. — See Punch. 

POONDUB.^ — A district originally subject to the hill state 
of Joobul, of which it forms the northern part. It extends 
about eight miles in length, nearly in a direction from south- 
west to north-east, and five in breadth, in a direction at right 
angles with the former; lying between lat. 30° 68' — 81° 4', long. 

77° 35' and 77° 42'. This tract consists principally of a main 
ridge running from south-west to north-east, forming part of 
the range connecting the peak of Wartu with that of Chur, and 
having probably an elevation of from 6,000 to 7,000 feet above 
the sea. The streams flow across the district in a south- 
easterly direction towards the Tonse. They so abound in fish, 
that some men employed by Fraser’ in about twenty minutes 
drew out a considerable quantity by hand merely, they being 
unprovided with any fishing apparatus. The inhabitants are a 
hardy, fearless race, who continued to resist the Gkx>rklias 
after the other mountaineers had submitted, and until after a 
bloody conflict at Matteelee, where they were overpowered by 
a force of 6,000 men. On the march of the English troops into 
this part of the mountains, the inhabitants again rose in arms 
against the Goorkhas, exterminated those occupying their 
country, and investing the fort of Chepal, farther south, con- 
duced mainly to its surrender. On the expulsion of the 
Goorkhas, and subsequent pacification of the country, Poondur 
devolved to the East-India Company for want of heirs to the 
former ruling family ; and as no advantage appeared rlikely to .com 
result from retaining dominion over its barren soil and rude 

1S4 



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people, it waa, by the advice of Sir I>avid Ochterlony, trona- 
ferred to the rana of Keonthul, its proBejit Boyereign. It ia 
estimated by De Cniz® to have an anttual reyenue of 3001, and 
a population of 8,000, of whom 400 bear arms. 

POOKG* — A town in the British district of Amherst, one 
of the Tenasaerim provinces, presidency of Bengal, 11 miles 
K* of Moulmem* l^t, 16° 88', long. 97® 42'. 

FOONGUJj, in the Bajpoot state of Beekaneer, a village on 
the route from the town of Beekaneer to that of Bahawnlpoor, 
and 48 mOes N,W. of the former^ It is described by Mphinstone 
as situate amidst desolation, striking even In that desert region. 
“ If I could present to my reader the foreground of high sand^ 
hilb, the village of straw huts, the clay walla of the little fort 
going to ruins, as the ground which supported them was blown 
away by the wind, and the sea of sand, without a sign of vege- 
tation, which formed the rest of the prospect, he probably 
would feel as 1 did, a sort of wonder at the people who could 
reside in so dismal a wilderness, and of horror at the life to 
which they seemed to be condemned.’’ Lat, 23° 29', long, 
72° 62'. 

POONITU, — A town in the native state of Travancore, 
territory of Madras, 67 miles N. by E. from Quilon, and 91 
miles N-W, from Tinnevelly. Lat. 9° 40', long. 76° SO', 

POONOO. — A town in the British district of Sbiharpoor, 
territory of Scinde, presidency of Bombay, 32 miles W, of 
Shitarpoor. Lat. 27° 68', long. 68° 8', 

POONPOON- — A river rising in Bamgurb, among the 
mountains on the nortbem frontier of Behar, about lat. 24° 80', 
long. 84® 20^. It holds a course generally north-east, through 
Behar and Patna, receiving in its course some considerable 
torrents. At its mouth it has steep banks, about thirty feet 
high, and a channel 100 yards wide. Its total length of course 
is about 180 miles. At the distance of a few miles further 
east, is the course of the X/ittle Poonpooo, holding a direction 
nearly parallel to that of the larger stream, and ultimately 
joining it twelve miles above its confluence with the Ganges, 
at Futwa, in lat. 26° 29', long. 86° 28'- 

POON WA,' in the British district of Allahabad, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route, by Bajapoor ferry, from the cantonment of Allahabad to 


^ PoL RtliHoM. 


B.I.a Urn. Da& 


Blphlaftlniw, Ac- 
count of CcuEhiI, 
1. IS. 


B,I.O Wk Doe. 


K-l.C. Hl Doe. 
Bucliansitp Surrcf 
of Kutcrn tmHa, 
U U. 


> E.t.C. Mi. Doe- 

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■orIc 


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* Oard«n, Tables 
of Routes, sa. 


E.f.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Csutlsy, on 
Osnsss Canal, 
Append. A. 

' B.1.0. Ma. Doe. 


* Oardsn. Tables 
of Routes, 190. 
Lord Valenlla, 

I. 904. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


* Benga] and 
Agra Guide, 1841, 
▼ol. ir. part I. 997. 
B.I.e. Ms. Doe. 


R.IJO. Ms. Doe. 


POO. 

BandA, and 88^ miles W. of the former. The road in tbii 
part of the route is bad and winding, the ooontiy well cnlti- 
rated. Lat. 25^ 27', long, sr 28'. 

POOPBEE. — A town in the Brituh distriot of Tirhoot, pre- 
sidenoj of Bengal, 86 miles N.E. of Mosufferpoor. lat 
26° Stf, long. 85° 60'. 

POOB, in the British district of Mosuffumuggor, lientenant- 
goremorship of the North-West Prorinces, a town, the prin- 
cipal place of the pergunnah of the same name. Eleration 
above the level of the sea 963^ feet. Lat. 29° 40, long. 

77° 54'. 

POOBAH,^ in the British district of Cawnpore, lientenant- 
govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from the cantonment of Futtehgurh to that of Cawnpore, 
and 26^ miles N.W. of the latter. It has a basar, and is well 
supplied with water. The road in this part of the route is 
indifferent, the soil rather sandy, bat highly cultivated, and 
abounding with groves of mango-trees. Lat. 26° 45', long. 

80° 9'. 

POOBAINUH, in the British district of Qoruckpoor, liea- 
tenant-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Gk>ruckpoor to Oudh, 54 miles W. by N. of the 
former. Lat. 26° 49', long. 82° 82'. 

POOBALIA. — A British district in the presidency of Bengal, 
bounded on the north-west by those of Barrabhoom and 
Pachete ; on the east by Banooorah and Midnapoor ; and on 
the south-west by Singhboom and the native state of Mohur* 
bunge. It lies between lat. 22° 9' — 23° 15', long. 86° 5'— 

87° 18' ; is seventy miles in length from north-east to south- 
west, and sixty miles in breadth. Pooralia, the principal place, 
is the station of the assistant to the political agent for the 
south-west frontier of Bengal and commiasioner for Chota 
Nagpore. It is situate forty miles west of Bancoorah.^ 

POOBANDA. — A town in the British district of Pumeab, 
presidency of Bengal, 22 miles W. of Pumeah. Lat. 25° 46', 
long. 87° KX. 

POOBANUM, in the Jetch Dooab division of the Pui^ab, 
a town situated on the left bank of the Jbelnm, 89 miles 
N.N.W. of the town of Lahore. Lat. 82° 46', long. 73° 4tfJar.com 

1S8 


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FOOHBOONIr in Koonawiir, a district of Busealiir, is a 
village on the left bank of the Sutluj^ It is of considerable 
size, with houses built of hewn stone, bonded with beams of 
deodar. The roofs are dat^ and formed of tempered clay, 
spread over layers of hireh-bark, supported by borisontal 
timbers. Grapes are produced here in great abundance and 
of £ne quality. The inhabitanta are, like moat other ‘K-Oonsr 
waris, of a commercial turn, and trade to Chinese Tartary, 
taking thither iron, horse-shoes, swords, matchlocks, dried 
fi-uits, and tobacco, and receiving in return wool, salt, goats, 
and sheep. Poorbooni is 7,318 feet above the sea. Xiat, 
81° 35^ long. 78° 22^. 

POOBBUNBBE,! in the peninsula of Kattywar, province 
of Guserat, a town on the south-west coast, in the district of 
Burda. Though having no shelter for ships ^ of consider^le 
burthen, in consequence of a bar obstructing the entrance, it 
is much frequented by craft of from twelve to eighty tons 
burthen, and “ is the best on the west coast,*** carrying on 
brisk trade with the opposite coast of Africa, and with various 
ports in Sinde, Beloochistan, Arabia, the Persian Gulf, and the 
coasts of the Concan and Malabar ; and about sixty vessels of 
various sixes belong to the port. The exports are principally 
grain and cotton, the imports of various kinds. Poorbunder 
belongs to a rana or chief of the Jaitwa tribe of Bajpoote, who 
also holds the whole district of Burda or Jaitwar, for which be 
pajs^ an annual tribute of 3,000^ to the Guicowar, and also 
pays annually to the British government the moiety of the 
duties levied at the seaport of Poorbunder, yielding annually a 
revenue of from 3,000^, to BfiOOL The reigning family claim 
descent from Han u man, the monkey-god, and are believed 
popularly to resemble him in the appendage* of tails, whence 
their surname Pancheria, or “ tailed.** Distance from Ahmed- 
abad, S.W., 210 miles ; Baroda, W., 230 ; Bombay, N.W., 275, 
Lat. 21° 87', long. 69° 45'. 

POOBiEE.— See JtrooimHxirTH. 

POOBrMAH. — A town in the recently lapsed territory of 
Kagpoor, 126 miles E.N.E. from Nagpoor, and 87 miles S, 
from Bamgur. Xat. 21° 38', long. 81° 8'. 

POOBNA, a river of Hyderabad, and a considerable feeder 

1€7 


c , ; Lvv 


E.r.a THf«t. 
Syrr. 

Aa ir. SfiO 
— Hertwit, tm 
Lmfmlm at 


1 E.t.c. Ml. nob 


■ Kyr^HiTirh^ 
Bnd-Indlit Otrvc- 
lory, I. 4S0. 


* Ropoit 

on Koltfowor, la 


^ Cluno, Siipplo- 
nipnt la Illnvnry 
of WnUm liHlkA, 
54, 55, 


* TrsmutLOf Lit. 
Soc. of Bombiir, 

U lf«o^ 

itiardo, on lb* 
Prvvtnev of Ktl’^ 
tlwr. 


realpatidar.com 




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POO. 


B.t.C. Ms. Doc. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


1 B.I.O. Ms. Doe. 
Dslrjmpls, Orlcn^ 
tel Repertory. 

I. 407. 

* Mem. of Operm- 
tlona of British 
Army In Indie, 
941. 

* Duff, Hist, of 
Mehrettes, 1.900. 

* Sykes, oo Por- 
tion of Deecen. 
419. 


• Duff, Hist, of 
Mehrettes, 1. 180. 

* BIphinstnoe, 
Hist, of Indie, 

II. 480. 

^ Duff. 1. 907. 


of the Godavery, rises in lat. 20® 22', long. 76® 16', and, flowing 
south-east for 100 miles, falls into the Godayerj river, in lat. 

10® 6', long. 77® 6'. 

POOBNA. — A river rising in lat. 20^ 60', long. 73® 44', on 
the western slope of the Western Ghats, and flowing through 
the territory of the Daung rajahs, Wusravee, and the British 
district of Surat, falls into the North Indian Ocean, in lat. 

20® 63', long. 72® 48'. 

POOKNAH KIVBB rises in lat. 21® 36', long. 77® 41', 
in the British district of Baitool, and flowing southerly for 
sixty-five miles through that district, and for ninety-five 
through one of the recently sequestrated districts of the 
Nisam’s dominions, falls into the Taptee, in lat. 21® 4', long. 

76® 8'. 

POOBOGAON. — A town of Eastern India, in the British 
district of Northern Cachar, presidency of Bengal, 60 miles £. 
by S. of Jynteahpore. Lat. 26® 4', long. 93®. 

POOBSA. — A town in the British district of Dinajepore, 
presidency of Bengal, 39 miles S.E. of Dinajepoor. Lat. 26® 13', 
long. 89® 6'. 

POOBUNDHUB,* in the collectorate of Poona, presidency 
of Bombay, " a hill fort,* connected with a neighbouring range.” 

The highest point* of the mountain of Poorundhur is upwards 
of 1,700 feet from the plain immediately below, and 4,472 
feet^ above the sea. There are two forts, an upper and a 
lower, situated from 300 to 400 feet below the summit. The 
works, like most of the hill forts in that part of the country, are 
of perpendicular rock, and frequently weakened rather than 
strengthened by curtains and bastions of masonry, by which 
the natural defences are generally surmounted. It was one of 
the first places which the Mahratta chief Sevajee secured,* and 
he obtained it by practising on the weakness of those by whom 
it was held. In 1665 it was invested* by the forces of Aurung- 
sebe, under the command of Dilir Khan, and though the 
defence was obstinate,^ and the success of the undertaking 
doubtful, Sevajee appears to have been so intimidated at the 
prospect of its fall, that he surrendered the place and himself, 
and entered the service of Aurungzebe, from whom, however, 
be soon revolted, and in 1670 recaptured the fort. Afrer tidar.com 
the power of the Peishwas had superseded that of the descend- 

188 


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Anti of 3eT«jee at Poona^ it was the usual strongliold to which 

tte fencer retreated when unable to remain iu eafety at the 

etpital. In 1818 it was iuTeated* by a British force, and, after a ■ Bi«ker, m™, 

brief reriatance, Burrendered at discretion. The fort commands a Tn 

pteMge through the Ohats, denominated the Poorundhur Obat^ ^“*‘^** 

Here, in 1776, was concluded a treaty between the Britisb 
goT^nunent and the Mahratta states f bat its conditions were 
Dcrsr fulfilled j the treaty being overruled by a subsequent 
agreement between the Bombay government and Bagoba. 

The Poorundhur village schools were established by way 
of experiment, by Xiieutenant Shortrede, in 1836, with sohooU 
miitefs on rates of pay from three rupees to eight rupees per 
tnmsem, principally for the purpose of introducing some little 
isitructioD among the agricultural classes. These rates proved 
too low, except for a very inferior class of teachers. Accord- 
ingly, the reports of the Poorondhur schools cxin tinned to ho 
frim year to year exceedingly unsatisfactory. The attention 
of the Board of BSducation was constantly directed to the inca- 
ptcity of the masters and the apathy of the inhabitants, and 
in 1S46 it was determined not only to reopen no school in the 
dirtrict which had once been closed, but to take every oppor- 
hmity of abolishing the schools still existing, and to appro- 
pnste the fund in support of a fewer number of schools of a 
higher class. The number of schools in the Poorundhur districta 
of the Poona coUectorate in 1846 amounted to sixty, and that 
of boy a to 1,353. 

Poorundhur ia one of the sanitarial stations^ for Buropean » xn* 
officers : it is distant 20 miles S.E. of Poona, 40 miles N. of 
Sattara, and 00 3.E. of Bombay. Iia(. 18° IB', long. 74° 2', 

POOBUNGTJBH. — A town in the British district of But- E,f,c. »■. Doc. 
nageriah, presideucy of Bombay, 12 miles S. of Butnageriah. 

Lit. 16^ Stf, long. 73° 22'. 

POOBUNPOOB, in the British district of Sbahjehanpoor, E.t.c. 
lieiitenant-gOTemorsbip of the North-West Provinces, a town 
^ the route from Bareilly to the Nepal territory, 48 miles E, 
by N. of the former. Lat. 28° SO', long. 80^ 13'. 

POOBWA. — A town in Buodelcund, situate on tho left 
bink of the Pysunnee river, distant four miles N, from Tir- 

bowaiu liat. 25° 16', long. 80° 56'. The territory of which realpatidar.com 

fiih town is the principal place, belongs to a native chief under 

109 


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Mf. Doc. 


Garden, Table* of 
Route*. 177. 


B.l.C. M* Doc. 
Garden. Table* of 
Route*, 197. 

■ EAX:, M*. Doe. 

• Garden. Table* 
of Route*, 199. 

B.I.C. M*. Doe. 

B.I.& lU*. Doe. 


POO. 

the protection of the British goTemment : it contains an am 
of twelve square miles, and a population of 1 , 800 . 

POOBWAH. — A town in the native state of Oude, 65 miles 
N.W. from Lucknow, and 37 miles E.N.R from Furmckabsd. 

Lat. 27^ 80', long. 80° 18'. 

POOBWAH. — A town in the native state of Oude, 29 milsi 
S.S.W. from Lucknow, and 80 miles B. from Cawnpoor. Lat 
26° 29', long. 80° 61'. 

POOBYNHA, in the British district of Shahjehanpoor, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from Futtehgurh to the cantonment of Shahjehan- 
poor, and 18 miles S.W. of the latter. The road in this pari 
of the route is indifferent ; the country level, open, and par- 
tially cultivated. Lat. 27° 45', long. 79° 46'. 

POOBTNEE, in the British district of Bijnour, lieutenant^ 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Moradabad to Hurdwar, and 44 miles N.W. of the 
former. The road in this part of the route is good, and passes 
through an open and partially cultivated country. Lat. 29° 24', 
long. 78° 31'. 

POOSA,^ in the British district of Tirhoot, presidency of 
Bengal, a town on the route from Dinapore to Pumeah, 

50 miles^ N.E. of former, 150 W. of latter. It is situate on 
the banks of the Little Gunduck river, has a good basar, and 
supplies are abundant. Lat. 25° 59', long. 85° 41'. 

POOT. — A town in the British district of Tavoy, one of the 
Tenasserim provinces, presidency of Beng^, 110 miles S. byB. 
of Moulmein. Lat. 14° 56', long. 98° 5'. 

POOTH, in the Bi^ish district of Meerut, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the route 
from Meerut to Budaoon, 88 miles S.E. by E. of the former. 

Lat. 28° 40', long. 78° 16'. 

POOTLEE. — See Kotpootlbb. 

POOTLEE. — A town in the Bajpoot state of Ulwar, 28 miles 
W.N.W. from TJlwar, and 98 miles S.W. from Delhi. Lat. 

27° 40', long. 76° 13'. 

POOTOBAY. — A town in the native state of Travancore, 
presidency of Madras, 20 miles S.E. frx>m Trivandrum, and 
82 miles W.N.W. from Cape Comorin. Lat. 8°rl7', long.com 
77° 11'. 

ITS 


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POOTTOOB. — town in the British district of South 
CiDsrt, presidencj of Madras, 26 miles B. bj S. of Mangalore. 
Lit 12° 4r, long. 75° 15'. 

POBAKADT. — A town in the British district of Malabar, 
premdencj of Madras, 55 miles E. by 8. of Cannanore. Lat. 
U^41Mong. 76° 13'. 

POEENAUMLA. — A town in the British district of Cud* 
dipsb, presidency of Madras, 89 miles N. by E. of Cuddapah. 
Lit 15°, long. 79° 4'. 

PORIAN POINT, on the coast of the British province of 
Pegn, it the mouth of the Negrais river. It lies low, is 
formed of white cliffs covered with trees. Distant 69 miles 
SAW. of Bassein. Lat. 15° 49', long. 94° 29^. 

POEKA, or POBBIAD,^ in the territory of Travancore, 
nnder the political superintendence of presidency of Madras, 
I town on the seacoast, having a trade in timber, cocoanuts, 
prpper, ind coir or cocoanut-fibre. There is no haven or port 
ofinj kind, and ships trading here anchor^ in the open sea off 
the town, in six fathoms water, one and a half or two miles 
from shore. It was formerly a place of much greater import- 
lace than it is at present, and was the principal place^ of a 
•ttiD rij or state, which was subverted in the year 1746, by 
tbe r^ih of Travancore. Distance from the city of Cochin, 
SB, 53 miles. Liat. 9° 2(y, long. 76° 25'. 

POBTO NOVO,* in the British district of South Arcot, 
premdency of Madras, a town on the Coromandel coast, at the 
oxnith of the river Vellaur, which, rising near the base of the 
Qhats, and having a considerable length of course, is 
■ttU it its mouth, and admits^ only coasting crafl. Ships of 
wperior burthen must anchor two miles off shore, where 
hire six or seven fathoms of water, with good holding- 
pwmd in mud. This town was formerly of considerable im- 
P^’rtance and prosperity ; but having suffered much in the wars 
kitween the British and Mysorean governments, sank into 
Its prosperity is, however, rising, in consequence of 
^ffesiive ironfoundry-works having been established here by a 
i^i^hstock association, caUed the East-India Iron Company, 
whom also belong the works at Beypoor.® The ore smelted 
•• m great abundance^ in the vicinity, and can be reduced by 
*he usual processes into the finest steel. 

171 


B.I.C. lift. Doo. 


E.1 C. Mb. Doc. 


F..r.C. Ms. Doe. 


> E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Honbonrh, 
East* India Dirac- 
lory, I. 514. 


* Rertolomeo, 
Vojrace to the 
East Indies. IIS 
(Translation). 
Wilks, Historical 
Sketches, 111.81. 

I B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Horsborfh, 
East-IndIa Dlroe* 
torj, 1. 600. 


• Friend of India, 

18S4, p. 40. 

* Report on Med. 

realpatidar.com 

Centra Division of 
Madras Arroj, OS. 


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POEr— POW. 


B.I.C. M«. D. r. 


B If*. Doe. 


B.I.O. Ms. Doe. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


* E.I.C. U*. Doc. 


* SUtlatIc* of 
N.W. ProT.Ot. 


Bf.C If*. Doc. 


Porto Novo was burned by Hyder Ali in July, 1780, upon 
his first irruption into the Carnatic. In the following year, a 
critical battle was fought at this place, between Hyder and the 
British, which terminated in the complete discomfiture of the 
former. Hyder had anticipated a different result. Belying 
upon his vast superiority of numbers, he trusted that the day 
had arrived when he might completely annihilate the only army 
that remained to oppose him, and actually issued an order at 
the commencement of the action, that no prisoners should be 
taken. Distance from Tranquebar, N., 32 miles ; Madura, 

N.E , 155 ; Tanjore, N.B., 63 ; Madras, S., 116. Lat. 11° 31', 
long. 79° 49'. 

PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS.— See Goa, Die, and 
Damait. 

POTAL. — A town in the British district of My m unsing, 
presidency of Bengal, 44 miles S.W. by W. of Nusserabad. 

Lat. 24° 21', long. 89° 

POTALPUTTOO. — A town in the British district of North 
Arcot, presidency of Madras, 35 miles N.W. by N. of Arcot. 

Lat. 13° 20', long. 79° 9'. 

POTHEE. — A village in the British district of Bohtuk, 
division of Dehli, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West 
Provinces. Lat. 29° 5', long. 76° 20'. 

POUDELLAH. — A town in the British district of Nellore, 
presidency of Madras, 28 miles W.N.W. of Ongole. Lat. 

15° 38', long. 79° 41'. 

PC UNA, or PONNA.— See Gonkob. 

POUNNALY. — A town of Burmah, situate on the left 
bank of the Irawady river, and 66 miles N. from Ava. 

Lat. 22° 49', long. 96°. 

POWAEEN,* in the British district of Shahjehanpoor, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
on the route from Shahjehanpoor to Jemlah, 18 miles N.E. of 
the former. Powaeen is returned as containing a population 
of 5,245 inhabitants.^ Lat. 28° 4', long. 80° 10'. 

POWANGUBH. — A town in the native state of Guzerst, 
or dominions of the Guicowar, 22 miles N.E. from Baroda, 
and 69 miles S.E. by E. from Ahmedabad. Lat. 22° 28', 
long. 73° 30'. realpatidar.com 

POWAB. — A town in the British district of Poonah, 

17J 


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presidency of Bombay, 17 miles W. of Poonah. L*at. 18° 3P, 
long. 73° 39'. 

POWNAR. — A town in the lapsed territory of Nagpoor or 
Berar, 40 miles S.W. from Nagpoor, and 79 miles £.S.£. from 
£ilichpoor. Lat. 20° 48', long. 78° 42'. 

PO WB££,* in the territory of Gwalior, a town on the route 
from Calpee to Kotah, 195 miles^ S.W. of former, 126 £. of 
latter. It has a bazar, and supplies may be had ; but the 
water, which is obtained fW)m a small stream and fjx>m wells, is 
bad. Lat. 25° 32', long. 77° 27'. 

POWTI. — A town of the British district Bijnour, lieute- 
nant-goTemorship of the North-West Provinces. Lat. 29° 12', 
long. 78° 32'. 

POWUNQURH. — A town in the native state of Kolapoor, 
presidency of Bombay, 64 miles S. from Sattara, and 69 miles 
N.N.W. fix)m Belgaum. Lat. 16° 47', long. 74° 12'. 

PRAIGPOOR,* in the Rajpoot state of Jeypore, a town on 
the route from Delhi to the town of Jeypore, 107 miles* S.W. 
of former, 54 N.E. of latter. It has a bazar, and water is 
plentiful. Lat. 27° 38', long. 76° 13'. 

PRANHETA RIVER.— See Weinotooa. 

PRINCE OF WALES ISLAND* (called also Penang, 
from its form resembling that of the areca nut, for which 
Penang is the Malay term*), is situate near the northern 
entrance of the Straits of Malacca, off the western coast of the 
Malay peninsula, being separated from its dependency Province 
Wellesley, on the mainland, by a channel two miles and a half 
wide. It lies between lat. 5° 14' — 5° 29', long. 100° 25' ; is 
fifteen miles in length and twelve in its greatest breadth, and 
contains an area of 160 square miles. 

Favoured by nature, not less in its highly advantageous 
mercantile situation than in the rich and varied produce of its 
soil, this flourishing island is sheltered from the south-west by 
the lofty mountains of Sumatra, and on the east by the chain 
of the Malayan peninsula, so that ships approaching its shores 
escape the fury of the storms which prevail in this quarter of the 
globe ; and a safe access is at all seasons easily obtained to the 

^ Tboagh tbia is the derivation given by several authorities, it appears 
not improbable that the large growth of areoas on the island should have 
given rise to the title. 

178 


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t R.I.C. Mt Doc. 

* Osrden. Tables 
of Rootes, 117. 


E.l.C. Ml. Doc. 


■ E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

* Garden, Table* 
of Routes, 148. 


I E.l.C. Ms. Doe. 


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PKINCE OF WALES ISLAND. 


* India Financial 
XNap. 94 Maj, 
18A4. 


■ Ward, Contri* 
butlocia to tha 
lied. Topoff. of 
Panang, 0-11. 


^ Id. 10-90. 


harbour, which, formed bj the strait separating Penang from the 
Quedah coast, is deep, with good anchorage, enabling ships of 
large burden to lie a few hundred yards off the to¥m ; and so 
spacious, us to be capable of containing almost any number of 
vessels. A considerable oommeroe is accordingly carried on, 
which is represented as being on the increase.^ The coast is 
bold, and studded with several islands, and on almost every 
side the shore is lined with groves of the cocoanut. A chain of 
mountains, having an elevation of from 2,000 to 2,500 feet above 
the level of the sea, run diagonally across the island from 
north-east to south-west ; on each side, extending from their 
base to the coast, are fertile plains, which are entirely cultivated, 
except where interrupted by forests of fine trees and groves of 
the areca. To the north-east is a level plain, throe miles in 
breadth, called the “ Valley.” This is the most populous part 
of the island ; Georgetown (the capital), with its forts, bar- 
racks, Ac., being built on its eastern extremity, and the houses 
of the principal European inhabitants scattered over its surface. 
The northern part is generally mountainous, and the summits 
of many of the hills are studded with residences of European 
planters. There are no rivers; but numerous streams and 
rivulets, which find their source in these mountains, serve to 
irrigate and fertilise the soil. 

The climate of Penang varies on the hills and in the valley. 

In the former it is most delightful : the medium temperature 
of the year is 70° ; the average annual range of the thermometer 
about 10°. Being exposed at all times to refreshing breezes, 
the heat in the middle of the day, in the hottest weather, is 
never oppressive ; and from the purity and bracing character 
of the air, together with the beauty of the scenery, it offers a 
most agreeable resort for convalescents. At some seasons, 
morning fogs hang over the summits, which make it cold, and 
render warm clothing necessary. In the valley,* covered with 
its rich verdure and luxuriant vegetation, the climate is moist. 
There the temperature in the day rises to 90°, and is seldom 
lower than 76° ; but the nights and mornings are always de- 
lightfully cool.* J anuary and February are the driest months ; 
April, May, and June are rainy ones; but showers are 
frequent throughout the year. The diseases which are mostj^^ 


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realpatidaP®^NCE OF WALES ISLAND. 

common are the cholera, fevers, diarrhoea, dysentery, rheu- 
matism, and ulcers. 

The geological formation of Prince of Wales Island is 
primitive. The mountains consist almost exclusively of granite ; 
mica occasionally occurs in pretty large quantities, and quartz 
is sometimes founcL The subsoil of the hills consists in some 
places of decomposed rock, varying from one to eight feet in 
depth ; the valley is of alluvial formation, formed by the 
detritus of the mountain, which has been accumulating for 
ages. Dr. Ward supposes that the sea at some remote period 
covered these parte, and washed the base of the mountains ; 
and this opinion is home out by the appearance of the opposite 
shore, where Captain Low discovered for some miles inland 
evidences of the gradual retirement of the ocean, in the ridges 
which at intervidB run parallel with the coast. The only 
mineral known to exist is tin ; and it is said the mountains are 
rich in this ore, though no mines have been worked. 

The soil throughout the island is generally light, but varies 
in quality : at the foot of the mountains it becomes rich ; in 
the valleys it consists of a vegetable mould, some inches in 
depth, with a substratum of sand. Towards the sea, where it 
has been covered with mangroves, the soil is a rich black 
mould, mixed with small quantities of sand and gravel. 

Tho whole island is covered with a luxuriant vegetation. 
When first transferred to the English, dense forests and noxious 
jungle covered its surface : these have been now cleared away, 
and highly-cultivated fields and smiling gardens occupy their 
place. The eastern side of the island, consisting of low lands, 
which are well adapted to the growth of rice, is almost exclu- 
sively appropriated to its cultivation. On the south-western 
side, the soil, being of a different character, is occupied by beau- 
tiful plantations of the spice and pepper plants. The cleared 
summits of the hills are productive in cloves, which are the finest 
in the world ; their sides are clothed with forests and planta- 
tions of tea, cotton, and tobacco ; and the plains are rich also 
in coffee, sugarcane, and all descriptions of fruit-trees and 
vegetables. The nutmeg is a tall tree: the island contains 
several descriptions, varying in the colour of their leaves and 
the shape of the fruit. The betel-vine is extensively planted ; 

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PBINCE OF WALES ISLAND. 


the natives have a great partiality for the leaf, and are large 
consumers of it. 

So great a variety of races constitutes the population of 
Prince of Wales Island, that Sir Oeorge Leith remarks, 
“ There is not, probably in any part of the world, so small a 
space in which so many different people are assembled together, 
or so great a variety of languages spoken.’* There are Malays, 
Chinese, Buttas, Bengalese, Europeans, Chuliahs, Siamese, and 
Burmese. When first taken possession of by the British, it 
was very thinly populated ; a few Malay families, who used to 
gain their livelihood by fishing, and several bands of pirates, 
being the only inhabitants. Soon after the settlement of the 
British, however, Chinese, and people from various countries, 
congregated here to enjoy the advantages of British protection ; 
and in 1797, ten years after the first establishment of the 
British, the number of inhabitants amounted to 6,937. In 
1801 it had increased to 9,587 ; in 1828 the population was 
87,716 ; in 1848 it had risen to 39,589. The total population 
of the Straits settlements at the same period, inclusive of 
military and convicts, was as follows : — 


Prince of Wales Island 39,589 

Province Wellesley 51,509 

Singapore 57,421 

Malacca 54,021 


* BmK«l R«veniM Totol^ 202,540 

DIsp. 15 Nov. 

1S4S. 


The British inhabitants are either planters, merchants, or 
gentlemen holding official situations. 

Prince of Wales Island is the seat of government for all the 
British possessions in the Straits. At the latter end of the 
last century, the East-India Company deemed it necessary to 
establish a port in the Straits of Malacca ; and after several 
fruitless endeavours to obtain Acheen, Penang was fixed upon. 

The Company were at the same time apprized by Captain 
Light, that the king of Quedah would transfer the island into 
their bands upon the annual payment of 6,000 Spanish dollars. 

Terms being drawn up and agreed to. Captain Light was 
appointed by the government superintendent of Qom 

settlement. Through the indefatigable exertions of Captain 

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Light, forests were cleared, lands distributed, a town built, and 
port constructed ; so that in a few years the island was in a 
iDoot flourishing condition. In 1791, the king of Quedah 
•eeing its prosperous state, demanded an increase of stipend, 
iod upon refusal, collected a force on the opposite shore for the 
purpose of attack. This intention, however, was frustrated by 
the timely operations of the superintendent, who, applying for 
mistance from Bengal, drove him away, dispersed his troops, 
ind afterwards entered into a treaty with him. Captain Light, 
after filling his station to the satisfaction of his country and 
those over whom he was placed, died in 1794. A few years 
afterwards, the designation of superintendent was changed to 
that of lieutenant-governor. In 1802, a strip of land on the 
opposite coast, now known as Province Wellesley, was obtained 
from the king of Quedah ; and in 1807, the judicial adminis- 
tration, previously in the hands of the local government, was 
▼wted in a recorder’s court. Before the year 1806, the 
authorities of Penang were subordinate to the Bengal presi^i 
dsncy : at that period they were constituted a separate 
presidency. This new arrangement lasted till 1830, when 
Malacca and Singapore were incorporated with Penang, and 
the eastern settlements were again made subordinate to Bengal. 

A commissioner or governor was appointed to preside over the 
three settlements, and a deputy resident was placed over each. 

In 1851, this dependency upon the government of Bengal was 
remoTed, and the governor of the united settlements was de- 
clared subject only to the government of India.* • coTenunenc 

PROMB. — A town in the British territory of Pegu, situate Vig”*** 

00 the left bank of the Irawaddy. It is a place of considerable loai, p. 4 . 
importance, and under British administration will probably 
sdraoce in commercial consequence, wealth, and prosperity. 

Daring the first Burmese war (1825), it was taken possession 
of by the British without the trouble of firing a g^n, the 
coemy having deserted it, after setting it on fire. The con- 
fi*gration destroyed one quarter of the town. The captors 
vere rewarded by finding among the spoil a hundred pieces of 
artillery and a large supply of grain. In the second war with 
Ats (1852), Prome again fell into the hands of the British, 
tod with almost as little efibrt on their part. Some resistance 
ofiered as part of the troops, after landing, advanced to 

• w 177 


( 


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PRO— PUB. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


E.l.C. Ut. Due. 


B.I.C. >1*. Doc. 


* B.I C. Ma. Doc. 
IfcMon. Kalat. 

mn. 

JiKirn. As. 8oc. 
Bcn«. 1840, p. 186 
— lisrl. Jour, 
from Kurrscliec 
to Hlofliij. 

• Pott. Bclooch. 
868 . 


* Ut supra, 136. 


* Bum^ Bokb. 
111. M6. 

* E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


* Rsrllanimtary 
Rcltim, April, 
1861. 

* Brngal and A fra 
Ouldf. 1M4V. vul. 
II. pan 1. 443, oula. 


the position meant to be occupied for the night ; but it waa 
speedily oTercome, with rerj trifling loes, and in the morning 
the town was found evacuated. Prome is distant from the 
town of Pegu, N.W., 118 miles. Iiat. 18® 47', long. 96® 8'. 

PROMNA. — A town in the British district of Amherst, one 
of the Tenasserim provinces, presidency of Bengal, 53 miles 
N. of Moulmein. Lat. 17® 18', long. 97® 42'. 

PROVINCE WELLESLEY. — See Wbllbslet Pbottwcb. 

PRUCHITQURH. — A town in the native state of Sawunt- 
warree, presidency of Bombay, 20 miles N.E. from Vingoorla, 
and 52 miles S.W. by S. from Kolapoor. Lat. 18® 3', long. 
73® 53'. 


PRUCHITGURH. — A town in the native state of Kolapoor, 
presidency of Bombay, 50 miles N.W. from Kolapoor, and 88 
miles S.W. by S. from Sattara. Lat. 17® 12', long. 73® 47'. 

PUBB MOUNTAINS,* extending southward from the 
Hala range, and forming a natural boundary between tho 
Belooche province of Lus and Sinde. If we consider their 
northern limit to be in lat. 28®, where the Hala range becomes 
contracted to about thirty miles in breadth,^ and their southern 
to bo Cape Monze, their length will be found to be about 
ninety miles. In lat. 25® 8', long. 88® 50', they are crossed by 
the route from Kurracheo to Sonmeanee, at the pass of Gun* 
cloba, described by Hart* as ** stony, of trifling ascent, and the 
descent equally gentle.” The highest part appears to be about 
lat. 26® 30', where native report represents the elevation as 
great, though it does not probably exceed that of the mountains 
of Western Sindo, considered to be about 2,000 feet.^ 

PUBNA.* — A British district under the presidency of 
Bengal, named from its principal place. It is bounded on the 
north by the British district Bogra or Bagura ; on the north- 
east by the British district Mymensing ; on the south-east by 
the British district Dacca Jelalpore ; on the south by the 
British district Jessore ; on the west, and also on the north- 
west, by the British districts Nuddea and Rajeshahye: it lies 
between lat.* 23® 34'— 24® 38', long. 88® 56'— 89® 48', and has 
an area of 2,808 square miles.* It is a remarkably watery 
tract, containing many jhils or shallow lakes, and being traversed 

• Ri)jgiiDge, in the northern quarter of tho dutrict, waa made 
Boogoorah in 1840.* 


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realpatidar.com PUBNA. 

tbe Ganges, and numerous offsets from that river and from 
tbe Brahnuipootra. The Ganges, called at this part of its 
oonns the Podda, enters the district at Balmarea, on the 
vestem frontier, in lat. 24° Icy, long. 88° 56', and holds a 
ooone sinuous, but generallj south-easterly, for ninety miles, 
to Molapora, in lat. 23° 4(y, long. 89° 52', where it passes into 
Dieea Jelalpore, about fiileen miles above which point, it on 
tbe left side receives the Jaboona, a great offset from tbe 
Bfmhmapootra. It throws off numerous offsets right and left, 
aod in many places expands widely, inclosing numerous ex« 
tensive islands. Heber,^ who navigated it during the rainy 
seteon, describes it at that time as from four to five miles 
vide. The Ballasir, a great watercourse formed by the junction 
of the Attree and the Burrul, an offset of the Podda, holds a 
course from north-west to south-east for fifty miles (or, in- 
cluding its affluents, sixty), and then joins the Jaboona, a great 
bnneh of the Brahmapootra. It is throughout a succession of 
lakes or jhils, many of which are of considerable extent. Tbe 
great river Curatteea joins it on the left side, about fifteen 
miles shove the confluence with the Jaboona. This last stream 
transmitting the main volume of the Brahmapootra, and flowing 
from north to south, forms the eastern boundary of this district 
during a course of twenty miles, when it falls into the Ganges 
on the left side. The Pubna, a considerable watercourse, parts 
from the Podda on the left side, near the town of Pubna, 
whence it derives its name, takes a sinuous, but generally south- 
^Mterly course, for about fifty miles, and rejoins the main 
stream just above its confluence with the Jaboona. The Gorai, 
the Chundna, and the Uariganga, large streams, diverge from 
the Podda on the right side, aud traverse the southern part of 
the district iu a south-easterly direction. The Kumar, a large 
offset from the Martabhanga branch of the Ganges, holding a 
»cry tortuous course, but generally in a south-easterly direction, 
(tvins tbe south-western boundary of this district, separating it 
from the British possession of Jessore for about sixty miles, to 
Sarhaz. Ail these streams communicate right and left by means 
of numerous channels, rendering the surface a reticulation of 
vatercourses, and everywhere, during the rainy season, causing 
widely-spread inundations. The district is indeed nearly as 
®ach mtersccted by watercourses as the Sunderbuuds ; but the 

V 2 


* Namt. oiJonrm. 
I. 109. 


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* Ut tupra, I. IM. 


• Parliamentary 
BaUim. 1831. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


E I.C. Ml. Doo. 


OardoDf Table* of 
Routett 809. 


E.I.e. Ma. Doc. 


PUB— PUC. 

Btreama of the former are fresh, whilst those of the latter are 
salt, or at least brackish. The country is in many places Terj 
fine, especially along the banks of some of the rivers. Heber, 
in the narrative^ of his navigation of the Chundna, obserres, 

“ The broad river, with a very rapid current, swarming with 
small picturesque canoes, and no less picturesque fisbemien, 
winding through fields of green com, natural meadows covered 
with cattle, successive plantations of cotton, sugar, and pawn, 
studded with villages, and masts in every creek and angle, and 
backed continually (though in a continuous and heavy line, like 
the shores of the Hooghly) with magnificent peepul, banian, 
bamboo, and cocoa trees, afford a succession of pictures the 
most riant that 1 have seen, and infinitely beyond anything 
which I ever expected to see in Bengal.” 

The population of this district, according to official return, 
amounts to 600,000.* 

From the facility of water-carriage in every part of the 
district, and in every direction, roads are little required. The 
principal routes are from north to south, from Pubna, by 
Comercolly, to Jessore ; from east to west, from Pubna to 
Cossim bazar and Moorshedabad ; and from south-east to north- 
west, from Pubna to Bam pore. 

This tract was acquired by the £ast-India Company in 1765, 
by virtue of the firman of Shah Alam, conveying to that 
authority the Dewanny of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. 

PUBNA. — A town, the principal place of the British dis- 
trict of the same name, situate about a mile north of the left 
bank of the Podda, or great eastern branch of the Oanges, and 
on the Pubna, an offset from it. The civil establishment here 
consists of a collector, with a suitable number of inferior 
officers. Pubna is distant N.£. from Calcutta 180 miles. 

Lat. 24^ long. 89° 12'. 

PUCCOLE. — A town in the British district of Mymunsing, 
presidency of Bengal, 49 miles S.S.W. of Nusserabad. Lat 
24° 9', long. 90° 

PUCHAK, in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a village on 
the route from Nusserabad to the town of Jodhpoor, and 
48 miles £. of the latter. It contains 200 houses, suppUed 
with water from ten wells. Lat. 26° 10', long. 73° 47';3lpatidar.com 

PUCHABI. — A village in the district of Shekawuttee, 

10U 


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realpatidar.com PUC. 


iemtoij of Jeypore, lieutenAnt-governorahip of the North* 

Wert Provinces. Lat. 28® 8', long. 78® 1'. 

P[JCHBUDRA, in the Sajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a town 
ODmiles S.W. of the city of Jodhpoor, and eight miles N. of 
the right bank of the Sonee. It is situate in a fertile but 
•caotilj cultivated country, and three miles south of salt 
mirshes, the brine of which is so strong in the dry season, 
that the salt spontaneously crystallizes into large masses about 
boshes thrown into the pools for that purpose. The town and 
the salt-works belong to the khalsa or royal estate of the 
miharaja of Jodhpur, and the revenue from them is allocated 
to the maintenance of his zenana. There is a manufactory of 
coarse cloths in the town, which contains about 1,000 bouses. 

Lit 25® sr, long. 72® 21'. 

PUCHESUTl, in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- e.i.c. m*. Doo. 
goreroorship of the North-West Provinces, a village at the 
confluence of the rivers Suijoo and Kalee (Bastern), on the 
led bank of the former, right of the latter, 10 miles S. of the 
cantonment of Petoragurh. Lat. 29® 27', long. 80® 18'. 

PUCHEWOR,* in the Rajpoot state of Jeypore, a town on > e.i.c. m*. i>o«. 
the route from Agra to Nusseerabad, 183* miles S.W. of • o.mm, taMm 
former, 40 N.E. of latter. It is of considerable size, has a 
htzar, and supplies and water are abundant. Lat. 26® 80', 
long. 75® 26'. 

PUCHGAIN, in the British district of Boolundshuhur, 
Heateoant-govemorsbip of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from Allygurh cantonment to that of Delhi, and 
35* miles N.W. of the former. The road in this part of the * "jj***** 

route is good, the country open and partially cultivated. Lat. 

28® 19', long. 77® 62'. 

PUCHOWREA, in the British district of Bareilly, lieu- e.i.c. m«. doc. 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route fn>m the town of Pillibheet to Petoragurh canton- 
®ent, 26 miles N.E. of the former. Lat. 28® 67', long. 80® 4/. 

PUCHPERA, in the British district of Allygurh, lieutenant- e-i.c. ut. Due. 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the city of Agra to Bareilly, and 62 miles N.E. of 
the former. Lat. 27® 41', long. 78® 87'. 

PUCHPERA, in the British district of Bareilly, lieutenant- e.i.c. m*. doc. 

governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 

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PUC— PUD. 


> E.tx:. Ms. Doc. 


* Garden, Tablet 
of Routta, 7. 


Bolleau, Ri^vrara, 
143. 71 W. 


* E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


• Garden, Tablet 
of Routes, W. 


E.IjC. Ua. Doe. 


route from the town of Pillibheet to Nugino, and 16 miles 
N.W. of the former. Lat. 28® 48', long. 79® 40'. 

PUCHPEKA,^ in the British district of Mynpoorie, lieute- 
nant-goyemorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the city of Agra to Etawa, and 30* miles N.W. 
of the latter. The road in this part of the route is good ; the 
country cultivated, and studded with small villages. Lat. 
27® 5', long. 78® 41'. 

PUCHROLI, in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a village on 
the route from the town of Jodhpoor to that of Ajineer, and 
87 miles N.W. of the latter. The road in this part of the 
route is indifferent. Lat. 26® 35', long. 74® 11'. 

PUCHUM SUREEORA,* in the British district of Allah- 
abad, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a 
village on the route by the Rajapoor ferry from the cantonment 
of Allahabad to Banda, and 39* miles W. of the former. The 
road in this part of the route is bad and winding, the country 
well cultivated. Lat. 26® 26', long. 81® 22'. 

PUCKA BHOOTA. — A town in the native state of Bha- 
wulpoor, situate on the left bank of the Indus river, and 
131 miles S.W. by W. from Bbawulpoor. Lat. 28® 26', long. 
69® 69'. 


B.I C Mb Ddc. 


E.I.C. Mt.Duc. 


E.I.e. Mb. Doc. 


* Garden, Tnbtra 
of Rouiea, 4. 


E I.C. Mb. Doc. 


PUCKERPOOR. — A town in the native state of Oude, 

51 miles N.E. from Lucknow, and 106 miles E.S.E. from 
Shahjehanpoor. Lat. 27® 22', long. 81® 86'. 

PUDAPADDY. — A town in the British district of Malabar, 
presidency of Madras, 49 miles S.E. by E. of Cannanore. Lat. 

11® 29', long. 76® 2'. 

PUDDOW. — A town in the British district of Tavoy, one 
of the Tenasserim provinces, presidency of Bengal, 131 miles 
N.N.W. of Tenasserim. Lat. 13® 53', long. 98® 22'. 

PUDHOR. — See Bhuddur. 

PUDORA, in the British district of Allygurh, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the city of Ag^ to Bareilly, and 68* miles N.E. of 
the former. It has water from wells, but other supplies roust 
be obtained from the surrounding villages. The road in this 
part of the route is generally good, the country level and par- 
tially cultivated. Lat. 27° 42', long. 78° 87'. realpatidar.com 

PUDREE. — A town in Scinde, situate in the territory of 

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realpatidar.com PHD — PUH. 

Ali Koorad, 73 miles S.3.E. from Bukkar, and lOG miles N.E. 
by N. from Hjdrabad. Lat. 26® 4(y, loog. 69® 19'. 

PUDEEE. — A town in the British district of Tirhoot, pre- 
sidenq' of Bengal, 44i miles S.£. of Darbunga. LaL 25® 88', 
Jong, 86® 23'. 

PUDEOWNAN.^ — The principal place of the pergunnah of 
Sidhoa Jobima, in the British district of Goruckpore, lieute- 
DinUgoTemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
HMite &om Goruckpore cantonment to MuUje, and 86’ miles 
E of the former. It is situate in a beautiful,’ well- wooded 
country, and when Buchanan surveyed it about forty years ago, 
"contained 700 bouses. A few had two stories, and a few 
were tiled, but by far the greater part consisted of miserable 
thatched huts. The nyah*s castle occupied one comer, and the 
whole had been eurrounded by a ditch and bamboo hedge.” 
He adds, The town had considerable manufactures of sugar, 
nitre, and cloth, and advances were made fmm the Company's 
hetory at Ghaxeepore for the two latter.” Supplies are 
ibondant here, and the road in this part of the route is good. 
Ikitant N.W. £ri>m Dinapoor 105 miles. Dat. 26® 50', long. 
84®!'. 

PUGGHB. — A town in the British district of Bamgur, pre- 
ndency of Bengal, 23 miles W. by S. of Hazareebagh. Lat. 
23° 54', long. 85® 8'. 

PUGHBOOKHEE. — A town in the British district of 
Behar, presidency of Bengal, 38 miles S. of Behar. Lat. 
24® 44', long. 85® 37'. 

PUHABEE, or PAIIABEE, a native state of Bundelcund, 
with sn area of four square miles, containing a population of 
800. The rajah maintains a military force of fifty infantry.^ 
Puharee, the capital, is in lat. 25® 14', long. 80® 50'. 

PUHABEE,’ in the territory of Bhurtpore, a village on the 
route from biathura to Ferozpoor, by Deeg, 54’ miles N.W. of 
fonner, 15 S.E. of latter. Lat. 27® 43', long. 77® 9'. 

PUHA800, in the British district of Boolundshuhur, lieu- 
te&sat-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Boolundshuhur to Allygurh, 19 miles S.E. of 
the former. Lat. 28® 11', long. 78® 8'. 

PUHPOOND,’ in the British district of Etawa, the prin- 
cipal place of the pergunnah of the same name, is situate near 

1S3 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


I B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* OarSea. Tablao 
of Routet, 183. 

* Duchaaao. 
Sarvry, IL 864. 


K.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


B.I.e. Ma. Doe. 


* StatUUc* of 
Nallre SUtca, 0. 

I B.I.O. Ma. Doe. 

* Garden. Tablaa 
of Routea, 806. 

B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


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PUH— PUK. 


* 9t«tUtlc« of 
N.W. Prov. 116. 


* Statistic* of 
Nailva SUta*. 8. 

> R.I.C. Trigoo. 
8u nr, 

* Qarard. Koona- 
wur. Table III. No. 
M. at and of vol. 
E.I.C. TrlgoB. 
Bunr. 

Qarden, Table* of 
Routa*, 836. 


B.I.C. M*. Doc. 


* Oardan, Tablee 
of Routa*» 44. 


• Buma*. Pol, 
Poirar of the 
Sikh*. 1. 

Wilson. Ariana 
Antique, 183. 
Ajaan Akbery, 

II. 100. 

* Rannell. 110. 

• Journ. A*. Soc. 
Bang. 1830. pp. 
303. 304 - Court. 
Conjactu ra* on 
the March of 
Alexander. 

* E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


* Garden. Tables 
of Routes^ 108. 


the river Seengur, 82 miles S.E. of Etawa, 66 miles W. of 
Cawnpore. Puhpoond contains a population of 6,063 inhabi- 
tants.* Lat. 26° 36', long. 79° 32'. 

PUJHLEAH, or PA HR AH, one of the native states of Bun- 
delcund, containing an area of ten square miles, with a popula- 
tion of 1,600. The rajah maintains a force consisting of four 
horse and ninety-nine infantry.^ Puhrah, the principal place, 
is in lat. 25° 23', long. 80° 18'. 

PUJOUL,^ in the hill state of Komharsen, a village on the 
right bank of the Qiree. Elevation above the sea 4,980* feet. 

Lat. 31° 6', long. 77° 81'. 

PUKHROULA, in the British district of Moradabad, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the town of Meerut to that of Moradabad, and 
87 miles S.E. of the former place. It is situate near the left 
bank of the Ganges, in an open and partially-cultivated country. 

The road is generally bad, and under water in many places 
during the rains. Distant N.W. from Calcutta, vid Moradabad, 

924 mUes. Lat, 28° 61', long. 78° 15'. 

PUKHURA. — A town in the native state of Nepal, situate 
on the right bank of the Naling river, and 102 miles W.N.W. 
from Khatmandoo. Lat. 28° 15', long. 83° 47'. 

PUKKA SERAI, in the British district of Boolundahuhur, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from AUygurh cantonment to that of Delhi, and 
14 miles ^ S.E. of the latter. The road in this part of the route 
is generally good, though in some places sandy and heavy ; the 
country is level, open, and partially cultivated. Lat. 28° 82', 
long. 77° 26'. 

PUKLI,^ in the north of the Punjab, a small tract east of 
the Indus : it is very fertile. Runjeet Singh obtained pos- 
session of it about twenty years ago, by expelling the Maho- 
metan chief, Poyndu Khan, who took refuge in the island of 
Chuttoorbye, in the Indus : it is generally supposed to be the 
Peuceolatis* of Arrian, but erroneously, as that (lib. iv. 22) 
was on the west side of the river, and Pukli* is on the east. 

Lat. 34° 15'— 34° 30', long. 72° 50'— 73° 15'. 

PUKREE,^ in the British district of Allahabad, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on tho^idar.com 
right bank of the Ganges, 781 miles* N.W. of Calcutta by the 

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realpatidar.com PUL. 

rirer route, and 27 S.E. of the city of Allahabad by the same, 
lat. 25® 18', long. 82® l^. 

PULANA, or PLANA,* in the hill state of Qoond, tribu- 
tuy td Keonthnl, a Tillage on the right bank of the Giree, near 
tbe confluence of a feeder from the north. Eleyation above the 
aea 6,133 feet.^ Lat. 81° long. 77° 29'. 

PUXANA. — A town in the Bajpoot state of Oodeypoor, 
15 miles N.N.E. fi^>m Oodeypoor, and 60 miles W.N.W. from 
Ncemuch. Lat. 24° 48', long. 78° 55'. 

PUL ANTI. — A town in the native state of Nepal, situate 
on the right bank of the San Coos river, and 28 miles E. from 
Khatmandoo. Lat. 27° 42', long. 85° 44'- 

PULICAT,* in the British district Chingleput, presidency 
of Madras, a town on an island in an extensive inlet of the sea 
or salt-water lake of the same name. The lake of Pulicat is 
thirty-three miles ^ in length from north to south, and eleven 
in breadth where widest, and contains some large islands besides 
that on which the town is situate. It seems to have been 
produced by ** the sea’s breaking* through a low sandy beach, 
tod overflowing the lands within, for its communications with 
the sea are extremely narrow, like the embouchures of small 
rivers.” From one to two miles off shore is the road called 
Pulicat Anchorage, where there are six or seven fathoms* water. 
The lake, throughout its whole length, forma the north-eastern 
limit of the British district of Arcot, south division. An 
eiteoaive line of water communication has been established 
between the city of Madras and the town of Doogoorauzepatam, 
principally by means of this lake.* The town of Pulicat is dis- 
tant f^m Arcot, N.E., 76 miles ; Nellore, 8., 75 ; Madras, N., 
22. Lat. 13° 25', long. 80^ 22'. 

PULLA, in the British district of AUygurh, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the cantonment of AUygurh to that of Delhi, and 
uine miles N. W. of the former. The road in this part of the 
route is in many places heavy, and confined between ridges of 
drifted sand ; the country open, with a sandy soil, partially cul- 
tivated. Lat. 27° 59', long. 78° 8'. 

PULLA CHAND, in the British district of AUygurh, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Meerut to Muttra, and 32 miles* N.E. of the 

ibfr 


* E.1 C. Trtfoa. 
Sunr. 

* Oemrd, Kooo»- 
wiir. Table lil. No. 
S5. ai end of eol. 

E.I.C. Ma.Doe. 


E.I.C. !;•. Doe. 


> E.I.C. Me Doe. 


* Report on lied. 
Topoflcmpliy and 
SutUtIca of 
Centre DivUlon of 
Ifadra* Armj, SI. 

* Rennell, Mem. 
of a Map of Hln- 
doetan, 904. 

Willu. Historical 
Skrichee of tbo 
South of India, 
ii. 990. 

* Horahurvh, 

East- India Direc- 
tor/, i. aoo. 


* India Pub. DUp. 
81 March. 1859. 


B.l.C. Me. Doc. 


realpatidar.com 

• Oanleii. Taltlea 
of Roulva, 937. 


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E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


E.I.a Mt. Doc. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doa 


B.T.C. Ma. Doe. 


E.I.O. Ma. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ma.Doc. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


E.f.a Ma. Doe. 


PUL. 

latter. The road in thia part of the route is tolerably good, 
the country open and well cultivated. Lat. 27^ long. 

77° 5:y. 

PULLADUM. — A town in the British district of Goimba- 
toor, presidency of Madras, 21 miles £. of Coimbatoor. Lat. 

11°, long. 77° 10'. 

PULLAQOO. — A town in the British district of Tavoy, one 
of the Tenasserim provinces, presidency of Bengal, 148 miles 
S.S.E. of Moulmein. Lat. 14° 24', long. 98° 16'. 

PULLAMPUTTI. — A town in the British district of Tri- 
chinopoly, presidency of Madras, 33 miles N. by E. of Madura. 

Lat. 10° 23', long. 78° 16'. 

PULLANAMAIBEE. — A town in the British district of 
North Arcot, presidency of Madras, 36 miles W.N.W. of 
Arcot. Lat. 13° 13', long. 78° 48'. 

PULLEA. — A town in the native state of Oude, situate on 
the left bank of the Chowka river, and 112 miles N. by W. from 
Lucknow. Lat. 28° 26', long. 80° 37'. 

PULLEAPOORAM. — ^A town in the native state of Tra- 
vancore, 11 miles N.W. from Trivandrum, and 59 miles W. 
from Tinnevelly. Lat. 8° 36', long. 76° 54'. 

PULLEE. — A town in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, 

49 miles N.N.W. from Jodhpoor, and 122 miles W. by N. 
from Ajmeer. Lat. 26° 57', long. 72° 50'. 

PULLEHRA. — A town in the Boondela state of Tehre^ 

82 miles N.E. from Tehree, and 88 miles N.N.E from Saugur. 

Lat. 26° 1', long. 79° 15'. 

PULLOK. — A town in the British district of Tavoy, one of 
the Tenasserim provinces, presidency of Bengal, 88 miles 
N.N.W. of Tenasserim. Lat. 18° 20', long. 98° 41'. 

PULLOW. — A town in the British district of Mergui, one 
of the Tenasserim provinces, presidency of Bengal, 66 miles 
N.N.W. of Tenasserim. Lat. 13°, long. 98° 44'. 

PULLUSGHUR. — A town in the recently lapsed territory 
of Nagpoor, 85 miles E.S.E from Nagpoor, and 105 miles 
S.S.E. from Seuni. Lat. 20° 40', long. 80° 20'. 

PULLYCOOT. — A town in the British district of Malabar, 
presidency of Madras, 72 miles S.E. by E. of Cannanore. IaI. 

11° 20', long. 76° 20'. realpatidar.com 

PULLYPATTI. — A town in the British district of Salem, 

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realpatidar.com PIJI#— PUN. 

imidfDcj of Madras, 28 miles N.R of Salem. Lat. 11^ 55', 
long. 78° 26'. 

PULNEY. — A town in the British district of Madura, pre- 
■kfencj of Madras, 59 miles N.W. of Madura. Lat. 10° 30', 
long. 77° 88'. 

PULRA. — A Tillage in the British district of Mosuffur- 
BQggur, heutenant-goTemorship of the North-West Prorinoes. 
Lst. 20° 22', long. 77° 35'. 

PDIiUSGAON. — A town in the recently lapsed territory 
of Nsgpoor or Berar, 29 miles S.W. by S. from Nagpoor, and 
92 miles EB.E. from Ellichpoor. list. 20° 49', long. 78° 55'. 

PULWUL,^ * in the British district of Gooigaon, lieute- 
nut-gofemorship of the North-West Prorinces, a small town, 
giring name to the pergnnnah so called, on the route from 
Delhi to Muttra,^ and 41 miles S. of the former. It has a 
popolation of 10,062 inhabitants.^ The road in this part of 
the route is good. Lat. 28° O', long. 77° 23'. 

PUNAKHA. — A town in the natire state of Bhotan, 
Btoste on the left bank of the Bagnee river, and 96 miles 
KN.R from Daijeeling. Lat. 27° 34', long. 89° 45'. 

PUNAMUBTHCOTAH. — A town in the British district 
of ICskbar, presidency of Madras, 49 miles E. by S. of Oanna- 
Dore. Lat. 11° 44', long. 76° 8'. 

PUNAPOOB, in the British district of Bareilly, lieutenant- 
gofemorship of the North-West Prorinces, a village on the 
nmte from the town of Bareilly to Seetapore, and six miles 
S.K of the former. The road in this part of the route is good ; 
the country open, fertile, and cultivated. Lat. 28° 21', long. 
TTSS'. 

PUNAB^ — A river of the British district of Xumaon, 
heutensni-govemorskip of the North-West P rorinces, rising 
00 the northern declivity of the Sub-Bimslaya, or southern 
ud inferior range of the Himalaya, in lat. 29° 28', long. 79° 48', 
aod 11 miles S.E. of Fort Almora. It flows circuitously, but 
gloomily in an easterly direction, and, receiving many rivulets 
right and left, falls into the Suijoo, a great tributary of the 
Qogrs, on the right side, in lat. 29° 82', long. 80° 7', haring a 
lotsl length of coarse of twenty-five miles. Buchanan,^ on 
l^osrssy evidence, states that gold is found in its channel ; but 

* In the Ajeen Akbery it is mentioned to hare a brick fort on a hill. 

187 


B.I.a Mf. Doe. 


B.I.a Mal>oe. 


E.I.C. lit. Doe. 


* B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 

* Oerdea. Ttl»U« 
of Rootm, 148. 
Heber, iourn. in 
Indlt, I. 670. 

* SUIJtCict of 
N W. Prow. 41. 
Jtequemont, 

III. 480. 

E.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


R.IjC. Mt. Doe. 
On rden, Ttbiet of 
88 . 


• ILI.C. Mt. Doc. 


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II. 206. 


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* At. Rm. ivI. 167 
— Sttlltllcml Ac* 
count of Ktrntoo. 
4 Mt. FlelU-bookt. 

* E.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


* Oarden. Tablet 
of Routet, 83. 


* VIfna, Kathmir, 
1. 948. 

F. Voo H Ilf cl. 
Katchmlr. 1. 860. 
Moorcr. Punj. 
Bokb. II. 908. 


• VIgnc. I. 940. 

* Jacqutmont, 
Vojac«, ▼. 108. 


1 PiinJ. Bokh. 

II. 907 

■ Vujtfc, T. 106. 


>Vlfnt, Kathmlr. 
1. 961. 


PUN. 

neither Traill,* in his Statistical Account of Kumaon, nor Webb/ 
appears to mention this circumstance. 

PUNASSA,^ in the British district of Allahabad, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small town on the 
route by the Kutra Pass, from the cantonment of Allahabad to 
Bewah, 21 miles* S.E. of the former. It is situate on the left 
bank of the Tons, close to its confluence with the Uangee. 
The Tons, here crossed by ferry, has a bed 400 yards wide; 
its left bank steep, its right sloping. The stream in the drj 
season is about 160 yards wide, and generally runs under the 
left bank. The road in this part of the route is cut up by 
ravines, the country cultivated. Lat. 25° lO', long. 82° 7 . 

PUNCH,* in the Northern Punjab, a small town on the 
southern slope of the mountains bounding Cashmere on the 
south. It is situate at the foot of the Punch Pass, and on the 
banks of a river of the same name, discharging itself into the 
Chenaub. It was formerly the capital of a small independent 
r<y, the rajah of which was slain by Gulab Singh, the Sikh chief, 
who exposed his head, and that of his nephew, in an iron cage. 
At Punch, two much-frequented routes from the Punjab to 
Cashmere, that by Koteli and that by Bajawur, meet and pro- 
ceed thence northward, through the Baramula Pass. Elerstion 
of the Punch Pass,* 8,5(X) feet ; of the town, 8,280.* Punch if 
in lat. 38° 51', long. 74° 10'. 

PUNCH ItIVEB, in the Punjab, rises on the south-western 
declivity of the Pir Panjal Pass, about lat. 33° 38', long. 74° 43', 
and takes a direction generally north-westerly down the valley, 
dividing the Pir Panjal from the Batan Panjal. After con- 
tinuing in that direction for about fifty miles, it, close to the 
town of Punch, receives a feeder from the north, and below the 
confluence turns to the south-west. Here it is styled by 
Moorcroft* a rivulet; but Jacquemont, who mentions it under 
the name of Tchaomok,* describes it as a torrent so rapid and 
powerful, that there is much danger in fording it, insomuch 
that a horse which loses its footing is swept down the stream, 
and irretrievably perishes. Holding a south-westerly course 
of about forty miles, it near Koteli receives a considerable 
feeder, called the river of Bajour,* and after a course of about 
thirty miles further, falls into the Chenaub, in lat.® 33° 
long. 73° 41'. 

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realpatidar.com PUNDEBPOOB. 

PCNDEBPOOB.^ — A town within the presidency of Bom- • b.x.c. m«. i>o«. 
bij, on the north-eastern frontier of Sattara, towards the 
ooUectorate of Sholapore. It is situate on the Beema, a 
tribaUry to the Kistna, and is highly reTered by the Brahmins, 
u containing a celebrated temple dedicated to an incarnation 
of Vishnu.* Here, in 1815 , Trimbuckjee Danglia, the pro- * a». Soe. 

fligate minion of the Peishwa, perpetrated the murder of — waUm^.' A ce. 

Gongadhur Shastiy, the Ouicowar*s minister and envoy, who in»criptk>o». 
had repaired to Poona under the sanction and protection of the 
British government.* The circumstances under which this • Thoroion, Hut, 
atrocioiis crime was committed are thus related : — As he in indin. w. ses. 

(Gungadhur Shastry) passed along, one of his attendants 

heard a man in the crowd ask, “ Which is the Shastry ?” and Priwicn.Tmn««ct*. 

another reply, “ He who wears the necklace but not thinking *' 

the inquiry of any importance, he paid no attention either to 

the person asking the question or to him who made the answer. 

The Shastry entered the temple, performed his devotions, and 
afler remaining a few minutes in conversation with Trimbuckjee 
Danglia, returned towards the house which he occupied. He 
adTaoced but a short distance from the temple, when three men 
came running behind him, and as if clearing the road for some 
person of distinction, calling out, “ Make way, make way.** 

Their left hands were folded up in cloths, and each of them in 
his right hand bore what seemed to be a twisted cloth, such as 
appears to be commonly used for striking persons in a crowd, 
to make them stand aside. One of them struck the Shastry a 
violent blow with the cloth, and it was then discovered that he 
had a sword in his hand ; another seized him by the hair and 
threw him down ; and whilst in the act of falling, a third ruffian 
cut him on the head. Three of the Shastry's attendants re- 
niaiaed with their master; but two more assassins rushing 
from the front, the whole of them were wounded and disabled. 

The rest of the Shastry*s friends and followers, who do not 
appear to have been blest with any large share of personal 
intrepidity, ran away, leaving him in the hands of his mur- 
derers. Being thus at liberty to complete their bloody work, 
they mangled the unhappy man in a dreadful manner, and then 
departed, one of them exclaiming in the Mahratta language, 

“ We w now Bnished him ” realpatidar.com 

Three of the Shastry *b people had remained at the temple in 

lae 



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PUN. 


* Selection* from 
Record* at Baat- 
lodla Houae, 

Iv. 14S. 


I B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 

* Bengml and 
Afrm Guido, 1641, 
vol. il. port I. 810. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


I Garden, Tabloa 
of Routes, 170. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


I Joum. Aa. Soc. 
Book. 1643, p. 868 
— Joum. to 
Shipke. 


• Aa. Re* *t. 807 

— Herbert, un 
Level* of Sutlej. 
Gerard, Koona- 
wur, 386. 

Joum. A*. Soe. 
Bene. 1630. p. 026 

— Hiiitun, Trip 
to Koouawur. 


attendance upon one of his suite. Aa they approached the spot 
where the murder had been committed, they saw five men with 
naked swords running towards the temple. This alarmed 
them ; but not being aware of what had happened, they made 
their way as quietly as possible to the Shastry’s house ; not 
finding him there, they returned to the road, where they dis- 
covered hie body out to pieces. The population^ of Punderpoor 
is believed not to exceed 20,000 persons. Distance S.E. from 
Poona 112 miles, and 185 S.E. from Bombay. Lat. 17^ 4<y, 
long. 76° 24'. 

PXJNDOOA,^ or PURBOOAH, in the British district of 
Hooghly, presidency of Bengal, a small town* with dak or relay 
station for bearers, on the route from Calcutta to Burdwan, 82 
miles N.W. of former, 80 S.E. of latter. Lat. 28° 3', long. 88° 18'. 

PUNDOOBLESDR, in the British district of Gurhwal, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
on the route from Sireenuggur to Thibet, 54 miles N.E. by E. 
of the former. Lat. 80° 37', long. 79° 86'. 

PUNDRAWUL, in the British district of Boolundshuhur, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from Khasgunj to Meerut, and 86 miles ^ N.W. 
of the former. The road in this part of the route is good, the 
country open and partially cultivated. Lat. 28° 7', long. 78° 15'. 

PUNGANORE. — A town in the British district of Cudda- 
pah, presidency of Madras, 79 miles S. by W. of Cuddapah. 
Lat. 13° 20', long. 78° 37'. 

PUNGI,* in Bussahir, a collection of hamlets in the district 
of Koonawur, on the right bank of the Sutluj, and at the 
south-eastern base of a range dividing the valley of the 
Xushang from that of the Mulgun. The access to it is very 
difficult, especially from the north-east, in which direction, 
according to Gerard,* “ the footpath was rugged in the ex- 
treme, lying a great part of the way upon fragments of granite 
and gpieiss, which appeared to have lately fallen ; amongst 
which we saw many a noble pine lying prostrate, whilst a few, 
with their branches broken off and otherwise disfigured, just 
barely peeped above the stones. Large portions of rock fall 
yearly, and their effects are truly dreadful ; they swee 

• The proper name of the village is Theropi ;• there are seve 
close to it, and the whole collectively have the name of Pungi. 

1911 


p every- 

/ealDatidar.com 

ral others 


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realpatidar.com PUN. 

tUng with them, and eometimoa stop the channela of the 
In gBi t rirera for weeks.’* The appearance of the place is 
pieuing, as the houses are arranged in irregular terraces one 
tbofs the other, on the mountain side,* and amidst much 
thming cultiTation. Here is a handsome temple, covered with 
ibte, and constructed with much care and skill, the woodwork 
bang elaborately and tastefuUy carved ; and in it is installed 
in idol of mongrel Hindoo lineage, as is usually the case in this 
part of the oountiy. Close at hand is a small building, serving 
II the buttery of the deity, and stored with com, butter, 
•pints, and other provender, the offerings of the villagers, who, 
on festivals, are entertained by the priests of the idol. The 
moontains in the vicinity of the village are in many parts 
fonned artificially into terraces, formerly cultivated and pro- 
ductive, but now wild and overgrown with ancient trees, 
indicating the decay of population, industry, and productive- 
nen m this part of Bussahir. Elevation above the sea 9,197 
feet Lat. 31® 85', long. 78® 20'. 

PUNGUHA,^ in the British district of Banda, lieutenant- 
^eraorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route lit>m the town of Banda to J ubulpoor, 20 miles* S. of the 
^>nner. It has water from a tank and wells ; but supplies are 
Kuitj, the surrounding country being barren. Lat. 25® 13', 
long. 80P 31'. 

PUNHETTI,^ in the British district of AUygurh, lieutenant- 
govemonhip of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the cantonment of AUygurh to that of Mynpoorie, 
•ad eight miles* S.E. of the former. The road in this part of 
the route is good, the country open and rather weU cultivated. 
Ut. 27® 61', long. 78® 14'. 

PUNJAB,* in the territory of Gwalior, or possessions of 
Scmdia’s family, a town 12 miles 8.W. of the fort of that 
aime, the scene of an engagement* which took place on the 
2®th December 1848 (the date of the victory of Maharajpore), 
between the British and Mahratta forces. Major-General 
Urej leading from Bundelcund a British detachment to co- 
operate with that marching from Agra under the conduct of 
Sir Hugh Gough, commander-in-chief, crossed the river 
^dh at Chandpur, and proceeding north-west, on the 29th, 
ifter a march of sixteen mUos, was attacked by the Mahratta 

191 


* Jaoqu#mo«t, 
yojmg9, U. 834. 


• B.iX). M*. I>oc. 
Journ. Ab. Soe. 
B«npr. 1848, p. 8US 
— Adam, on Owl. 
of Buodalcund. 

* Garden, Tablaa 
of Routes, 7S. 


* B.I.C. Me. IK>e. 


* OHrden, Tublea 
of Route*, 49. 


> £.1.0. lit. Doc. 


* Further Paper* 
rcepecilog Owa- 
llor, prevented to 
Parliament April, 
19:4. p. ina. 
India Pol. Ditp. 
10 Dec. 1843. 


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* Thnrntonp fliil. 
of Brtlliih Kiiipire 
In IniJK *i- ^ 14 . 
5IA. 


* Furtlifr PH|HTi 
rt-«|wtlri* Gwm- 
l*or, 107 . 

* WHion, AriATi& 
Anitqif** 10CV. 
Renn^llr 80 . 


* Ite|iorl on Ihs 
Aifmlnltirn tlnii of 
iha Punjub, 1854 , 

p, I. 


PUNJAB. 

army, atrongly posted near the village of Mango?. The 
British army took post at Fimiar, and by a aeriea of attacks 
drove^ the enemy from all points of his poaition and captured 
all his artillery, amounting to twenty-four pieces, and all hifi 
ammunition. The Mahratta army is represented to have been 
about 12,000 strong, and to have suffered most severely ; tbs 
British loss amounted to thirty-five'* killed and 182 wounded. 
Lat- 2r e\ long. 78= 6\ 

PUNJAB^ (THE), an extensive territory on tho^ north-west 
of India, BO called from two Persian words, signifying ‘"five 
waters,” the name having reference to five great rivers which 
flow through it. With respect to the propriety of the desig- 
nation, it is, however, to be observed, that there sj*e In fact sii 
rivers, the Indus, the Jhelum, the Chenaub, the Eavee, the 
Beas, and the Sutlej ; but as the Beas has a much shorter 
course than the others, it seems to have been disregarded when 
the name of the country was bestowed. In semt-civiltEed 
states, and especially in those of Asia, the boundaries, at all 
times ill-defijned, are subject to &equent changes; and this 
holds true in regard to the territory lately acquired fftna the 
Bikhs, in consequence of their incessant vrars with their 
neighbours to the north and west. In the present case^ tbs 
province now designated the Punjab will be regarded as co- 
extensive with the recent empire of the Sikhs, with the 
exception of the provinces allotted by the British to Ubolab 
Singh, and which are now comprehended within the newly-con- 
stituted kingdom of Cashmere. Begardcd in this view, the 
Punjab will be found to possess natural limits remarkably well 
defined,** They ore as follows : — On the north, the lower 
boundaries of Grholab Singh's dominions ; on the west, tbe 
Suliman range of mountains ; on the east and south-east, tbe 
river Sutlej and its continuation the Ohara. The shape in 
outline approaches that of the sector of a circle, the centre of 
which is at the confluence of the Punjnud and the Indus, in 
lat. 28= 65\ long. 70= 81' ; the extreme radii, the Suliman range, 

* For admiDiatrative pnrpoaea tbs ^-Sutlej atatea bavo betin Bimexfid 
to tbe Foajab, and tho united territorieB are eubjeet to one lulmiDutretios.' 
Tbeae aUtea oompriBe a tract cf oonutfy which iDterveuea between tbe 
Jnmne end tb© Sutlej, and are notioed eepantclj under the 
SrsHiHU. 

193 


'OQ 


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Wding in general a direction not greatly varying from north 
to south ; the Sutlej, and ita continuation the Ghara, holding a 
directioD from north-east to south-west ; the arc in its highest 
htitude touching the 35th parallel. The roost western point 
is just below the confluence of the Punjnud and Indus ; the 
most eastern is between the 78th and 79th meridian. The 
length from east to west is about 550 miles; the breadth, 
measured at right angles to this, about 420 ; the superficial 
eitent, 78,477 square miles. 

No two regions can differ more in physical character than 
the northern and southern part of this territory. Within the 
north-east angle is comprehended the Alpine region of Kangra. 

The north-west angle comprises the Eusofsye country, Peshawur, 

Kohat, Huzara, and the country thence extending southward 
to the Salt range ; the entire tract being intersected by moun- 
tain-ranges, and consisting of a series of valleys, encircled by 
hflls. The remainder includes the plain country of the Punjab, 
distributed into the five doabs, and stretching south-west with 
• regularity rarely broken by any eminence of importance. 

The declivity of the surface from north-east to south-west is 

proved beyond question by the course of the rivers, which all 

descend in that direction. Jacquemont^ considers that the « Vojafv. t. ii 

worses of the Soorsutty and Guggur, which, flowing from the 

Himalaya, are lost in the desert of Bikanir, lie along an 

elevated tract dividing the basin of the J umna from that of the 

Sotkj, and that barometric and other observations prove the 

plain of the Punjab to be below that of Eastern Hindostan. 

He thence concludes the bed of the Sutlej, in its course through 
the plain, to be lower than that of the J umna ; that of the 
fleas lower than that of the Sutlej ; and so in succession west- 
ward with regard to the beds of the Kavee, the Chenaub, and 
the Jbelum, to the Indus, flowing through the lowest part of 
this extensive basin. 

About the town of Mundi, near the north-eastern frontier, 
and on the oppcr course of the Beas, in the most southern and 
lover ranges of the Himalaya, is an extensive tract of rocks 
^ deposits of recent formation,^ of limestone, sandstone, > Jaeqiicmont. 
gypsum, argillaceous slate, amidst which veins of quartz 
'jccisionally occur. This formation is important, in conse- 
« o 


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PUNJAB. 


« Blph Aee. of 
CaiibuU 106. 
Wood, Oiua, 189. 

Form. 
Ifarr. 09. 

* JocquorooQU 

▼. too. 

* Bumoo, Bokli. 

I. 69. 

^ Jocqu^monl, 

V. 100-116. 

Bumoa, I. 69. 


* B«in»oa, Bnkh. 
I. 80; II. 401. 


* P.Voa Hugol. 
n. 946. 

• Moorer. I. I'.l 

* Bumea, B'lkh. 
II. 40-i. 

• Btirorm. Rap. oil 
Coat. 70. 


< Wood. Rap. on 
Coat. 80. 


• Raport. at 
■upra. lot. 


* Piii\J. Bokh. 

I. 160. 

* Vojafa. V. 8t8. 
610 . 

* Kitlar. Erdknnda 
von Aalen. III. 066. 
« At Rco. IT. 89 
— Wilaofi. Hlat. 
of Kashmir. 

Id. Arlans. Aiitiq. 
106. 

Bennrll. 78. 89. 

* Koonawur. 98. 


quence of containing inexhaustible beds of fossil salt,* reiy 
compact and heavy, and of a reddish colour. On the west of 
the Punjab, and crossing the Doab, between the Jhelum and 
the Indus, is the Salt range, which is cross-cut by the channel 
of the Indus, and which, to the north of the Daman, on the 
western side of that river, joins the Suliman and Khyber 
ranges. The Salt range,^ sometimes (on the west of the Indus) 
called the Kalabagh range, holds a direction a little south of 
east, between lat. 32^ 3(y — 33^, and terminates rather abruptly 
on the right bank of the river Jhelum.^ The elevation is not 
great, probably in few places exceeding 2,000* feet above the 
sea. The formations^ composing it are grauwacke, limestone, 
sandstone, gypsum, and red tenacious clay, investing enormous 
deposits of common salt, or chloride of sodium. 

Altogether, the ascertained mineral wealth of the Punjab 
and its dependencies appears scanty in proportion to the great 
extent of its mountains. Gold is found in the sands of the 
streams of the Cbenaub,* the Huroo, and the Swan. Graphite 
or plumbago abounds in the Pir Panjal, bounding Cashmere on 
the south-west.* Iron is also raised in Mundi,^ as well as 
common salt. The Salt range, besides the mineral from which 
it is named, produces antimony, alum, and sulphur. Nitre* is 
obtained in abundance from the alluvial plains. Coal* exists 
about the Salt range at Mukkud, on the left bank of the Indus, 
and in the localities of Joa, Meealee, and Nummul.* Scientific 
inquiries into the mineral resources of the Salt range, and the 
Alpine portion of the Sindh Sagur Doab, have been authorized 
by the government.* 

No country of the same extent probably enjoys more largely 
than the Punjab the means of irrigation and of inland naviga- 
tion, by means of its six noble rivers. The most eastern, the 
Sutlej,t has its source in Thibet, in lat. 30° S\ long. 81° 53'. 
Holding a south-westerly course of about 550 miles,^ it 


* Moorcrofl’ itAtea that the adt of this tract is found in grauwacke : 
the ooourreuoe of this rock is not mentioned bj Jaoquemont.* 

t Considered to be the Zadadnis,* Hesidrus, Heeudrus, of the classical 
writers ; the Satadru, or Satahrada,^ ** the hundred-channelled *' of the 
Sanscrit. 

- ^ 1* 1 r * u real atidar.com 

X Gerard* considers its length of oourse to be 570 miles, but Ibis appears 
rather an over-estimate. 


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meifet the Beas, below the coofluence of which, taking place 
oeir Hurekee, and in lat. 81° 12^, long. 75° 8', the 'united 
itretm 18 <;^led the Ghara for about 800 milee, to the confluence 
of the Chenaub ; thenceforward the aggregate body of water 
bfliTB the name of the Punjnud for a further distance of about 
nitj miles, to its confluence with the Indus. Next to the 
Sutlej, westward, is the Beas,* rising in lat. 82° 24\ long. 
TT 12^,* and bolding a sinuous course of about 290 miles, in 
^^eoeral to the south-west, to its confluence with the Sutlej. 
Firther to the west flows the Havee,t the least in the volume 
of its water, though not in the length of its course. Issuing 
from a lake^ embosomed in the Himalaya, in lat. 82° 80^, long. 
IT r, it holds a very tortuous course, but generally in a south- 
vesterlj direction, for about 420 miles, to its confluence with 
the Chenaub. This last-mentioned river, J usually regarded as 
the largest of the Punjab, flows in general west of that of the 
Faree, though its source is more eastward, as it sweeps in a 
vide flexure round the upper part of the smaller rivers. 
Swing in Lahoul, in lat. 82° 48', long. 77° 27',® the Chenaub 
pnnnes a circuitous course, but for the most part south-west, 
ind at the distance of about 600 miles from its source, unites 
vith the Jhelum, near Trimo ferry.® The united stream, pro- 
ceeding in the same direction for about fifty miles, receives the 
of the Bavee below the confluence it loses the name of 
Chenaub, and is called the Trimab® for a further distance of 
110 miles, to the junction of the Ghara. From that point the 
nfer flows about sixty miles, as before mentioned, to its con- 
fluence with the Indus, being called the Punjnud, a name 
<lerhred from its conveying the accumulated water of the Beas, 
the Sutlej, the Bavee, the Chenaub, and the Jhelum. This 
bat river rises in Cashmere,® the whole valley of which it 
<lrainf. Soon after its issue therefrom, it receives a large 
tributary, the Kishengunga, or river of Mazufurabad, and after 

V Considered to be the BibAsis, Hjphasis, or Hypaais of the classical 
•ntsTB ;• the Bipasa, or Vipasa, of the Sanscrit. 

t Considered to be the Hydraotes,^ or Hyarotes, of the classical writers ; 
^ Iravati of the Sanscrit. It is to this day called Iraotee* by the 
BUiTea. 

X Considered to be the Acesinea * of the classical writers. 

^ RllUr, IIL 10S4; ▼. iM, 404. Wilton, Arlans Antiq. 105. Pennsll, 89, 

O 2 


V Moorer. Pua|. 
Bokb. I. 100. 


» Id. I. 107. 


• Id. I. lOS. 


V Bamat, Both. 
IIL 190. 
Mseartnoy, la 
Eiph oae. 

* Id III. 805. 

* Bollcaa, R^- 
wara, 09. 

Joum. At. Soe. 
B«nf. 1897, p. 907 
— -Mackawm, oa 
Wad«*t Vojaf# 
down tba 8utm. 


* Vlffno, Kathmlr, 

I. 909, 8210. 

Moorer. PunJ. 

Bokh. II. 959. 

P. Von Hofol, 

KaMhoilr, U. 118 . 

* Arrian, vl. e. 14. 

RIttar, Alien, 

409. 

Wilton, Arlatia 
Antiq. 105. 

* Rltur, Rrdkunda 

wi.i;!7rtU”'''ealpatidar.com 

Antiq 105. 

* Romet, Bokb. 

111. 194, 907. 


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PUNJAB. 


* Report, ut 

04. 


* F. Voii Huircl, 
Kntchmir, 1. 
Ayem Akberj, 
11. 88A, 287, 288, 
Sm, 980. 


* WII»oo, ArlaoA 
Antiqua, 106. 
Ritter, Erdkundo 
von Aaicn, ill. 
1147. 


a course of about 490 miles, generally in a south-westerly 
direction, it unites with the Chenaub near Trimo ferry.® The 
Indus, the most westerly of the Punjab rivers, traverses the 
country in a direction from north to south for about 600 miles, 
from Derbend to the confluence of the Punjuud. These noble 
streams, besides afibrding means of inland navigation, scarcely 
equalled, are of inestimable value for the purposes of irrigation. 

Several of the old canals have been improved and enlarged. A 
new canal, intended to traverse the entire length of the Baree 
Doab, is under construction. ** The central line is to be 247 
miles in length. It will commence from that point where the 
river Bavee debouches fW)m the lowest of the Himalayan 
ranges, thence, cutting through a high bank, it will cross two 
mountain torrents, till it gains the table-lands ; then it will 
traverse the heart of the Manjha, passing near the great citie's 
of Decnanuggur, Buttala, and Umritsur ; thence, striking into 
the deeps of the wildest wastes of the lower Doab, and running 
past the ruined cities, tanks, temples, and canals, all of which 
it is to vivify and regenerate, it will rejoin the Bavee fifty-six 
miles above Mooltan. At the thirtieth mile of its course, a 
branch diverges to fertilize the most arid lands of the Doab, 
and reach the ancient city of Kussoor. From this branch 
again, a smaller channel is diverted to the eastward, and carried 
on till it nearly meets the Sutlej opposite the battle-field of 
Sobraon. At the fifty-fifth mile of the grand line, another 
channel branches oflT, to spread fertility down to the capital of 
Lahore. In addition to the main 247 miles, the Kussoor, 
Sobraon, and Lahore branches, of eighty-four, sixty-one, and 
seventy-four miles respectively, will make up an aggregate of 
466 miles.*’^ 

The plain of the Punjab is divided by its rivers into five 
extensive natural sections, described by the native term doaS, 
signifying a great tongue of land lying in the bifurcation above 
the confluence of two rivers. First, the doab of Julinder,* 
between the Sutlej and the Beaa ; second, the doab of Baree, 
between the Beas and Ghara on the east, and the Bavee on the 
west ; third, the doab of Bechna, between the Bavee on the 

east, and the Chenaub on the west : fourth, the doab of Jetch,. , 

reaipaTidar.com 

* Tho Jbelum is considered to be the Hydnspes* of the cIamicaI writers ; 
the BitastliA, or Vitnstha, of the Siinscrit. 

FJC 


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brtveen the Chenaub on the east, and the Jhelum on the west ; 
fifth, the doab of Siode Sagur, between the Jhelum, Triroab or 
ChouiQb, and Poignud on the east, and the Indus on the west. 

Of these, that of Sinde Sagur is the most extensive, but that of 
Biree bj far the most populous, as well as the most important, 
aootaining the three great cities, Lahore, Amritsir, and Mooltan. 

The regular and gradual slope of the great plain of the 
Piujab has been mentioned: even the upper part is but of 
moderate elevation. Thus, Amritsir^ and Lahore^ are each * sum^*, Bokb. 
900 feet above the level of the sea, the town of Jhelum about t huc«i, 
1,600, and the surface slopes regularly to the south-western 
extremity, where, close to Mittunkote, the elevation is about 
220 feet.® In consequence of the nearly unbroken flatness of • suniM, sokh. 
the surface, the great rivers frequently change their courses in 
in extraordinary degree. “ Bands of sand traverse the country 
in a north and south direction, which point out the old beds of 
rirers, and prove that all of them have been changed. The 
Sutlej, which formerly ran close to the town of Loodianab, is 
now seren miles to the northward ; the Bavee, which twenty 
years ago washed the walls of the city of Lahore, runs in a 
cbnnel three miles off to the northward ; the Chenaub, which 
ten or twelve years ago ran close to the town of Bamnuggur, 
is DOW four miles distant; and the same applies to the Jhelum.”® • Joum. a*, sc^ 
So the Ohara, at no great distance of time, held, for above — jamcvon. r«(». 
200mile8, a course considerably westward of the present, and 
psnllel to it. M»ckMoo. acc. 

Hphinstone^ Bays, “The fertility of the Punjab appears to 
been too much extolled by our geog^phers ; except near ^^''*** caubui, 
"▼ers, no part will bear a comparison with the British pro- 
^ces in Hindostan, and still less with Bengal, which it has 
boen thought to resemble. In the part I passed through, the 
soQ was generally sandy and by no means rich ; the country 
nearer the hills was said to be bettor, and that further to the 
iouth worse ; of the four divisions (doabs) east of the Hydaspes, 
tbe two nearest to that river are chiefly pastured on by herds 
of oxen and buffaloes, and that more to the east, towards the 
llyiudrus or Sutlej, though most sterile, is best cultivated. 

^ two former are quite flat, the latter is wavy ; there is not 
» bill to the east of the Hydaspes, and rarely a tree, except of 
^ dwarf race of babool (tnimoMd). On the whole, not a 

197 


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third of the country we saw was cultirated.*’ The physical 
peculiarities of the country, and the varying character of its 
fertility, are well described in the official report. 

** The face of the country presents every variety, from the 
most luxuriant cultivation to the most sandy deserts, and the 
wildest prairies of grass and brushwood. A traveller, passing 
through those lines of communication which traverse the 
northern tracts, would imagine the Punjab to be the garden of 
India ; again returning to the road which intersects the cen- 
tral tracts, he would suppose it to be a country not worth 
annexing. The culture manifestly depends upon two causes — 
the lower Himalayan range, and the rivers. From the base of 
the hills southward, there stretches a strip of country from 
fifty to eighty miles broad, watered by mountain rivulets, and 
for fertility and agriculture unsurpassed in Northern India. 
In their downward course, the rivers spread wealth and fruit- 
fulness on either side, and their banks are enriched with alluvial 
deposits, and fnnged with the finest cultivation. These tracts, 
though unadorned with trees, and unrelieved by any picturesque 
features, are studded with well-peopled villages, are covered 
with two waving harvests in the year, and are the homes of a 
sturdy, industrious, and skilful peasantry. Within this tract 
are situated the sister capitals of Lahore and Umritsur, and 
most of the chief cities, such as Deenanuggur, Buttala, Seal- 
kote, Wuzeerabad, Goozeran walla, Bamnugger, and Goojrat. 

‘‘Far difierent is the sad and strange scene which meets 
the eye in the centres of all the doabs. These are interminable 
wastes, overgrown with grass and bushes,^8cantily threaded by 
shoep-walks and the foot-prints of cattle. The chief tenants 
of these parts are nomad pastoral tribes, who, knowing neither 
law nor property, collect herds of cattle, stolen from the agri- 
cultural districts. Here and there a hamlet stands alone in 
the wilderness, tenanted by a semi-barbarous population, the 
very aborigines of the land. Around the homesteads there 
will be patches of good cultivation, for the soil is rich and 
repays irrigation, although the water be deep below the sur- 
face. But there are constantly recurring tokens to show that 
once this region was not inferior to the most favoured districts. . 
Everywhere are seen ruined cities, villages, temples, 
wells, and watercourses ; such are the changes which have 

108 


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pMoed orer this country ! But it would be an error to sup- 
poM that this region is merely an object of scientific or his- 
torical interest. It possesses a practical and appreciable 
impoxtsDce. It is the only source from which the capital, the 
chief towns and cities, the great British cantonments, can be 
■applied with firewood. It yields an abundant supply of grass 
ibr all equestrian establishments. It sustains with its inex- 
haustible pasturage a noble breed of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, 
and goats. Its boundless grazing-grounds support the race 
ofcameb that mainly carry on the Cabul traffic. Portions of 
ifc will become the scene of gigantic undertakings, which will 
tax the skill and resources of the state, but which will, ulti- 
mately, yield an ample return for the outlay of capital. Indeed, 
the Puojab could ill spare its wastes ; they are almost as im- 
portant as the cultivated tracts. 

‘‘Such are the centres of the Baree, Bechnah, and Chuj 
Boabs. In the Sindh Saugur Doab, the waste is much less 
orergrown and productive, and is little better than a sandy 
deaert, within which the famous fort of Munkhera is the only 
iigD of human habitation. 

" But there is one feature of the Sindh Saugur Doab not yet 
Dotioed. The doab is divided into two parts by the Salt range, 
which runs east and west from the Jhelum to the Indus, then 
reappearing on the opposite bank, stretches onward to meet 
the Sulimanee range. The fiscal and commercial importance 
of this range, with its inexhaustible veins of rock salt, will 
occasion its frequent mention hereafter. Below it spreads 
the landy champaign, above it rises a plateau of table-land, 
■hrupt, rocky, and precipitous. In places it undulates into 
numerous valleys and glens, which are adorned by cultivation. 
Otherwise, sterility extends throughout the upper and lower 
diriaions of the doab. It can, however, boast of three con- 
siderable towns, Bawul Pindee, Chukawul, and Pind Dadun 
Khan, the latter celebrated for its salt-mines.”^ 

The climate of the plain of the Punjab is in general charac- 
teriied by dryness and warmth. Little rain falls, except in 
those parts extending along the southern base of the Himalaya, 
uul where the south-west monsoon is partially felt, diminishing 
ia its effect in proportion as it proceeds westward.* According 
to the statement of Blphinstone, the rain ** in the north of the 

190 


* lUport, at 
•upro, S. 


* Elph. Ace. of 
Caubal. I. ISO. 
JaeqoemoQt, 
Vojas*. V. 101. 
Vlfne, GbusfiM, 
IS. 


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PUNJAB. 


* Osbornp, Court 
Rnd C«ntp of 
Runjo^t Singh, 
800 . 


• p.«. 


* Hough, App fi6. 
» p. 25. 


• DokhRrm. I. 44. 


* Hough, App. 60, 
7I». 


> Wood, 0>u«, 
OS. 


* Hough, App. 70. 

* BurooR, Bokh. 
111. 117. 

MRMon, Bal. Aljg. 
RunJ. I. 880. 
Vlfoe, Ohuinco, 
10 . 

* ORbomo, Court 
und Camp of 
RonJe«t Singh, 
1 », 185 . 

* Id. 185. 

* VoyagRR, IL 857. 


Punjab exceeds that of Delhi ; but in the south of the Punjab, 
distant both from the sea and the hills, Tery little rain falls.” 

Still the rains of the monsoon extend as far as Lahore,^ and 
fall heavily there in midsummer. In the more southern part 
of the plain, the soil, where productive, is rendered so by irri- 
gation. In addition to the facilities offered by the rivers and 
canals, the Persian wheel is employed to draw to the surface 
the water of numerous wells. The winters are cool, even to 
the feelings of a European. Elphinstone^ observes, in regard 
to his residence in Mooltan, at the end of December : ^ The 
weather was delightful during our stay; the thermometer, 
when at the lowest, was at 28^ at sunrise ; there were slight 
frosts in the night.” During the march of the English army 
through this country in 1838, thin ice was formed on the water 
at the end of December,* whilst in the day the thermometer 
rose to 70^. At the end of December, Elphinstone,^ marching 
through the doab between the Chenaub and the Indus, found 
a very cold wind ; but it does not appear that snow falls in this 
port of the Punjab. Bumes* describes the weather in the 
beginning of February as cold and bleak, frequently rainy, and 
always cloudy. In Januaiy, 1839, the lowest state of the 
thermometer was found, on different nights of the month, to 
be respectively® 34°, 87°, 38°, 44°. In the day the thermo- 
meter, even in midwinter, is seldom below 70°, and in January 
generally reaches 80°, so that vegetation rapidly proceeds, and 
the w'heat harvest is gathered by the end of April. ^ Such, 
during winter, is the general temperature of the Punjab south 
of the Salt range. North of that, and even outside the limits 
of the mountains, the cold is greater, an effect attributable to 
a slight increase of elevation rather than to change of latitude. 

The British, in marching through that tract in December, 1839, 
found the cold severe, the thermometer during the night 
sinking to 2° below the freezing-point.® The heat in summer 
is excessive ; in the plains at Mooltan* it is so great as to be 
proverbial. At Lahore^ it was found, in the beginning of I 
June, to raise the thermometer to 112° in a tent artificially i 
cooled. A traveller, who experienced the heat of this season, 
describes it as ** perfectly intolerable ; we are unable,” he adds, 

“to eat, drink, or sleep, and support existence by sucMoa ^^r.com 
alone.”* Bernier,* who had endured the heat of the most 

aoo 


j 


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solttj put of Arabia, found that of the coimtiy between 
lahore and Cashmere much more distreasing, and each mom<^ 
iiig futeriained a dread of being unable to Bum?e till the 
cfenmg, Ha describee hie body aa haring become as it were 
1 dfj sponge, and he no sooner took a draught of water than 
it oosed &om ail parts of his skin, from which the cuticle bad 
peeled, learing the mirfaoe eorered with pustules. Some of his 
oompanions died of heat even in the shade. 

The indigenous vegetation of the plain of the Punjab 
closely resembles that of the drier tracts of Eastern Hin- 
doetan; trees are scarce, and there occur eitcnsive tracts/ 
coDtaining only a few bushes, principally babools of the 
mimosa species. Even the date-palm is, according to Bumcs/ 
in exotic, introduced by the Mahometan invaders. The wild 
pslm,* a species which produces no fhiit, is in many places 
abundant ; as are the peloo^ (Salvadora persica), various species 

willows, the popool (Ficus rellgioea), divers species of acacias 
ind tamarisk, the byr-apple or ju-jube (Zizyphus ju-juba), and 
capparis, caUed here kureel, juwassi, or camel-thom ; the talee, 
a tree caUed siseoo in Eastern Hindos tan, and sometimea of 
twelve feet girth, useful for boat-building ; the neem (Melia 
izadiirachta), the mudar (TropoBa), the toolse (Ocymum sanc- 
tum), kurmul or wild rue,^ Fuel is Bcarce, in consequence of 
the general absence of trees, and cow-dung* is extensively 
Daed for the purpose. The towns and viUagea of the Punjab 
ws, however, generally surrounded by groves, but these are 
osBtlly of forced fruit-trees artificially cultivated, — date/ 
octnge, pomegranate, mulberry, apple, fig, peach, apricot, 
plum, quince, almond, and a few others of less importance. 
The mango is cultivated, but does not attain high perfection 
except about Mooltan, and deterioratea in proportion to the 
adnnoe northward.* Since the occupation of the province by 
the British, endeavours have not been wanting on the part of 
the government to encourage the growth of timber* Arrange- 
Mits have been made for the preservation of the tracts of 
rotoct and brushwood which already exist ; for the planting of 
copses near the cantonments ; of groves round public bmldinga, 
lad at intervals along the main roads, and of avenues on the 
of canals.* 

The zoology of the Punjab is more rich and varied than its 

201 


^ Bumrii 1 6 . 
£J(ib. 

* m, ISO. 

1 WokhI, OxiM^ 9 -i. 
' Id. ib. 

Burnn. ill. sot. 


1 Lord, U«d. 
moir on PJain 
itim IndtiB, SO* 
Wood, oD thfl 
fndut. In App, to 
Bumw, Per*, 
Nirr. S37. 

* Burne*^ 1. 4. 

* Vlgna^ Gluunecy 
24. 

Kshoq, 1 . 10 . 
Bumn, 111 . wo. 


* l». SO. 


• n.poH. ui realpatidar.com 

■upm, lol. 



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t Vlfii#. l. 117. 


* Bum««,lll. 190, 
P.Voo Huf«l, 

I. 190. 

* VlflM, OhuSDC«, 
14. 

> Id. II. 10. 
Burnet, Bokb. 

1 . 10 . 

Rojrle. Bot. of 
Himalaya, tie. 

* F. Von Hufel, 

I. m. 


> Id. II. 909. 
Ylfne, IL 91. 


* Humee, I. 48; 
111. 199. 


* Vl^. I. 290. 
Oebume, 180. 


* Burnet, III. 258. 
Ketinedy, 1. 150. 


▼ MaMOD, I. 90. 
Wood, Oaua, 01, 
09. 


* Rc|K>rt, ut 
•upra, 102. 

• Lord. Med. 
Ifemolra 60. 
kinnon. I. SOO. 
Burnet. 111. 909. 


PUNJAB. 

botanj. No accoiinta^ afford authority for concluding thftt 
elephants exist there in a state of nature ; for though ArrisD 
mentions the hunting of elephants on the banks of the Indus, 
the animals in question clearly appear to hare been some 
turned loose by the natives in their hasty jSight. Tigers lurk 
in the jungle and forests, and sometimes attain the enormouB 
length of ten feet.^ Lions are not uncommon.* The other 
beasts of prey are panthers, leopards, hyenas, lynxes, wolves,^ 
bears, jackals, foxes, otters, martins, stoats, and divers other 
small viverra ; there are also nylgaus, wild hogs, porcupines, 
various animals of the deer, goat, and antelope species, monkeys 
and bats, including the large and hideous vampyre,* deemed 
sacred by the natives. Among the feathered tribes there ire 
pea-fowl, parrots, jungle-fowl (the wild stock of our common 
domestic fowl), pheasants, various kinds of partridges, quiUs, 
water-fowl in great number and variety, herons, cranes, 
pelicans,* eagles, vultures, hawks, magpies, hoopoes, and doves 
of various kinds. The bulbul, or nightingale of Cashmere, is 
inferior in note to that of Europe, but very beautiful. A small 
species of alligator^ swarms in the rivers, especially the Jhelum. 

The porpoise ascends the Indus to a great distance. Among 
serpents, the more remarkable are the cobra di capello,* and a 
small snake, the bite of which is almost immediately fatal 
The rivers abound with fish ; the pulla, a delicious species of 
carp, swarming in the Indus,* forma an important article of 
subsistence. Of insects, the silk-worm thrives remarkably, 
and produces an article of admirable quality ; bees also pro- 
duce wax and honey in great abundance and of the finest kind, 
and this department of husbandry receives great attention. 

The more important domestic animals are the cameF (especiallj 
in the south) and the buffalo, of which great herds are kept in 
the neighbourhood of rivers, these animals being almost of an 
amphibious nature. Horses are bred extensively, especially in 
the plain country in the north-east, and receive great attention, 
the Sikhs being an equestrian people. Much additional light 
on the ornithology and botany of the Punjab is about to be 
afforded by an elaborate report on those subjects by Dr. 
Jameson.* 

The more important crops in the low, level, and fertile tractsji" Com 

are indigo,* cotton, sugar, tobacco, opium, wheat, which is 

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ibmidant and in quality excellent ; buck-wheat, rice, barley, 
juwaree (Holcua sorghum), bajra (Holcus spicatus), 
mooDg (Pbaseolua mungo), maise, various sorts of vetches, oil- 
seeds, such as sesamum and mustard ; peas and beans, carrots, 
tomips, onions, melons, cucumbers, and sundry kinds of 
eocorbitaceous plants. So plentiful is wheat, that it sells at 
Mooltan at from half a rupee to a rupee per maund. Bang, or 
bemp, is produced for the purpose of inducing intoxication; 
8tffix>n, safflower for dyes, and a great number of less-important 
products. Milk, butter, and wool are very important objects of 
niral economy, the former being almost the only* produce of 
the numerous herds of kine, as the slaughtering of these 
tnimals for food is not aUowed by the Sikhs. 

The manufacturing industry of the Punjab is considerable. 
It is exercised principally in the silk and cotton productions of 
Amritair, Lahore, Mooltan,^ Shoojabbad, Leia, and some other 
places in the south, and in the fabrication of arms In Lahore. 
Mach of the commerce of the Punjab consists in the transit of 
the goods of Hindostan to the countries west of the Indus. 
The chief marts are Amritair, Leia, and Mooltan, Lahore being 
in this respect of inferior importance. The imports from 
British India^ are principally sugar, spices, and other groceries ; 
dje-etuffs, cotton, woollen, and silk cloths ; metals, and utensils 
of various kinds of metal ; ivory, precious stones, glass, 
porcelain, and cutlery. From the west, the imports are gold, 
turquoises, silver, silk, madder, cochineal, asafoatida, safflower, 
fruits (fresh and dried), wool, horses, and a few of the more 
portable manufactures of Bussia. The exports, whether in the 
way of transit or the produce of the country, are grain, ghee 
or clarified butter, hides, wool, silk and cotton fabrics, carpets, 
shawls, silk, cotton, indigo, tobacco, salt, and horses. 

The population consists of various races, being composed of^ 
Jats, Qujurs, Bajpoots, and Patans. A small portion of the 
country included between the Kishengunga and the Indus, 
north of the Salt range, is held by the Eusufzye Afghans. Of 
the races above mentioned, the most prominent are the Jats, 
who are represented as having formed the ** core and nucleus” 

* Leech (Report of the Commeroe of Mooltan, p. 88) mentioos bides as 
SB article of commerce in the Punjab : they must be taken off kine which 
bare died of disease or age. 

ao8 


> Elph. 91. 
Vlfoe, Otiumee, 
94. 

Moorcr. t. 180; 
n. IS9. 


* BumM, III 111. 
Mewoe, I. 9S4. 


* Leech, Report 
on Corameroo oi 
MoolUo, 87. 


* Report, ut 
•upra, 8 . 


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PUNJAB. 


* Report, nC 
ftupra, 4 . 


of the Sikh commonwealth and armies. They occupy the 
centre portion of the Baree Doab and the vicinity of Amriteur ; 
but they have also extensive colonies in various parts of the 
Punjab. In the south-west angle of the province, about 
Mooltan, they are held in indifferent repute, their importance 
there being merely agricultural. The Gujurs, supposed to be 
the aborigines of Huzara, are described as an industrious class, 
devoting much attention to agriculture, and differing in this 
respect from the Bajpoots. The principal localities of the 
Patans are Mooltan and Kussoor, in the Baree Doab. ** From 
the Beas to the Chenab the Hindoo race predominates ; but, 
in all parts of this region, the Mahomedans are numerously 
interspersed, and in the south they actually form the ma- 
jority ; but of the Mahomedans a large portion are of Hindoo 
origin. From the Chenab to the Indus, the population chiefly 
consists of Hindoo converts to Mahomedanism. Beyond the 
Indus the pure Mahomedan race prevails. Of the whole 
population, two-thirds are Mussulmans (both spurious and 
genuine), the remaining one-third are chiefly IDndoos, and of 
these half are Sikhs.’* ^ 

For administrative purposes, the province has been dis- 
tributed into a limited number of territorial divisions, each 
division comprising several districts. The names of the prin- 
cipal divisions, with their respective areas and amount of 
population, so far as these can be particularized, are stated 
below. 


• Id. 49. 


* Id. 996. 


Divuions. Area in iquare miles. 

Jhelum* 13,959 

Lahore 13,428 

Leia 30,000 

Mooltan 14,900 

JuUunder® 1,324 


Population. 

1,116,035 

2,470,817 

1,600,000 

500,000 

569,722 


No official returns have been received of the area and 
population of the division of Peshawur, nor those of Kangra, 

Ac. The total area of the province, as already stated, is 78,447 
square miles, and the population can scarcely fall short of 
7,000,000. 

The Sikhs are for the most part concentrated about^ th©*tidar.com 
capitals, Amritsir and Lahore. The belief of this sect was 

994 


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origioaUj, according to Malcolm/ a pure deiam, but has so far 
degraerated that they now consider their founder entitled to 
dirioe honours, and regard him as a saviour and mediator with 
God. Their faith admits the doctrine of the transmigration of 
soda, either as a punishment, or a remedial process for moral 
deSciency, and of a future state of bliss for the good. To kill 
kioe is considered by them a horrible impiety. Tobacco^ is 
prohibited, but fermented liquors are allowed, and no kind of 
food is forbidden except beef. Malcolm^ lays down the follow- 
ing as the great points by which they are separated from the 
strict Hindoos : — the renunciation of the distinctions of castes, 
the admission of proselytes, and the rendering the pursuit of 
tnns not only allowable, but the religious duty of all. The 
sect, though it has but recently become powerful, was founded 
bjr Nanac, who was bom in 1469, at Raypur,' sixty miles west 
of Lahore, and received the name of Ouru, or “ spiritual 
pastor,** from his votaries, who themselves assumed the appel- 
UtioD of Sikhs, or “disciples.** His followers were at first 
peaceable and humble, and remained so until the murder, by 
the Mahometans, of their fourth Guru in succession from 
Ntnac; on which event his successor, Har Gk>vind, in revenge, 
drew the sword, which has never since been sheathed. Guru 
Oorind, the fifth in succession firom Har Govind, and the tenth 
horn Nanac, is regarded as the founder of the temporal power 
of the Sikhs. His votaries were instructed by him always to 
bear arms, or at least steel in some form or other, about them, 
snd to assume the name of Singh, or lion, previously affected 
oolj bj the Bajpoots. By this name they are distinguished 
from the other Sikhs or followers of Baba Nanak. They ceased 
to htTe any spiritual leader® after the death of Govind,* who 
vaa killed in 1708 ; and from that period, until the power of 
Konjeet Singh became paramount, they constituted a turbulent 
^ irregular republic, holding, in cases* of great emergency, a 
Guru-mata, or general diet, at Amritsir, but at other times 
engiged incessantly in petty warfare with each other. Bunjeet 

* Sotutes Forator,* whose aocooDt is coDsistent, and probably accurate, 
teems to be corroborated by that of Jacquemoot,* in his notice of 
Amritsir— ** Cette Rome dn Pendj&b n*a point de pape.** Bumes, how- 
ever, makes mention of " the head of the Sikh church, the Bedee or Sahib 

Sttg." 


f Sketch of the 
Slkli^ 171. 


• MasKm, I. 410. 


• p. 180. 


• Poftlcr, Bcof. 
Eng. f. 30S. 


• Forster, I. 809. 


* Msloolm, 1. 130. 


* r. ta. 

« Bokh. II. 280. 

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PUNJAB. 


* P. Yom Hncvt, 
UL SOS. 


• MmlcDlm. no. 

I. IP. 


•Mm 


n, I. 487. 


^ Coart and Camp 
of Rui^eat Singh, 
144. 


viewed the congregated meetings at Amritsir with great jealousy, 
and built at that place the great fortress of GK>vindghur,^ 
ostensibly to protect, but actually to overawe and control, the 
excited followers of Govind, who resorted there. Those Sikhs 
who adhere to the original doctrines of Nanac are called 
Khalasa ; they are less fanatical and warlike than the 
Singhs, or followers of Guru Gk>vind. Of these latter, a 
peculiar class is called Acalis,* or immortals, and sometimes 
Nihungs. Their fanaticism, Bumes observes, borders on in- 
sanity, and they seem to be at war with all mankind. They go 
about heavily armed, frequently bearing a drawn sword in each 
hand, two other swords in their belts, a matchlock on their 
back, and on their turbans^ iron quoits six or eight inches in 
diameter, with their outer edges sharpened ; and these, it is 
asserted, they throw with such force, as well as precision of 
aim, as to lop off the leg of a horse, or even of an elephant. 
Osborne,^ however, who has frequently seen them try their 
skill, found them to be very bungling, and the missile in their 
hands to be very inefficient. They are a lawless and sanguinary 
class, and would have rendered the country desolate, had they 
not been vigorously coerced by Bunjeet Singh. 

The sacred books of the Sikhs are called Oranth (scripture). 

The principal of them are the Adp- Oranth, composed by Nanac, 
their first Guru, and the Das JPadshah he Chranth, composed by 
Guru Govind, their last spiritual guide. They charge in battle 
to the war-cry, JVai I Quruji ka Folk, “ O Victory to our 
master the Guru ! ” 

The Sikhs as soldiers appear in a respectable light. Their 
repeated and signal successes against the formidable Afghans 
are conclusive evidence of their valour ; they are patient of 
fatigue and privation, and, in case of reverse, readily rally. 

Malcolm gives rather a favourable view of their character. 

“ The Sikh soldier,*’ he says, “ is, generaly speaking, brave, 
active, and cheerful, without polish, but neither destitute of 
sincerity nor attachment.” But for the occurrence of some 
recent events, the present race of Sikhs might have claimed 
exemption from the charge of cruelty. Their celebrated 
maharaja, Bunjeet Singh, rarely shed the blood either of 
criminals or of his personal enemies, and he appears to havO^'d^'"-^om 
aspired to the praise of clemency. 

206 


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b person, the Sikha bear a general resemblance to other 
people of Hindoo origin, but they are more robust ; the result 
of • more varied and liberal diet : they especially excel others 
of the Hindoo race in having the lower extremities full, 
DUBeolar, and symmetricaL Their women are esteemed 
betutifnl. 


The general dress of the male portion of the Sikh popiilation 
oonnsta of a jacket and trowsers reaching to the knee ; of late, 
the chiefs have lengthened the trowsers to the ancles. They 
also wear shawls and scarfs, and wrap their heads in thin 
narrow cloths, so as to form a rude turban.^ The Sikhs are in 
general remarkably illiterate ; Hunjeet Singh* was iinable to 
read or write, and most of his courtiers were alike destitute of 
these elementary attainments. This may, perhaps, be accounted 
ior from the fact of most of the sect, including Hunjeet him- 
ieH* tracing their origin to the Jats,* a Kajpoot tribe of very 
low order. 

The language of the Punjab is called by Malcolm* a jargon, 
oompoonded of various tongues. As spoken in large towns, it 
ia I dialect of the Urdu^ or Hindustani: in the villages, the 
tlttlect in use is Jathky, sprung from a cognate root, and 
c^nginally the language of the country : on the southern 
Ibotier, Ponjaubi contains a large admixture of Sindhi. There 
ire two characters used, — JLat$de, that of common translation, 
ind Ourmukhiy or the character of the Granth. Measures have 
been taken by the government for the promotion of popular 
location. The indigenous schools are of three descriptions, 
^'cioited to by Hindoos, Mussulmans, and Sikhs respectively. 
A government educational institution, partaking of a collegiate 
cbancter, has been founded at Amiitsir. It is remarkable that 
female education is to be met with in all parts of the Punjab. 
The girls and the teachers (also females) belong to all of the 
races above enumerated.* 

In facilities of communication, this province enjoys great 
idTintages. Besides those afforded by its noble rivers, it 
P^^m si es others in a number of roads constructed since its 
occupation by the British. Of these the principal is the main 
ixom south-east to north-west, from Lahore to Peshawur, 
Pming the towns of Wuzeerobad, Jhelum, Bawul Pindee, and 
Attock. From Lahore this road is continued in a south- 


• Mateolm, 141. 
F. Von Hufot. 
111. 944. 

* Oaborao, OS. 
Bornoa, i. 44. 


> Mnleolm, lit. 

* Id. Its. 

Maaaon, L 410. 

* p. 84. 


* Laach, Orainnar 
of tba 
Lnnf. 110. 


• Raport. ni 
auprn, 00. 


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PUNJAB. 


• F«rbhU, 1. 47, 
09. 

D’HerbvIot, II. 
618. 

Prlc«, Mahom- 
nMdan II Ut. it. 
1<8l-904. 

7 FerlahU, I. 190. 


• Id. I. A06. 
Oaber, Mem. 607. 


• Elph. Acc of 
Caubul, 640. 


I BIph 650. 
• Id 670. 


easterly direction across the Jull under Doab to Loodiana, 
^here it communicates with the grand trunk road from Cal- 
cutta. 2. From north to south, from Lahore to Ferozepore ; 

8. from north-east to south-west, from Lahore to Mooltan ; 

4. from east to west, from Lahore to Dera Ismael Khan ; 5. 
from north-west to south-east, from Dera Ismael Khan, passing 
the town of Jhung, in the Bechna Doab, and traversing the 
Baree Doab to Ullohur, where it joins the road from Delhi ; 

6. from south to north, from Amritsir to Sealkote. There are, 
besides, several routes connecting the g^at northern cities 
with the chief southern outlet at Mooltan. 

The Sikh realm has many considerable towns ; of these, the 
most worthy of notice are — Lahore, Amritsir, Find Dadun 
Khan, Mooltan, Peshawer, Dera Ghazee Khan, Dera Ismael 
Khan, Julinder, Yazeerabad, Leia, Nurpur, Le, Jelum, Jelal- 
poor, Shoojabad, and several others, especially noticed under 
their names in the alphabetical arrangement. 

The Punjab was, in remote antiquity, the scene of some of 
Alexander’s most arduous exploits. At the beginning of the 
eleventh century of the Christian era, it w'as ravaged, widely 
and sweepingly, by Mahmood® of Ghiznee, “ the Destroyer.’* 
Lahore for about a century remained in possession of the 
successors of Mahmood, and was frequently the seat of their 
government, until 1186,^ when the Ghaznevide dynasty was 
uprooted by Mahomed, Sultan of Ghore. Subsequently to this 
event, the Punjab became the prey of a succession of weak, 
licentious, and turbulent rulers, among whom the Afghans 
generally predominated, until, in 1526,® Baber gained the 
victory of Paniput, and, ascending the throne, established the 
sovereignty of the Timurian family. In 1748, Ahmed Shah 
Durani, finding the power of the Moguls broken by the in- 
vasion of Nadir Shah, overran the Punjab with an Afghan 
army, and made himself master of Lahore and in 1756 the 
Mogul emperor of India ceded to him these conquests. Soon 
after this, the power of the Sikhs began to assume a formidable 
aspect, and in 1768* they overran the country east of the 
Jhelum, and, crossing that river, took the celebrated fortress 
Botas. In 1797,* Shah Zeman Durani invaded the Punjab and^^^ 
took Lahore, but being immediately recalled by an insurrec-^ 
tion at home, left the country in greater confusion than he 

•Jits 


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fvHiod it. The expulsion of Shah Shooja in 1809, and conse- 

qaent subTersion of the Afghan monarchy, facilitated the rise 

oT fiunjeet Singh, a Sikh of the caste of Jata, one of the 

hamblest but most numerous among the Bajpoots. In 1799, 

tbu adventurer had obtained from Zeman Shah Durani a grant 

of Lahore,* and in the same year* succeeded in expelling three • Printer, ufc of 

riral Sikh chieftains, who had maintained themselves there. 

In 1809, having extended bis power over the greater part of Kntchmir, le. i4i 

the Punjab, and some of the petty hill states, he carried his 

tfiDs across the Sutlej, and attacked the Sikh chieftains under 

British protection. Negotiations ensued, and were brought 

to an amicable conclusion by a treaty, providing ** that the 

British government will have no concern with the territories 

and subjects of the raja to the northward of the river Sutlej,** 

snd that Bunjeet Singh would not commit or suffer any en* 

croachment on the possessions or rights of the chiefs on the 

left bank of that river.* In 1818, Bunjeet Singh stormed * Prin«ep, ut 

Mooltan,* and extended his power over the whole southern •“idTii?.* 

part of the Punjab, and in the same year marched a force across 

the Indus, and made himself master of Peshawer.^ In 1819, f id. no. 

the Maharaja of the Sikhs, as Bunjeet styled himself, conquered 

the Derajat, on the west side of the Indus, ^ and Cashmere.® • id. m. 

In 1831, at Booper, on the Sutlej, an interview took place, K[l^hnBir”iL*i 5 i. 
amidst great pomp and display, between Bunjeet Singh and 
Lord Auckland, the Governor- General of British India, and a 
paper was placed in the hands of the Sikh ruler promising him 
the perpetual amity of the British government. In 1885, 

9oUb Singh, a vassal of the Maharaja, reduced to subjection 
the extensive hill state of Ladakh, or Middle Tibet,^ and five or i id. iv. no. 
ax jears later, the same chieftain subdued Bulti,® or Little • visnc, KMhmir, 
Tibet. In 1838 Bunjeet Singh became a party in the tripartite 
treaty with the British government and Shah Shooja, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a stipulation securing to him the right to 
all the territories which he then possessed on both sides of the 
Lidua.* Bunjeet Singh died in July, 1839, and was succeeded » Triimrtiu 
hy his son Ruruck Singh. The latter died in 1840, and, as 
generally believed, from the effects of poison. Before the 
^aeral ceremonies for this prince were fully ended, his son and 
wooessor was killed by the falling of a beam — a catastrophe 

sot accidental, though intended to have the appearance of being 
a p aoo 


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PUNJAB. 


80 . A competition for the vacant throne then ensued between 
the widow of Kuruck Singh and a reputed son of Bunjeet 
Singh, named Sheer Singh, but who, though bom in wedlock, 
had been subjected by his alleged father to the stigma of 
illegitimacy. Shere Singh finally succeeded, but his triumph 
was of short duration : near the close of the year 1843 he 
was assassinated ; and this was followed by a widely -spread, 
frantic, and sanguinary anarchy, which, after raging with a 
fury that overspread the Punjab with desolation and misery, 
eventuated in an aggressive movement upon the British do- 
minions. The British government, ever reluctant to interpose 
in the internal dissensions of neighbouring states, had of 
course no choice but to resort to arms when its own territories 
were invaded. The appeal was crowned with success to the 
righteous cause, although the conflicts of Moodkee, Ferozeshah, 

Aliwal, and Sobraon, attest the obstinacy of those who, having 
thrown their own country into confusion, proceeded to extend 
that confusion, if possible, to the territories of a neighbour 
xmxious only to preserve the relations of peace, but whose 
power was as great as his disposition was pacific. The insolent 
foe was driven back ; and it was in the Seik ci^ital Lahore, 
then occupied by the British, that the treaty which was 
designed to regulate the future position of each government 
towards the other was concluded. But it was not destined 
long to command even a nominal acquiescence. Treachery 
and perfidy, almost unparalleled in the anniila of even 
oriental aflairs, provoked a further manifestation of British 
power, and the Giovemor- General came to the conclusion that, 
to use his own language, ** no other course is open to us than 
to prosecute a general Punjab war with vigour, and ultimately 
to occupy the country with our own troops.” It would occupy 
far greater space than can here be spared to detail the events 
which followed. The battle of Chillianwallah, w’hich at the 
time excited much discussion, and the victory of Gujerat, were 
among the most noticeable. The result was not less tri- 
umphant, aud was far more decisive than that of the former 
war. 

On the 29th of March, 1848, Lahore vras again the scene of 
a most imposing spectacle, the actors in which were assembled idar.com 
for the same object as on a previous occasion — the settlement 

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of the affiiira of the Punjab. In the contest between good 
£utii and treachery, victory had decided for the former. The 
Brihsli, now masters of the Punjab, held the determination of 
iifl £ite, and that determination was the most happy for the 
people of the conquered territory that could have taken place. 

On the day and at the place above named, it was solemnly 
prodaiined that the family of Bunjeet Singh had ceased to 
reign, and that the country of the Five Rivers was incorporated 
with the British empire. The effects which have followed the 
loeorporation, so difierent from the usual results of conquest, 
may be seen in the remarks addressed by the Court of Directors 
of the East-India Company to the government of India, on 
receiving a report of the first two or three years only of British 
administration.^ * lUport, Ht 

•* In the short period which has elapsed since the Punjab be- 
oine a part of the British dominions, results have been achieved 
such as could scarcely have been hoped for as the reward of 
msay years of well-directed exertions. The formidable army 
which it had required so many battles to subdue, has been quietly 
disbanded, and the turbulent soldiery have settled to industrious 
pwtnits. Peace and security reign throughout the country. 

And the amount of crime is as small as in our best-administered 
territories. Justice has been made accessible, without costly 
fmudities, to the whole population. Industry and commerce 
have been set free. A great mass of oppressive and burthen- 
some taxation has been abolished. Money rents have been 
substituted for payments in kind, and a settlement of the land 
revenue has been completed in nearly the whole country, at a 
considerable reduction on the former aniount. In the settle- 
ment, the best lights of recent experience have been turned to 
the utmost account, and the various errors committed in a more 
imperfect state of our knowledge of India have been carefully 
Avoided. Cultivation has already largely increased. Notwith- 
standing the great sacrifices of revenue, there was a surplus. 

After defraying the civil and the local military expenses, of fifty- 
two lacs in the first, and sixty- four and a half lacs in the second 
year, after annexation. During the next ten years, the con- 
struction of the Baree Doab Canal, and its branches, and of the 
great network of roads already in rapid progfress, will absorb 
the greater part of the surplus ; but even daring this interval, 

p 2 


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PUN. 


* BoIImu, R^- 
vara, 08. 


E I.C. M*. Doe. 


> B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* Garden, Tables 
of Routes, 80. 

* FlUelarence, 
Journal, 8A. 


according to tho Board’s estimato, a balance will be left of 
more than double tho amount of the cost of two corps, at 
which the Governor- General computes the augmentation of 
the general military expenses of India due to the acquisition of 
the Punjab. After the important works in question are com- 
pleted, the Board of Administration, apparently on sound data, 
calculates on a permanent surplus of fifty lacs per annum 
applicable to general purposes. 

Results like these reflect the highest honour on the adminis- 
tration of your Lordship in Council, and on the system of 
Indian government generally. It is a source of just pride to 
us, that our services, civil and military, should have afforded 
men capable, in so short a time, of carrying into full efifect 
such a series of enlightened and beneficent measures. The 
executive functionaries in the subordinate ranks have proved 
themselves worthy of the honourable career which awaits them. 

The members of the Board of Administration, Sir Henry 
Lawrence, Mr. John Lawrence, Mr. Mansell, and Mr. Mont- 
gomery, have entitled themselves to be placed in the foremost 
rank of Indian administrators.’* 

PUNJNUD, a great stream of the Punjab, discharges into 
the Indus the collected water of the Ghara and Trimab, and 
consequently of the Sutlej, Beas, Ravee, Chenaub, and Jheluro. 

The great channel beciring the name of Punjnud commences at 
the confluence of the Ghara and Trimab, in lat. 29^ 21', long. 

71° 3', and, taking a south-westerly course of about sixty railes,^ 
joins the Indus nearly opposite Mittunkote, and in lat. 28° 5T, 
long. 70° 30'. 

PUNKEEMATH, in the British district of Gurhwal, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
tho route from SIreenuggur to Thibet, 43 miles E.N.E. of the 
former. Lat. 30° 27', long. 79° 30'. 

PUNNAGHUB,^ in tho British district of Saugor and 
Nerbudda, a town on the route from Allahabad to Jubulpoor, ; 
261^ miles S.W. of former, and 10 N.E. of latter. It appears ! 
to be a place* of considerable antiquity ; and amongst other | 

striking objects is a curiously-sculptured bull, on a very high ^ 

altar of stone. Eitzclarence, who marched by the town, but ^ 
had not time to visit it, mentions that a great number oCdar': 

Hindoo temples were visible. Tho dwellings of the inhabitants 

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ire, bowerer, very poor, beiog merely constructed of mats 
eotted with mud. To the south-east of the town is a very fine 
tink. Elevation above the sea 1,477 feet. Lat. 23° IG', 
long. 80P df. 

PUNNAH,^^ in Bundelcund, a town, the principal place of 
the territory of the same name, lies on the route from Banda 
to Jubbulpore, 62* miles S. of the former, 169 N. of the latter. 
It is situate on the north-eastern slope of a barren range, or 
nther plateau, rising about 800 feet above the Bindachal 
plateau, stretching towards the north-east, and from this town 
stjled^ by Franklin the Punnah Hills. The site, which is 
picturesque, is close to an extensive jhil or tank,^ formed by 
embanking the extremity of a deep valley. A palace, formerly 
the occasional residence of Chuttur Saul, noted as the founder, 
of the short-lived independence of Bundelcund, is situate on 
the bank of the jhil, and around are many mausoleums of 
elaborate and tasteful architecture. In the jhil are alligators, 
ooQsidered by the Hindoos sacred. Though now quite in ruins, 
Paonah was once a fine well-built town, the houses being 
generally constructed of squared sandstone,^ and covered with 
tiles. A pathway of large flags extends down the middle of 
the streets, which have an air of solidity, cleanliness, and con- 
renience. Whole streets, however, are now desolate, being 
tenanted only by large troops of monkeys, which, posted on the 
roofs or at the windows, view passengers without alarm. The 
palace of the rajah is a spacious, beautiful building, surmounted 
by high, elegant kiosks, and having its exterior crowded with 
numerous ornamental carvings ; but it is in many places ruinous. 
The town is crowded with Hindoo temples, in a mixed style of 
architecture, partaking of the Saracenic, and partly derived 
probably from the Mussulmans. There does not appear to be 
any mosque in the town, it being almost exclusively inhabited 
by Hindoos. There are here, how'ever, some followers of 
“Pran Nath,* a Khetriya, who, being versed in Mahomedan 
learning, as well as in his own, attempted to reconcile the two 
religions. There is a building consecrated to the use of this 
sect, in one apartment of which, on a table covered with gold 
doth, lies the volumet of the founder.” 

* Punoa of Briggs's Index, and also of Jacquemont.' 

t Hie MahitariyaL 

213 


* B.LC. Ms. Doc. 


« Osnim. Tsbics 
of Koutos, 70. 


’ As. Rss. BVlIl. 
IOS^Ob th« 
Dismood- Mines 
of Psnnc. 

* Pofson, HIsi. of 
Boondslss, ISO. 


* Jscqoetnont, 
Vojrsgcs. Ui. 107. 


• As. Res. xvILTOS 
— Wilson. Skvlrb 
of till* Rellf lous 
Sects of Hindoos. 


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I Vojsfss, 111. seo. 


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^ pHnhllfi, Itip 
■nii«mMt fo Trp«- 
tlmt in At. Hal 

ill 400. 


* Frank LtOp I IS, 
114. 


* p. 1:13, 


* TrnnMU'tt. of 
DpoI. Soc. of 
Lnnil. tnd 
vol Hi. |iart 
4S0. 


PlTNNAir. 

The former prosperity of this place resulted from the diamoad- 
mines in the vicinity. The diamonds are found in several 
localities, of which one is situate a short distance to the north- 
east of the town/ and hence the mines there are called the 
Punoah mines* The ground at the surface, and a few feet 
below, consists of ferrugineous gravel, mixed with roddieh day s 
and this loose mass, when carefully washed and searched, 
affords diamonds, but few tn number, and of small siEe. The 
inatrii containing in greater quantity the more valuable dia- 
monds, lies considerably lower, at a depth vaiying generally 
from twelve to forty feet, and is a conglomerate of pebbles of 
quartz, jasper, horns tone, Liydian stone, and some others. The 
fragments of this conglomerate, quarried and brought bo the 
surface, are carefully pounded, and after several wasbings, to 
remove the softer and more clayey parts, the residue is re- 
peatedly searched for the gem. As is common in such sodortive 
pursuits, the return often falls below the outlay, and the 
adventurers are ruined. The business is now much leti 
prosperous than formerly ; but Jacquemont does not consider 
that there arc any symptoms of exhaustion in the adamanti- 
ferous deposits, and attributes the unfavourable change to tba 
diminished value of the gem everywhere. The rejected rubbish, 
if examined after a lapse of some years, has been frequently 
found to contain valuable diaoionds, which some suppose hire 
in the interval been produced in the congenial matrix j hut j 
experienced and skilful miners are generally of opinion that 
diamonds which escaped a former search, in consequence of 
incrustation by some opaque coat, have been rendered obvionfl 
to the sight from its removal by fracture, friction, or some 
other accidental cause. More extensive and important is the 
adamant ifero us tract extending from twelve to twenty miles 
north-east of the town of Punnah, and worked in the localities 
of Kamariya, Brijpur, Bargori, Myra, and Etwa. DiamondA of 
the first water, or completely colourless,® are, however, verr 
rare, most of those found being either pearly, greeniBhi 
yell 0 wish, rose-coloured, black, or brown. Franklin conjecturea* 
the ferrugineous conglomerate to have been of igneous origioi 
but Brewster's authority is against this opinion. reaP*, ar.com 
admitting the possibility^ of the diamond having been m a 
state of igneous fusion, that writer oonsidera It highly imprcK 

214 


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bable that it ever waa so. The conglomerate matrix of the 
diamond rests on sandstone, which Franklin, from observations 
on the hill^side, and in the deep ravines in the neighbourhood, 
conjectures*^ to he at least 400 feet thick, and remarks, “ that 
there are strong indications of coal underlying the whole mass.*’ 
During the prosperity of the mines, a tax of twenty-five per 
cent, was levied on their produce, but the tax now imposed is 
stated to exceed this rate. The revenue is divided in propor- 
tions between the rajahs of Punnah, Banda, and Chircaree. 
Franklin,^ calculating the share of the Punnah state at 30,000 
rupees, and the aggregate of the other shares at a fourth of 
that sum, estimates the value of the diamonds found in three 
mines at 120,000 rupees per annum. Pogson,^ who worked one 
of the mines on his own account, considers ** that inexhaustible 
strata producing diamonds exist here;*’ and Jacquemont^ 
imagines that if the mines were properly worked, their produc- 
tiveness would be found not to have diminished. None of the 
great* diamonds now known appear to be traceable to the 
mines in the vicinity of Punnah, and Tieffen thaler^ mentions 
it as a genera] opinion that those of Golconda are far superior. 

The territory of which Punnah is the principal place, is 
bounded on the north by the British district of Banda, and by 
one of the outlying divisions of the native state of Cbirkaree ; 
on the east by the Saugor and Nerhudda estates of Sohawul, 
Oocheyra, and Mybeer ; on the south by the British territory 
of Saugor and Nerhudda ; and on the west by several of the 
petty states of Bundelcund. It lies between lat. 23^ 52' — 
25° 6', long. 70° 50'— 80° 46', and “ in 1832 was stated^ to 
comprise 688 square miles ; to contain 1,062 villages, with a 
population of 67,000 souls ; and to yield a revenue of eight 
lacs (8O,000Z.) :*’ but the income was supposed in 1848^ to be 
only one- half of the above amount. The state pays a tribute 

* Hamilton Tagnelj Btatos' that in one of the temples of the town of 
Pnnna *' la an idol, reported to have a diamond eye of immense value and 
brilliancy.'* He adds * ** that the Ponna raja is said to poesesa one valued 
at Ha. 50,000 (5,000/.), for which he cannot find a purchaser.'* The 
authority for these statements cannot be fixed. Pogson* oheerves, " that 
the principal bnikling in Punna is a large and handsome temple, containing 
images of Krishna and Lncbmun, whose eyee are said to be diamonds of 
great value." 

• 2\3 


* Ut anpra, IIS. 


* Ut tuprs, 116. 


« Htot of Boon- 
delna. 170. 

« 111. 800. 


* Beach rrilmnft 
von Hlnduetsn, 
I. 176. 


’ D*Cnix, Pol. 
RvlsIloDa, 80. 


• E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 
StntUtlcs of Na- 
tive Slate*. 


• Drerriptlnn of 
HindoctMn, I. 8*^6• 

* 1. 820. 


* nut. of Boon- 
delaa, 183. 

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* Tnmmeu. of 
Royal Aa. 8or. L 
909— Franklin, 
Mm. on Bundol* 
cuod. 


* Duir, HUt. of 
klabratUa, 1.91ft. 


* Tmll«a wlih 
Nnliro Powerm, 
184ft. I. 404. 

* Id. 418. 
Franklin, in 
Tran*. Hoy. Aa. 
Soe. I 979. 

* D'Crua, Pol. 
Rclaliona, 87, 88, 
987-947. 


* India Pol. Diap. 
81 July. 1890. 

* Adama, In Traoa. 
of WameHan See. 
quoUd In Ritter*a 
Erdkunda, vl. 900. 
^ Oardmi, TubWa 
of RouUa, 79. 70. 


■ E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


■ Horabumh. 
Eaat-India Dirac* 
lory. 1. 849. 944. 


B.I.e. Ma. Doe. 


• B.T.C. Ma. Doc. 


PUN. 

of 10,000 rupees (1,000/.), and maiDtains a force of 260 cavalry 
and 8,000 infantiy. 

Early in the eighteenth century, Chutter Saul threw off 
subjection to the sovereign of Delhi, and assumed the title* of 
rajah of Punnah, but being hard pressed by the Mussulmin 
chief of Furruckabad, had recourse to the assistance of the 
Peishwa, by whose aid he was, in 1733, rescued from his 
perilous^ position. After his death, the succession became 
disputed, and the country fell into a distracted state, until the 
Peishwa ceded a portion of bis rights in the province of Bon- 
delcund to the East-India Company by the treaty^ of Bassein 
in 1802 ; the cession being confirmed and extended by the 
subsequent treaty^ in 1817. In 1807, the British authoritiei 
granted the raj or territory of Punnah to* Xishor Singh/ a 
descendant and representative of the house of C butter Saul. 

The rajah of Punnah was one of the few Bundelcund chiefs 
who bad not consented to abolish suttee ; and upon the oocu^ 
rence of his death, in 1849, the sacrifice took place. Instruc- 
tions were thereupon given to the British agent to defer the 
recogpiition of the late chief's brother as his successor, in order 
to make use of the opportunity for inducing him to enter into 
an engagement for its future prevention.^ 

The elevation^ of the town of Punnah is 1,800 feet above 
the sea ; distant 130 miles^ S. of Calpee, by Banda ; 173 S.W. 
of Allahabad ; 608 N.W. of Calcutta, by Alhahabad. Lit 
24° 44', long. 80° 16'. 

PUNNAIR.— See Puhiab. 

PUNNECOIL,^ in the British district of Tinnevelly, presi- 
dency of Madras, a small town, with roadstead, on the north- 
west coast of the Gulf of Manar. 'The approach from the 
south is dangerous,^ in consequence of an extensive reef 
stretching in that direction ; but a ship having safely made its 
way past that danger may anchor securely in seven or eight 
fathoms, with bottom soft mud, and two miles from the beach. 
Vegetables are scarce, but water, swine, sheep, and fish, 
abundant. Lat. 8° 39', long. 78° 11'. 

PUNNEEALA, in the Daman division of the Punjab, i 
town situated on the right bank of the Indus, 122 miles S.S.T^ 
of the town of Peshawar. Lat. 32° 16', long. 70° 67'. ar.com 

PUNNOH,^ in the territoiy of Bhurtpore, a small town on 

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the route from Agra to Ajmeer, 43 miles* W. of former, 185 *o«ni«n. T«bic« 
£L of latter. Supplies may be had, and water is obtainable 

from wells. Lat. 27° 4', long. 77° 24'. 

PUNTA DEYBA. — A town in the British district of b.i c. m§. Doe. 
Shikarpoor, prorince of Scinde, presidency of Bombay, 27 miles 
S.W. by W. of Shikarpoor. Lat. 27° 49', long. 68° 18'. 

PUJ^I, in the British district of Bareilly, division of Pil- b r.c. a*. Doe. 
libbeet, lien tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, 

1 fillsge on the route from Bareilly to Petoragurh, and 70 miles 
y.R of the former. Lat. 29° 2', long. 80° 8'. 

PUNWAB. — A town in the Bajpoot state of Jeypoor, e.i.c. Mt. Due. 
81 miles S. by W. from Jeypoor, and 72 miles 8.E. from 
Ajmeer. Lat. 25° 48', long. 75° 36'. 

PUNWABEE,^* in the British district of Humeerpoor, * b.i.c. ii •. Uoc. 
the principal place of the pergunnah of the same name, a town 
00 the route &om Goona to Calpee, 126 miles* S.W. of the • ounicn. Tia>i«* 
Utter. It has water from a lake, and supplies are procurable. *"*'•«*• 

Lat 26° 26', long. 79° 82'. 

PUBAl,^ in the territory of Oude, a town on the route from * B.i.a iit. Doe. 
Aximgurh to Faisabad, 76* miles N.W. of the former, 10 S.E. • uansen. xabWe 
of the latter, two S.W. of the right bank of the Ghaghra. Lat. ^ **"“*'^ “• 

26" 43^, long. 82° ICf. 

PUBANEEPOOB,^ in the British district of Allahabad, * k.i.c. Mt. Doe. 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
OD the right bank of the Ganges, 779 miles* N.W. of Calcutta » Otrdeo, TtMet 
bj the river route, 29 miles S.E. of Allahabad by the same. ^ 

Ut 25° 18', long. 82° 14'. 

PURBANEE. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, b.i.c. Mt. Doe. 
or territory of the Nizam, situate on the right bank of the 
boodna river, and 174 miles N.W. from Hyderabad. Lat. 

19P 17', long. 76° 50'. 

PURGAI,^ in the British district of Cawnpore, lieutenant- » f.i.c. Mt. Doe. 
goremorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the cantonment of Cawnpore to that of Futtehgurh, 

^ 10 miles* N.W. of the former. The road in this part of • otrdwi. Xtbiet 
the route is rather good, the country well cultivated. Lat. 

26" 33', long. 80° 17'. 

PUBQY. — A town in the native state of JEIyderabad, or k.i.c. m». doc. 
territory of the Nizam, 41 miles W.S.W. from Hyderabad, and . 

^ • Xreoft. Roy. As. 

^ Paowari of Franklin.* Soe. I. vos. 

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PUB. 


B.f.a U*. Doe. 


I E.T.C. M*. Doe. 
Ac. Rm. lie. 990* 
— Hodircon and 
HerbeK, Sure, of 
Hlmalajra. 


* Aa. Rea. selli. 
908— Obarrea- 
tlonc on Spill 
Valley. 

• Id. lb. 


E.I.C. Ua. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ma Doe. 


138 miles £. bj S. from Sholapoor. Lat. 17 ^ !(/, long. 
7T 68 ^. 

PURKUNDEE, in the British district of Gurhwal, lieu- 
tenant-govemorsbip of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Sireenugg^r to the native state of Tibet, 28 
miles N.E. of the former. Lat. 80° 8(y, long. 70° lO'. 

PURKYAL, or TUZHEGUN G,* in Bussahir, a peak of the 
ridge in the district of Koonawur, separating the Spiti from 
the Sutlej, and rising six or seven miles north-east of the con- 
fluence of those rivers. A point on a peak two miles west of 
the highest summit was reached by Gerard, who on this 
height, 19,411 feet* • above the level of the sea, found the 
thermometer, on the 18th of October, only 10° below the 
freezing-point, and the ground free from snow. The elevation 
of the highest peak was ascertained to be 22,488 feet* t above 
the sea. Vegetation was observed to reach the height of 
17,000 feet ; and it is intimated that its farther progress was 
caused by want of soil. At the highest point reached, the 
peak was found to be formed of enormous disunited blocks of 
granite, between which were large lumps of ice, clear as crystal. 
Lat. 31° 64', long. 77° 46'. 

PURLAIIKEMEDY. — A tract inhabited by one of the 
independent hill tribes of Orissa, bordering on the western 
frontier of the British district of Ganjam ; its centre is in lat. 
19° 20', long. 84° 10'. 

PURLAH REMEDY. — A town in the British district of 
Ganjam, presidency of Madras, 78 miles 8.W. by W. of Gbm- 
jam. Lat. 18° 47', long. 84° 10'. 

PURLEY. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or 
territory of the Nizam, 165 miles N.W. by W. from Hydera- 
bad, and 123 miles E. by S. from Ahmednuggur. Lat. 18° 51', 
long. 76° 38'. 

• PURMUTTY. — A town in the British district of Salem, 


* PerhAps the highest point reached on the eurfhoe of the globe. 

> Voynic^. w. 994. f 22,000 according to Jacquemont 22,700 according to Hodgson and 
* Vt •npra. ond Herbert.* Gerard, however, elsewhere reconciles this apparent discordance 
of his conclusion with that of Hodgson and Herbert : — ** Two peaks (of 
Parkyul or Pargenl) have been found, by measurement, respectively 3 p Qom 
22,500 and 22,700 ; but it is possible that there are still loftier points in 
the background, where it abuts on the table-land.** 

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presidency of Madras, 37 miles 8. by W. of Salem. Lat. 11° 9', 
long. 78° 6'. 

PURNABADA BIVEB. — A large offset of the Attree, from 
which it separates in lat. 25° 5<y, long. 88° 41', in the British 
district of Dinajepore. After a course of sixty miles, it passes 
into the district of Malda, which it traverses for twenty-five 
miles, and then falls into the Mahananda, in lat. 24° 47', long. 

88° 2(y. 

PUBNEAH.^ — A British district under the presidency of 
Bengal, named from its principal place. It is bounded on the 
north by the kingdom of Nepaul, and by Sikhim ; on the east 
by the British district Dinagepore ; on the south by Malda and 
Bhaugulpore; and on the west by Bhaugulpore. It lies 
between lat. 25° 9'— 20° 37', long. 86° 48'— 88° 23' : it is 117 
miles in length from north-east to south-west, and 105 in 
breadth: the area is 5,878 square miles.^ Though remote 
from the sea, it is a level and rather depressed tract, traversed 
by numerous streams, generally descending from the Himalaya 
Mountains, lying to the north. There are no mountains or 
hills within Pumeah, the chief eminence throughout this exten- 
sive tract being a conical* peak, about 100 feet high, at Mun- 
nearee, near the bank of the Ganges. ** In the northern’* 
comer of the district, towards the Mahanonda, are a few small 
hillocks of earth,” but so inconsiderable as scarcely to deserve 
notice. So thoroughly alluvial is the geological structure, that 
it is only in ** one small spot the naked calcareous stone is 
exposed on the surface and this is the only rock in the dis- 
trict. So low and level is the surface, and such the redun- 
dancy of water, that about 45 parts out of 100 are inundated 
annually.* ** On about three-quarters of this the floods only 
rise three or four times a year, and at each time cover the soil 
two or three days ; on the remainder tho water continues 
almost constantly for two or three months.” The soil varies 
greatly in quality in different parts : near the great rivers it 
undergoes rapid changes. “ The^ same field one year is over- 
whelmed with sand, and the next year this is covered with a 
rich and fertile mud. This, however, is often so irregularly 
applied, that, in a field of two or three acres, many spots are 
quite barren, while others are very productive. The changes 
in rivers, which have taken place in times of old, have produced 

219 


t B.I.C. Mb. Doe. 


* BiirVuiniin. nt 
•upra, ill. 096. 


* Id. III. S. 

* Id. ut tupm. 


• Id. lb. 

• Id. lb. 


Y Id. HI. 9. 


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* Burhanan, 
ill. 6. 


• Id. III. 10. 


PURNEAII. 

in many parts of this district, as well as in most parts of 
Bengal, a similar intermixture of barren and fertile soils in the 
same plot. In these parts the intermixture is permanent, the 
cause of change having for many ages been removed.*’ 

The Ganges touches on this district on the south-west side, 
at its confluence with the Kosee, lat. 26° 2<y, long. 87° IG*. 
The river there is confined within a channel^ a mile in width, 
free from islands and sandbanks, and navigable for the largest 
vessels used by the natives, “ which are of very considerable 
burthen, although they draw little water.” ^ At the confluence 
of the Kosee it spreads out to a great size, measuring, includ- 
ing its islands, from six to seven mOes from bank to bank. 
The Ganges holds an easterly course through the district to 
a point, lat. 26° 11', long. 87° 62', where it enters the district 
of Maldah. In this part of its course its dimensions and 
volume of water are greater than in any other, as it here hai 
received the Kosee, the last of its great tributaries, and is not 
yet diminished by the numerous great offsets which a few miles 
lower down begin to convey a portion of its vast aggregation of 
waters to the Bay of Bengal. Next in magnitude is the Kosee, 
a great stream, which, flowing south flrom Nepaul, touches on 
this district in about lat. 28° 32', long. 87° 12', and for ten miles 
forms the boundary between the dominions of Nepaul and those 
of the £ast-lndia Company. It is in this part of its course 
about two miles^ in width, free from rocks, but containing 
numerous islands, covered with tamarisks and coarse grass. 
After entering the district of Purneah, its main stream holds i 
course little deviating from a direct southerly one, and, after 
throwing off* part of its waters and receiving others, it ulti- 
mately falls into the Ganges, in lat. 26° 20', long. 87° 16'. 
total length of course through this district is about ninety mile^ 
the channel varying in breadth from a mile and a half to two 
miles, of which the stream usually occupies about three- 
quarters, the remainder being sandbanks and shoals, covered 
with aquatic vegetation. About eight miles above its mouth, it 
on the right side receives the river Gogaree, flowing east from 
the British district of Bhaugulpore ; from which point the 
united stream forma for the remainder of its course the boun- ^ 
dary betw’een Pumeah and Bhaugulpore. The Mahaounda, 
another great river, touches on this district at the north-east 

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angle, in lat. 26^ 38^, long. 88^ 22^, and for about ten roilea 
forms the eastern boundaiy, towards the British district of 
Dinajepore, and then, entering Pumeah, takes a south-western 
course for fifty-five miles, as far as Colapura, in lat. 25° 66', 
long. 87° 48', where it turns south-east, and flows fifty miles to 
Jagatnathpore, in lat. 25° 28', long. 88° 6' ; at which place it, 
on the left side, receives the Nagor, a considerable stream 
flowing from the north : subsequently it holds for twenty miles 
a direction south, forming for that distance the boundary 
between this district and Dinajepore ; and finally, in lat. 
25° 13', long. 88° 7', it passes into the district of Maldah. 
Besides these rivers, there are numerous smaller streams, con- 
nected with the larger and with each other, and in general 
admitting craft of considerable burthen ; so that few tracts have 
equal advantages of irrigation and water-carriage. The lowest 
part of the surface is that contiguous to the bank of the 
Ganges, at the south-east comer of the district, and it may* be 
estimated to have an elevation of 123 feet above Calcutta. Tita- 
liya, on the north-east frontier, and probably the highest point 
in the district, has an elevation estimated^ at 275 feet above 
the sea. There are no lakes of any magnitude in Pumeah, but 
many jhils or extensive shallow ponds, which, according to all 
appearance, were formerly the deeper parts of the channels of 
rivers which have changed their courses. 

In the latter part of spring, and the commencement of 
summer, the westerly winds in the south of the district bring 
very hot, dry weather. During the periodical rains, from the 
early part of summer to the middle of autumn, easterly winds 
prevail. In spring, violent squalls are common, which, setting 
in at sometimes from the north, at others from the north-west 
and north-east, ** are accompanied^ by uncommon quantities of 
bail. In one storm, by far the greater part of the stones were 
as large as walnuts, and vast numbers were like small apples, 
while several were like ordinary-sized oranges.*’ The cold of 
winter is in every part of the district sufBcient to produce 

V The eleyatioD of Kabalgang or Ck>lgoDg, on the bank of the Ganges, 
at the south-west comer of the district, is estimated' at 180 feet; and as 
the slope of the waterway in this part is estimated at four inches per mile, 
the most soothera point of the district, twenty miles lower down the 
stream than Colgong, may be estimated at 123 feet abore Calcutta. 

221 


* Jotim A«. 9oc. 
Xtotif. 1897. p. SOO 
— On the Clitoate 
of Oarjeling. 


* Buchanan. Sur- 
rej of Battern 
India, m. aft. 


I Printer, Steam 
Narljrallnn In 

Briiiih India, 88, iipatidar.com 


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PUKNEAH. 


hoar-irosts, and, at times, seriouslj to damage tbo more tender 
crops. Earthquakes are not unfrequent, several shocks usually 
occurring every year, bat so slight as to cause no material 
injury. 

* B 4 ieb«nao. 8 ur- Among the wild animals^ are elephants, but they are not 

ilSi lu. 19^186. numerous. There are tigers and leopards, but they are not 
common, except among the decaying vestiges of the ruined 
city of Gaur. Monkeys (the markat or Simia rhezus) 
abound in various parts, and do much mischief, but no steps 
are taken to lessen their numbers. The jackal and the Indian 
fox are common, and the former has the reputation of stealing 
money as well as other things, and hiding them ; but this 
Buchanan believed to be a fiction, invented and kept up by 
those who derived impunity for their own dishonesty from 
laying the thefts upon the jackals. Wolves formerly existed, 
but they have disappeared. The Indian bear, though not 
entirely unknown, is very uncommon. Deer of various kinds — 
the axis or spotted deer, and the cerf des Ardennes of Buffon, 
are pretty numerous wherever the country is overgrown with 
woods and bushes. The common antelope is abundant in the 
western parts of the district. In the wastes of the south, 
are some wild bufialoes ; and throughout the district, where 
there is any shelter, wild hogs are exceedingly numerous. The 
numbers of the porcupine are kept down by the avidity with 
which the animal is pursued, the flesh being an article of food 
greatly esteemed by the pure Hindooa Hares are numerona. 

The ichneumon and the otter, both which are common, remain 
to be added to the list. Of birds, paroquets abound in the 
northern parts, and peafowl in the southern. The kaim 
(Galinula porphyrio of LinnsDus), a bird celebrated for its 
beauty by the Greeks, with whom it was a rarity, remains here 
throughout the year; the ortolan, called by the natives bageri, 
found in large flocks, but only during fair weather, deserves 
mention, as constituting a delicate article of food; and the 
kolang, or common crane (Ardea grus) of Eorope, may be 
noticed. All the above-mentioned birds are described as 
making great havoc among the grain-crops. Partridges and 
quails are numerous ; the kalatita or black partridge is the 
more common, but the flesh is represented to be of veryar.com 
indiflerent quality : a much larger partridge, called titar, 

3^2 


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hrmikeB materiid for a more acceptable repast . Water-fowl 
exki in astonishing swarms. Ducks are taken in rast numbers 
W BMans of nets ; but the class of people who exercise this 
Tocstkm find few or no customers excepting Europeans, such 
ibod being regarded as unclean bj all natiyes but those belong- 
iag to the rerj impure classes. Snipes, golden plovers, and 
the flonkin or lesser bustard, abound ; all excellent articles of 
ibod, bat neglected by the natives. Of the smaller w'hite 
Wron there are many varieties and great numbers, while 
and water-csowa exist in myriads : sparrows are found, 
asd are considered luxurious eating. Of birds of prey, vul- 
tezea, eaglee, kites, and hawks, may be mentioned as existing 
m immense variety and numbers. Tortoises are very numerous, 
md in some places are much eaten. In the large rivers, por- 
poises abound ; crocodUea infest the waters, and are rarely 
■olested ; in some instances they are held sacred. Venomous^ * Buchanan, 
■rpents swarm in incredible numbers ; and it was computed 
Buchanan that 120 persons annually perish from their 
bites : great numbers of cattle are destroyed in the same 
asnner. They are most to be dreaded in rainy weather, as 
tbsy then take shelter in houses. The hooded serpent is con- 
niered in some degree sacred ; and this superstition generally 
, kaarca impunity to these dangerous animals, although the 
. Jitirea do not seem to have any aversion to their destruction, 

. X effected hj other agency than their own. Buchanan’s testi- 

* May on the point is as follows : “ The^ Brahmans say that a • uu iss. 

^ JHiii int and wise man would not with his own hand put one of 

f Iks kinds of hooded snake (gokhar) to death ; yet on all occa- 

* liana X saw them very much satisfied with the impure sinners 
] tiko took that trouble.” 

The rivers and jhila afibrd a moderate supply of fish, but in 
wmoj this advantage is rendered comparatively unavailablo 

* kftiie unskilfulnesa of the fishermen. One hundred and thirty- 
, llnr species of fish are enumerated by Buchanan. Honey-bees 
;. SBS not very numerona ; but it waa the opinion of the author 
: Jhik named, that if adequate attention were paid to this 
^ Mrse of prodnetion, considerable advantage would accrue. 

IhH a botanist, the country is represented as being a field • Buchanan. 

little interest. The inhabitants, it appears, consider it a 

Vsts^oos doty to plant trees ; but the manner in which the duty 

22 » 


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was discharged at the time of Buchanan's observations, called 
forth his reprehension, the trees planted being for the most 
part worthless. That writer enumerates 122 species of trees 
existing within the district, and regrets the stupidity of the 
people in not giving encouragement to those of most viloe, 
and best suited to the country. The bamboo, though it thrires 
well, is represented, notwithstanding its great utility, to be 
little cultivated by the short-sighted and indolent natiTes. 

The mango produces excellent fruit, in a small portion of the 
district at the south-east comer ; in the remainder, its fruit is 
execrable, the timber worthless, though quantities were in 
Buchanan’s time planted and maintained. The khajur palm 
(elate) is cultivated for its sap, which is drawn off by means of 
incision, and which, fermented, yields an intoxicating beverage. 

The palmyra-palm, called also tal, is likewise cultivated for 
its sap, as affording the means of intoxication. The coooinut- 
palm is exotic, and regarded merely as an object of ornament 
or curiosity. The mahua (Bassia latifolia) is cultivated to con- 
siderable extent in the south-western part of the district for 
the petals of its flowers, which, by distillation, yield an ardent 
spirit, consumed by the natives. 

The staple produce of the district is rice, which is cnltivated 
with considerable care. The summer rice (bhadai) is a verj 
important crop, and is usually followed in the cool season by 
crops of wheat, barley, pulse, or oil-seeds, or sometimes inte^ 
mixed with other articles. The varieties of winter rice are 
very numerous. Besides maize or Indian com, various kinds of 
millet are raised. The principal esculent vegetables are, bsygan 
or egg-plant, spinage, various kinds of amaranthus and of 
cucurbitaceous plants, sweet potatoes, common potatoes, peaae, 
cabbage, and yams ; the condiments, ginger, capsicum, turmeric. 

The cultivation of the sugarcane was found by Buchanan to be 
very limited and unskilful, and that of cotton subject to tbe 
same remarks. Tobacco, a great favourite with the populatioo, 
is extensively cultivated, as is hemp, for supplying the powerful 
stimulant called bang. Betel is also one of the productions of 
the district. The opium-poppy was believed by Buchanan to 
1 Btitfitannn, be sccrctly reared to some extent. Indigo^ is the prindpsl 

III. 248 w. commercial crop. Safflower is represented as an object of somo rjcom 

importance towards the eastern part. The mulbeny-tree was, 

224 


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in time of Buchanan^ confined to three small diyisions of 
the eouth-east corner of the district, but there the number was 
TOT great. It was, howcTer, found to be a precarious branch 
of industry, as in some years the crop of leaves totaUy failed, 
and in others, the worms, without any ascertained cause, 
perished, without producing silk. The cultivation appears to 
have been in many instances slovenly. 

Buffaloes are the most important and valuable of domestic 
animals ; next to these, kine ; but both are inferior to some of 
the like animals found in parts of India not far distant. The 
bones are small, and of a wretched description, being valued 
at only from three to five rupees each.^ Goats are numerous, • Boeh«nM>, u 
and kids are in demand for sacrifice. The sheep produce *** 

excellent wool, some of which is exported. 

The manufacturing industiy of the district is exercised prin- 
cipally in coarse work, in metals of various species, and in 
spinning and weaving cotton and silk goods ; the manufacture 
of wool also affords emplojrment to some of both sexes. The 
Tslue of the cotton fabrics manufactured in this district was 
estimated at 13,00,000^ rupees annually ; but the competition • id. ul Mpn, 
of cheaper British goods has, there can be no doubt, much di- 
Bimished the amount of cotton-weaving, as well as of silk- winding 
and silk-weaving, and probably of the spinning and weaving' of 
wool. The preparation of sugar for the market is very limited and 
mde. Some culinary salt is procured by washing the earth ; and 
* aitre is obtained from a similar source, and from washing the 
loQ of inclosures in which cattle are kept. 

In consequence of the great extent of navigable streams, the 
somber of river craft is very great, their tonnage varying from 
about five to sixty tons. In the rainy season, canoes, carrying from 
half a ton to two tons, are almost the only mode of conveyance 
fc and from market, and between the neighbouring villages ; 
and some adventurers, not possessing any such craft, make their 
W!^ on floats of bamboo, supported on earthen pots. Canoes 
and small boats are imported from Nepaul, being made in the 
Terrai or marshy forest at the base of the hills. 

Cotton is imported from Mirzapore and other places lying to 
fbewest ; sugar is imported from the British districts Dinajpur, 

TWioot, and Patna. The only external commerce from the 
diitrict id to Nepaul. The chief exports are cattle, coarse 

6 ^224 


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PUBNEAII. 


> lU. t41. 


* BuclUUIftD, 111. 
Append. 007. 


* Buchanan, 
111. 80, 87. 


« Id. 111. 40. 

• Treaties and 
Grants from the 
Country Powers, 
189. 

> E.I.C. Ma Doe. 
Buchanan. ii|. 00. 


cotton fabrics, silk, indigo, and grain. * Banking ia carried on to 
aome extent, eapeciallj at the town of Pumeah, where there are 
some oonsiderable capitalists ; but so scantj is the circulating 
medium, that, according to Buchanan,^ “ A rupee in this country 
is a large sum ; for being a ploughman’s money wages for two 
months, it may be considered of as much importance in the 
circulation of the country as three or four pounds sterling may 
be considered in England.” 

The population amounts to 1,600,000. Buchanan (who, 
however, estimated the people at nearly double the above 
numbers) reckoned the Hindoos^ to the Mussulmans as 57 to 
48. The people in general are characterised by great want of 
energy and courage ; scarcely any enter into the army, and they 
seldom can muster sufficient resolution to repel the attacks of 
wild beasts. Their dwellings, with few exceptions, are wretched, 
and their personal habits correspond, their clothes being en- 
crusted with dirt, and worn until they fall off in rags. 

Pumeah, the capital, and the other towns of importance 
within the district, are described under their respective names 
in the alphabetical arrangement. 

The principal routes are — 1. From south* west to north-east, 
from Bhaugulpore, through the town of Pumeah to Titaleea, 
and thenoe to Daijeling; 2. from south-east to north-west, 
fVom Maldah, through the town of Pumeah, to Nathpur ; 3. 
fVom east to west, from Dinajpore to the town of Pumeah, and 
thence to Mozufferpore, in Tirhoot; 4. from south to north, 
from Bajmahal to Pumeah and Nathpore. 

The fabulous history of this tract represents that at a remote 
period of antiquity it formed^ part of the primeval realm of 
Mithila, and was governed by a rajah, whose daughter was 
Sita, the renowned spouse of £ama ; and whose abduction by 
Bawan, the demon-tyrant of Ceylon, gave rise to the war 
which is the subject of the Hamayana. The district appears to 
have been subjugated by the Mussulmans about^ the year 
1541, and was acquired^ by the Eaat-India Company in 1765, 
under the firman of Shah Alum, of Delhi. 

PXJRNEAH.* — The principal place of the British district of 
the same name, under the presidency of Bengal. It is situated 
on the banks of the Little Kosi, occupying both sides of theidar.com 
river, and lying on the route from Bhaugulpore to Titaleea, 


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PUB. 


78 miles* N.E. of the former, and 72 S.W. of latter. It in- • Oard«», 
eludes a space of about three miles square ; but much of it is ^ 
occupied by plantations, gardens, and open places. The beet 
part of the town is on the left side of the river, and consists of 
one wide and tolerably straight street, half a mile long, the 
houses in which are pretty well built and tiled. Two inferior 
streets, parallel to the principal one, run on each side of it. 

It is surrounded by straggling suburbs, in one of which, called 
Maharajganj, are situate the buildings for the accommodation of 
the civil establishment of the district, which consists of a civil 
and sessions judge, a sudder aumeen, a moonsiff, a collector, 
a magistrate, an assistant to collector, two deputy magis- 
trates, an assistant-surgeon, and an uncovenanted deputy- 
collector. The above are Europeans ; and there are, besides, 
a principal sudder aumeen and several moonsifis, who are 
natives. With respect to the population, Buchanan observes,® • Duchman, ut 
** This town, which occupies a space equal to more than half of 
Ixmdon, most assuredly does not contain 50,000 people, though 
it is one of the best country towns in Bengal.” Pumeah is 
distant N.W. from Calcutta by Berhampoor 283 miles S.E. « Oardan. Tabiea 
from Katmandoo by Nathpoor 200 miles; S.W. from Daije- 
ling 98. Lat. 25° 46', long. 87° SO'. 

PUHOKH, in the British district of Mynpoorie, lieutenant- oafd«n, Tabiaa at 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the cantonment of Allygurh to that of Mynpoorie, 
and eight miles N.W. of the latter. The road in this part of 
the route is good ; the country is open, and but partially 
cultivated. Lat. 27° 17', long. 79° 1'. 

PUEOWLEE,* in the British district of Fumickabad, • e.i.o. u*. doo. 
lientenant-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a vil- 
lage on the route from the cantonment of Allygurh to that of 
Futtehgurh, and 44 miles* N.E. of the latter. There is good » oard«n, Tabiaa 
water from wells, and supplies may be obtained from the ^ 
neighbourhood. 'The road in this part of the route is bad ; the 
country level, cultivated in some parts, in others overrun with 
bush-jungle. Lat. 27° 31', long. 79° 2'. 

PURRAINDER. — A town in one of the recently seques- 
trated districts of the native state of Hyderabad, 211 miles 

N.W. from Hyderabad. Lat. 18° 19', long. 76° 80’. realpatidar.com 

PURRAUNTAJE. — A town in the British district of b.ix. m.. do*. 

Q 2 


Routes, flO. 


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PUR. 


B.I.C. M*. Doc. 


> £.1.0. Ms. Doc. 


* Barhaniin. Sar« 
▼•7 of Kiutem 
India. II. 04d. 


* Id. 11. asd. 


* Stawari, Hlal.of 

84. 8d. 84. 

* Garden. Tabica 
of Ruutoa, 102. 

R.I.e. Mi. Doe. 


B.I.e. Ha. Doe 


> E.l.C. Ma. Doc. 

* Sunr. of Eastern 
India. 11. 047. 

* Mem. of Map of 
HlndotMian. AO. 

* Hl.it of Betigil. 
84, 80, U4. 


Kaira, presidency of Bombay, 60 miles N. by E. of Kaira. 
Lat. 23° 26', long. 72° 53'. 

PURRAUR. — A town in the native state of Travanoore, 
territory of Madras, 126 miles N.N.W. from Trivandrum, and 
82 miles S.S.E. from Calicut. Lat. 10° 9', long. 76° 16'. 

PURROOA,* or PARRUA,® in the British district of 
Maldah, presidency of Bengal, a town on the route from 
Maldah to Pumeah, six miles N. of former. It is now much 
ruined, but contains many monuments of antique greatness, 
especially the Adinah mosque, a vast structure nearly 600 feet 
in breadth from north to south, and 300 from east to west. 
The style of architecture is, however, rather complex than 
grand, consisting of a great number of pillars and domes, 
diminutive in proportion to the vast dimensions of the ground- 
plan of the building. Within the precincts are the tombs of 
Sikandar Shah and some other Mussulmans of rank. Besides 
this vast structure, there are many others, but all very ruinous. 
The principal are the Gnlden Mosque, the Eklaky, or mosquo 
of 1,00,000 (rupees), so denominated from having cost that sum ; 
and there are many of less note scattered along each side of 
the principal street, which may be still traced in a direction 
from north to south, a distance of six^ miles. About this 
principal street are tanks and buildings innumerable, most of 
them constructed of materials drawn from the still moro 
ancient and extensive city of Gaur, situate about twelve miles 
farther south. “ The^ true appellation of the city is said to be 
Panduya, or Pandoviya,” derived from its having been founded 
by a rajah of the Pandu family, renowned in the lore of Hindu 
mythology and romance. It has repeatedly^ been the seat of 
the government of Bengal, though Gaur more frequently had 
that distinction. Distant* N. from Calcutta by Burbampoor 
197 miles. Lat. 26° 4', long. 88° 9'. 

PURSA. — A town in the British district of Sarun, presidency 
of Bengal, 26 miles N.W. of Chupra. Lat. 25° 57', long. 84° 37'. 

PURSOEE. — A town in the British district of Mirzapoor, 
presidency of Bengal, 53 miles S.S.E. of Mirzapoor. Lat. 
24° 27', long. 82° 58'. 

PURSOOD,^ in the British district of Muttra, lieutenant- 

• Parra of Tassiii ; Pemya, Handuya, or Pandoviya of 
Piirruah or Pundoa of Renoell ;* Pundua of Stewart.* 

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goremorahip of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
loate from the cantonment of AUjgurh to that of Muttra, and 
11^ miles N.£. of the latter. The road in this part of the 
roote is heavj and bad for carriages, the country well cultivated 
aad studded with small villages. Lat. 27^ 34', long. 77^ 54'. 

PUESUB. — A town in the native state of Guzerat, or 
dominions of the Quicowar, 41 miles N.N.W. from Bajkote, 
tod 60 miles E.S.E. from Bhooj. Lat. 22^ 51', long. 70^ 36'. 

PUETABGHUB.^ — A town on the route from Neemuch to 
Bdfoda, 83^ miles S. of the former, and 206 N.£. of the latter. 
It is the principal place of a raj or small state of the sapie 
Qime, under the political superintendence of the Govemor- 
Oeneral, comprising part of the tract called Bagur, and the 
whole of that denominated Kantul.^ The raj is bounded on 
the north-west and north by the state of Me war or Odoypore ; 
on the east by Mundesore, Jowra, and Butlaum ; and on the 
south-west by Banswarra ; and lies between lat. 23° 14' — 24° 14', 
long. 74° 27' — 75°. The area is estimated at 1,457^ square 
niiles, and the population at 145,700. It is a hilly and ill-cul- 
tirtted tract, rather elevated, and hence frost ^ is not unknown. 
The annual revenue of the rajah was, in 1848, estimated at 
175,000 rupees, or 17,500/. The armed force consists of 250* 
caralrj and 300 infantry, with a police establishment of 200 
loen. The ruling family is of a junior branch of that of 
Oderpore. Before the raj became tributary to Holcar, it 
formed a dependency of the Mogul empire, and one of its 
former rulers, Salim Sing, having obtained from Mahomed 
8hah the privilege^ of coining money in his own name, struck 
in the mint of Purtabghur the Salim Shahee rupee. The 
prirOege thus conceded has been grossly abused by the more 
^(cent rajahs, who have permitted the fraudulent alteration of 
the standard ; and the debased coin issued from this mint has 
frequently been made the subject of remonstrance^ on the part 
of the British government. In 1818, the rajah concluded a 
kvaty* with the East-India Company, under which he became 
entitled to protection ; he binding himself to subordinate co- 
operation, and to pay annually to the other contracting party a 
tribute of 72,700 Salim Shahee rupees, which sum is transferred 
to lloJcar, the feudal superior of Purtabghur. A detail of the 
circumstances under which Dulput Singh, the regent of Doou- 

32V 


• TkblM 

of RouUs, 40. 


E.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


> K.I.C. Ms. Doe. 

* Qsrdra, Tables 
of Boutos, 97W. 


* Malcolm. Cen- 
tral India. 1. 18 ; 
U. 480. 


« S.I.C. Ms. Doe. 
SuilsUes of 
NaiUe Slates. 

* Heber. Nerrat. 
of Joum. 11. 7S. 

• E.I.C. Ma Doe. 
Statbilcs of 
Native Stalee. 


V TreetiM with 
Natl re Princes. 
1. 088. 


* India Financial 
Disp. 30 June. 
1800. 

* Treaties, ut 
supra, 088. 


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PUB. 


* H«b«r, II. 77. 

* DangerHeld, hi 
App. to Malcolm, 
Central India, 

11. M9. 

Kd.O. Ma.Do«. 


B I.O. Ma. Doc. 
Butter. Topof . of 
Oudb, 07. 


I B.I.O. Ma. Doe. 


• Topofcmpbj of 
Oudb, 109. 


* Beaebraibuag 
von HInduatao, 
I. 171. 


• Butter, Topof. 
of Oudb. 189. 


gerpoor, succeeded to the raj of Purtabghur, and relinquished 
his claim of succession to that of Doongerpoor, will be found 
in the article upon the latter state. 

The town of the same name as the district, and the chief 
place within it, though of considerable size, presents^ nothing 
particularlj worth notice. Elevation above the sea 1,698 feet.^ 
Distance of the town direct from Mhow, N.W., 118 miles ; 
from Oojein, N.W., 80. Eat. 24® 6', long. 74® 68'. 

PUBTABGURH. — A town in the recently lapsed territory 
of Berar or Nag^poor, 70 miles E.SJE!. from Nagpoor, and 92 
miles S.S.E. from Seuni. L«at. 20® 49', long. 80® 10^. 

PUBTABGURH. — A district of the kingdom of Oude, named 
from its principal place. It is bounded on the north-east by 
the district of Sultanpoor ; on the east by the British district 
Jounpoor ; on the south by the British district Allahabad ; and 
on the west by the districts Ahladganj and Salon. It lies 
between lat. 26® 40' — 26° 16', long. 81® 40' — 82® 5' ; is forty- 
five miles in length from south-east to north-west, and twenty 
in breadth. It contains the following subdivisions: 1. Pur- 
tabgurh ; 2. Amethi ; 3. Dalipur Patti. 

PUBTABGUBH, or BELHAGHAT,»* in the territory of 
Oude, a town two miles south of the right bank of the river 
Saee. It is surrounded by a decayed rampart of mud, and on 
its west side is a fort of the same material, in a ruinous state, 
but still inhabited by a foujdar or officer of police. The site 
is rather elevated, sandy, yet not unproductive, and water is 
found at from thirty to thirty-five feet below the surface. 

Butter^ states the population at 10,000, ** of whom half are 
Mussulmans, and almost all cultivators, there being no manu- 
factures.” Previously to 1834, one of the Company’s native 
infantry regiments, with two guns, was cantoned three miles 
north-east of the town, on a very healthy spot on the right bank 
of the Saee. Tieffenthaler® gives a brief notice of Purtabgurh, 
which he concludes by observing, in this district much salt 
and saline earth are obtained.”^ Purtabgiirh is distant N. 
from Allahabad 32 miles, N.W. from Calcutta 634, S.E» 
from Lucknow 90. Lat. 26® 64', long. 81® 69'. 

• Partabgarb of Thmid ; from Partab, a proper name of oommoa occui^^gp COrn 
reoce in India, and Curb, ** fort ;** — Partab's Fort. It is called Belba 
Obat, or ferry of Belba, from being sitnate near tbe ferry wbicb leads over 
tbe Sai to tbe neigbbooring town* of Belba. 

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realpatidar.com PUB— PUT. 

PUBTABPOOBy in the BritiBh district of Meerut, lieu- 
teotot-goTcmonBhip of the North-West ProTinoes> a Tillage on 
tile roate from Delhi to the town of Meerut^ and eight miles 
S.W. of the latter. The road in this part of the route is good. 
Let 28® 66', long. 77^ 

PUBTABPOOB,^ in the British district of Mynpoorie, 
lieateDSDt-govemorship of the North-West Prorinces, a village 
00 the route from the cantonment of AUygurh to that of 
Btiwsh, and 41’ miles N.W. of the latter. The road in this 
pirt of the route is good, the country open and cultivated, 
let. 27® 13', long. 78® 36'. 

PUKTOOB. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or 
territory of the Niaam, situate on the right bank of theDoodna 
mer, and 140 miles S.W. by 8. from Elliohpoor. leit. 19® 86', 
long. 76® 18'. 

PUBTYALIi. — A town in the British district of Quntoor, 
presidency of Madras, 59 miles N.W. by W. of Masulipatam. 
let 16® 4€f, long. 80® 30'. 

PUBULEA. — See PooRAiiiA. 

PCBUSGAON. — A town in the fecently escheated terri- 
tory of Berar or Nagpoor, 71 miles B. by N. from Nagpoor, 
•sd 180 miles S. from Jubbulpoor. Lat. 21® 18', long. 80® 14^. 

PUBUSPUTT,* in the territory of Oude, a village on the 
route from Azimgurh to Soltanpoor cantonment, 66’ miles W. 
of the former, 12 8.B. of the latter. Lat. 26® 17', long. 82® 10'. 

PUBWAN NUDDEE. — A river rising in lat. 26® 31', long. 
87® 2', in the British district of 'Tirhoot, and, flowing in a 
•oatherly direction for seventy miles, generally through the 
district of Bhagulpore, falls into the Dhamora, in lat. 25® 38', 
long. 86® 49'. 

PU8GAW. — A town in the native state of Oude, 82 miles 
N.W. by N. from Lucknow, and 16 milee E. by S« from Shah- 
jshinpoor. Lat. 27® 50', long. 80® 13'. 

PUTAOO, in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a village on 
the route firom Balotra to the city of Jodhpoor, and 14 miles 
N.E. of the former. 'The road in this part of the route is 
good, and lies through a level country, rather fertile, and with 
iome cultivation. Lat. 25® 57', long. 72® 80' . 

PUTCHPAHAB. — ^A town in the Bajpoot state of Jhalawar, 
82 miles W.B.W. from Jhalra Patun, and 5B miles E. from 
Neemnch. Lat. 24® 21', long. 75® 45'. 


BJXL Trffoa. 
Snrr. 

aftrd«n« TaMm of 
Rouia*, 144. 


1 B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


* Oordon, Tobloo 
of RouUs, 4ft. 


B.l.C. Mo. Doe. 


B.l C. Ml. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ml. Doe. 


I B.I.O. Ml. Doo. 


* Oorden, Tabloi 
of Routfli, 00. 


B.IX 3 . Ml. Doe. 


Botleou. Rijwim, 
IIS, 918. 


B.I.C. Ml. Doo. 


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PUT. 


B.I.a lit. Doe. 
0«rd«tt, Ttbict 
RouUt, 54. 


B.I.a Ms. Doe. 


£.1.0. Mt. Doe. 
Otrden, Tablet 
of Routet, 216. 


I £.1.0. Ml. Doe. 


* OardoQ, Tablet 
of Routea, 75. 

Oardeo, Tablet 
of Routee, 40. 


£.1.0. Mt. Doc. 


I £1.0. Ma. Doe. 


• Oardeo. Tablet 
of Routet, 41. 

* Journ. At. 8oe. 
Benf. 1839* p. 470. 

£1.0. Mt. Doc. 


£1.0. Me. Doe. 


PUTE ANU GL A, in the British district of Moradabad, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from the town of Moradabad to Almora, and 
20 miles N. of the former. It is situate in an open, low, level 
country, partially cultivated. Water is supplied from wells. 

The rcMid in this part of the route is bad for wheeled carriages. 

Lat. 29^ 4', long. 78° 67'. 

PUTEHUB, in the British district of Suharunpoor, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Suharunpoor to Simla, 12 miles N.N.W. of the 
former. Lat. 30° 8', long. 77° 32'. 

PUTENEE, in the British district of Mozuffumuggur, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Kumal to Meerut, and 19 miles S.E. of the 
former. The road in this part of the route is rather good, the 
country open and well cultivated. Lat. 29° 32', long. 77° 14'. 

. PUTEBA,* in British district of Banda, lieutenant-gover- 
norship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the route 
by Chila Tara Ghat from Cawnpore to town of Banda, 17* milea 
N. of latter. Lat. 26° 42', long. 80° 32'. 

PUTHIA, in the British district of Mynpoorie, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Allygurh cantonment to that of Mynpoorie, and 
37 miles S.E. of the former. The road in this part of the 
route is good ; the country low, level, and partially cultivated. 

Lat. 27° 37', long. 78° 37'. 

PUTIIONA, in the British district of Allahabad, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Allahabad to Futtehpoor, 21 miles W.N.W. of 
the former. Lat. 25° 32', long. 81° 38'. 

PUTHUBBIA,* in the British district of Saugor and Ner- 
budda, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, 
a town on the route from Allahabad to Saugor, 28G milea S.W. 
of former, and 28* N.E. of latter. It is sitiiate at the east 
extremity* of a range of trap hills, at an elevation of 1,396 feet 
above the sea. Lat. 23° 63', long. 79° 11'. 

PUTJIBWA. — A town in the British district of Sarun, 
presidency of Bengal, eight miles W.N.W. of Bettiah. Lat. 

2(5° 48', long. 84° 28'. realpatidar.com 

PUTNEETOLA. — A town in the British district of Dinaje- 

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realpatidar.com PUT. 

pore, presidency of Bengal, 4f0 miles S. of Dinajepore. Lat. 
25*^ 2^, long. 88° 42'. 

PUTNl.^ — A small river rising in the Saugor and Nerbudda 
territory, in lat. 23° 4(y, long. 80° 1', and taking a northerly 
course of eighteen miles, it crosses the northern frontier into 
Bundelcund, through which it flows first north-easterly^ and then 
north-westerly, and falls into the Cane on the left side, in lat. 
24° 2(y, long. 80° 8', having a total course of about seventy miles. 

PUTPUB-QUNJ,^ in the British district of Boolondshahur, 
Ueutenant-goveroorship of the North-West Provinces, a small 
town near the left bank of the Jumna, on the route from 
AUyg^h to Delhi cantonment, and eight ^ miles S.E. of the 
latter. It has a bazar, and is supplied with water from wells. 
Close to it was fought, in 1803, the Engagement more generally 
styled the battle* of Delhi, in which the British army under 
Ceneral Lake totally defeated the Mahrattas commanded by 
Bourquien, a French adventurer. Lat. 28° 37', long. 77° 21'. 

PUTBA. — A town in the recently lapsed teftitory of Berar 
or Nagpoor, seven miles N.N.W. from the hill zemmdarry of 
Jeypoor, and 182 miles W. by S. from Gkmjam. Lat. 19° 17', 
long. 82° 23'. 

PUTEUHUT,^ in the district of Sohawul, territory of 
Saugor and Nerbudda, a small town, with bazar, on route 
from Saugor, by Bewah, to Allahabad, 158* miles S.W. of the 
latter. It is situate on the right bank of the river Tons 
(South-eastern), here a great torrent, with channel 200 yards 
wide, and stream about sixty yards wide in the dry season, and 
crossed by ford. A ruinous fortress* of fine and picturesque 
aspect, built on a limestone* rock, formerly commanded the 
passage, but is now merely the residence of some humble 
relatives and domestics of the rajah. Lat. 24° 34', long. 80° 59'. 

PUTSBEN. — A town in the British district of Bajeshaye, 
presidency of Bengal, 32 miles N.E. by E. of Bampore. Lat. 
24° 37', long. 89° 5'. 

PUTTACOTTE. — A town in the British district of Tanjore, 
presidency of Madras, 29 miles S.S.E. of Tanjore. Lat. 
l(f 25', long. 79° 21'. 

PUTT A HAT. — A town in the British district of Bulloah, 
presidency of Bengal, 14 miles N.W. of Bulloah. Lat. 23°, 
long. 90° 46'. 


• £.1.0. Ml. Ooe. 


• Trmnncta. of 
Royal Aa. Soe. I. 
S7&— Prmaklln, 
Mem. OB Buodel- 
kbund. 

I B.I.C. Ma. Do«. 

• Oarden, Tablea 
of Routra, 108. 

• Bengal Paper* 
relative to the 
Mahratia War In 
1803, p. 240. 
Thornton. Hkt. 
Brillah Bmpire In 
India, 111. 818. 
Tbom, Mem. of 
W*ar In India, 110. 
Mundy, Sketche* 
in India. I. 74. 

B.I.C. Ma. Doa. 


* E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* Garden, Table# 
of Route*. 38. 


’ Jaequemont, 
Voyagea, 111. 486L 
* Jouni. Aa. Soc. 
Beng. 1833, p. 477 
— Evereat, Oeo- 
logkml Remark*. 

B.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doc. 

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B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


I B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 
* Aaiatic Juum, 
lat wr. vol xvll. 
jAn.*Jalj» 
p. 91 . 

» Id. ItK 


• DeCrut, Pol. 
Reimlona, 190 . 


* PerllemmUrj 
Return, 1891. 


* Prinacp, Life of 
Ru^Jwl 8 ingli, 7 ft. 


« Indie Pol. niap. 
88 Merrii. 1840 . 


PUT. 

PUTTANAPABAM. — A town in the native state of Trann- 
core, presidency of Madras, 43 miles N. by W. from Trivandrum, 
and 62 miles W.N.W. from Tinnevelly. Lat. 9^ 6', long. 76^ 55'. 

PUTTAEY,* in the territory of Bewah, province of Btgbel- 
cund, a small town on the old route* from Miraapoor to the 
town of Bewah, and 35 miles S.W. of the former. It is 
described by an anonymous* British traveller as an iauDSDie 
collection of pigsty es huddled together in the greatest ooa- 
fusion.” Lat. 24° 48\ long. 82° 6'. 

PUTTEEAXiA. — A native state in Sirhind^ and within the 
jurisdiction of the commissioner and superintendent of the 
Cis-Sutlej states. It is the most important of those known ii 
the Seik protected states, and the chief is regarded bj his : 
neighbours as the head of the Pholkean^ tribe. The original 
dimensions of the territory were extended by purchases made 
of additional dominions, on the dismemberment of the states of 
Bughat and Keyonthul, subsequently to the expulsion of the 
Ghoorkas ; and further extension more recently accrued from > 
grants made by the British government, in reward of the 
fidelity displayed by the rajah during the War with Labors- 
The area is returned at 4,448* square miles, and the populatioa | 
at 662,752 persons. The territory is among the most fertile in i 
Sirhind, and exports great quantities of grain across the 8aUq 
to Lahore and Amritair. By the manifesto issued by the 
British government on taking possession of Sirhind in 1809, tbs 
rajah is guaranteed the sovereignty within his own possessor, 
and is bound to furnish a quota of troops in case of war. On 
one occasion, in 1812, an interference with the independeom 
of the rajah became indispensable, in consequence of his fraxitie 
and ruinous extravagance ; he having so misapplied bii re- 
sources, that when called upon to supply troops for the pnWic j 
service, he could furnish no more than 200 horsemen of the wor^ | 
description. At length his misconduct was considered to stnoust i 
to insanity, and he was deposed,* and placed under restrsint. ■ 

In conferring the additional territory lately bestowed by the j 
British government on the rajah of Putteeala, in reward of his i 
fidelity during the Lahore war, it was stipulated that the njsli 
should renounce the right of levying transit-duties should 
make and maintain in repair a military road, and abolish 
infanticide, and slave-dealing within his dominions. 

SS4 


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PUTTEEALA,* in Sirhind, the chief place in a native state 
of the same name. It is situate on the river, or rather torrent, 
Kosilla. This stream, known also by the name of the Putteeala 
river, runs past the town in a very deep channel, yet has in 
time of inundation so large a volume of water, that a great 
embankment has been found necessary to preserve the walls* 
from its destructive influence. It is a compact town, built of 
brick, neater* and more cleanly that the generality in this part 
of India, and densely peopled. The citadel is small, and of no 
great strength : it is the residence of the rajah. Putteeala is 
distant N.W. from Calcutta 1,028^ miles. Lat. 80° 20', long. 
7«° 26'. 

PUTTEE A LEE,' in the British district of Purruckabad, 
the principal place of the pergunnah of the same name, a small 
town near the north-western frontier, towards the districts of 
Mynpoorie and Budaon, and 44 miles N.W. of Futtehg^rb. 
Here, in 1749, an eugagement took place between Ahmed 
Khan, the Afghan nawaub of Furruckabad, and Safder Jang, 
nawaub of Oude and visier of the empire of Delhi. “ During* 
the hottest part of the engagement, there suddenly arose a 
sandstorm (common in those parts of India), which blew with 
violence directly in the faces of the Moguls, and the Afghans, 
improving this advantage, rushed on in the bosom of a thick 
cloud of dust, and charged their enemies with irresistible 
impetuosity. The vizier’s troops being blinded by the sand, 
could neither judge of the number nor distinguish the attacks 
of their assailants ; their panic was increased by the whirlwind 
and darkness which surrounded them, and in a few minutes 
they gave way, and fled with the utmost precipitation. All the 
vizier’s artillery was taken, and his infantry cut off to a man. 
He himself escaped with difiiculty.” It is mentioned in the 
Ayeen Akbery* under the name of Putty aly, and its assessment 
stated at 46,940 rupees. Lat. 27° 41', long. 79° 4'. 

PUTTEBBAM. — A town in the British district of Dinaje- 
poor, presidency of Bengal, 21 miles S.S.E. of Dinajepoor. 
Lat. 25° 18', long. 88° 47'. 

PUTTHBI, in the British district of Suharunpoor, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a river or 
large torrent, having its origin on the south-western declivity 
of the Khansrow Ghat or Pass through the Sewalik range, 

235 


1 E.I.C. THfoo. 
8u nr. 


* Journ. Aft. Soe. 

1840. p. 000 
— Dftkftr, Report 
on the Levels be- 
twi»en the Jumna 
end Sutlej. 

* Mundj, Skeiebcft 
In fndift. I. S93. 

* Garden, Tables 
of Routes, ITS. 

> E.I.C. Ml. Doo. 


* Hamilton, HUL 
of Rohllla Afgans, 
108. 

TIeiIbn thaler, 
Beachreibunii von 
Hindustan. B. I. 

8. 110, 140. 


• U. App. 41. 


B.X.C. Hs. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doo. 

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PUT— PYE 


* B.I.C. Mi. Doc. 
Bombay Pollth'al 
Dlip. 0 Fab. 1849. 


• Tod, TraTali la 
WMtarn India, 
9 - 48 . 


• TraaaaeU. of 
Mad. and l*h 7 C. 
8oc. of ISombay, 

I. 54 — Olbion, 
Skctcli orGuscrat. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


E.1.0. Mi. Doe. 


B.I.O. Mi. Doe. 


> E.I.C. Mi. Doe. 


* Surrey of 
Eautem India, 
11. 904. 


and in lat. 80^ 8', long. 78^ 6'. It holds a course of about 
thirty miles in a direction generally southerly, and falls into 
the Banganga Nuddee, an offset of the Ganges, in lat. 29^ 42^, 
long. 78 ° O'. In the upper part of its course, it flows down a 
bed of shingle and sand, but for the greater part is a shallow 
expanse of water with little current. This torrent is crossed by 
the Ganges Canal, by means of a dam thrown across the river, 
constructed with ten openings of ten feet each, and flank 
overfalls. 

PUTTUN,! or ANHULWAIt PATTAN, in Guzerat, or the 
territory of the Guicowor, a town situate on the small river 
Saras wati, a tributary of the Banas. Here are extensive traces 
of the ancient city of Anhulwara : — “ The eye* can trace the 
course of the walls, which formed an irregular trapezium of 
perhaps flve miles circuit, around which extended, chiefly to the 
east and south, the suburbs, to which there may have been an 
external circumvallation.** The wall inclosing the present city 
of Puttun is built half-way up with stones from the ancient 
city, whether from palaces, temples, or fountains ; and these 
more solid foundations are surmounted by a comparatively 
flimsy rampart of brick. Here are some manufactures* of 
importance, as of swords, spears, pottery of a very light fine 
kind, and weaving in silk and cotton. The population is 
estimated at 80,000. Distance from Ahmedabad N.W. 63 
miles. Lat. 23° 46', long. 72° 3'. 

PUTTUN CHERROO. — A town in the native state of Hyder- 
abad, or territory of the Nizam, 21 miles N.W. by W. from 
Hyderabad, and 158 miles E. from Sholapoor. Lat. 17° 31', 
long. 78° 19'. 

PUTTUN SOMNAUT.— See Somnatu. 

PUWYE. — A town in the Boondela state of Punnah, 
82 miles S. by W. from Punnah, and 56 miles N.E. by E. from 
Dumoh. Lat. 24° 16', long. 80° 14'. 

PYARU. — A village in the jaghire of Bulubghur, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces ; distance 8. from 
Delhi 30 miles. Lat. 28° 16', long. 77° 22'. 

PYENA,^ in the British district of Goruckpore, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small market- 
town on the left bank of the river Ghoghra. Buchanan* states^' 
that it has 500 houses, which would assign it a population of 

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PYO— PYS. 


about 3,000 persona. Distant S.E. from Doruckpore canton- 
ment 45 miles. Lat. 26° 15', long. 83° 50'. 

PYGA. — A town in the British district of Moradabad, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces. Lat. 
29° 8', long. 78° 59'. 

PYKHIA. — A town in the British district of Mergui, one 
of the Tenasserim provinces, presidency of Bengal, 80 miles N. 
by W. of Tenasserim. Lat. 13° 14', long. 98° 50'. 

PYKOWLEE,' in the British district of Qoruckpoor, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small 
town on the route from Dinapore to Qoruckpoor cantonment, 
125 miles 2 N.W. of the former. It has a bazar, and supplies 
may be collected from the neighbouring country, which is level, 
^ell cultivated, and planted with mango-trees. The road in 
this part of the route is good. Lat. 26° 52', long. 83° 38'. 

PYLADY. — A town in the British district of North A root, 
presidency of Madras, 38 miles N. by W. of Madras. Lat. 
13° 38', long. 80° 17'. 

PYLANEE, in the British district of Bandah, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Bandah to Lucknow, 23 miles N. by E. of the 
former. Lat. 25° 46', long. 80° 30'. 

PYNQ. — A town of Burmah, 19 miles W. from the right 
bank of the Irawady river, and 149 miles S.W. from Ava. 
Lat. 20° 18', long. 94° 24'. 

PYNGAWA,* in the British district of Qoorgaon, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the cantonment of Muttra to Ferozpoor, and 
13 miles N.E. of the latter. It is situate a mile east of the 
Khanpoor Gliat, a pass through a range of low hills. The 
village has water from wells, and supplies are procurable. The 
road in this part of the route is good. Lat. 27° 54', long. 77° K/. 

PYSUNNEE.* — A small river rising in Bundelcund, on the 
table-land surmounting the Punna range, and in lat. 24° 52', 
long. 80° 43'. It first flows north-east, and at Jorai is precipi- 
tated over the brow of the ridge by a cascade, the height of 
which is estimated by Jacquemont^ to exceed 300 feet. A few 
miles further on, it passes into the British district of Banda, 
through which it flows first north, subsequently north-east, 
* Tlie Piluogwa of Walker's Great Indian Atlas.' 

237 


E.I.C. M«. Doe. 


B.I.C. Mv Doc. 


* E.I.C. M*. Doe. 


* Osrdcn, Tables 
of Routes, 130. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ms. IKk*. 


Onnlon, Tables of 
Routes, 900. 


> E.I.C. Ms. Doo. 


* Vojaces. fit. 400. 

realpatidar.com 

» No. 60. 


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* TrmnMcU. Roy. 
Ai. 8oc. I. 274— 
Franklin, Mem. 
on Buodclkhand. 

> E.I.C. Mt. l>oc. 


* Topof raphj of 
Oudh, 192. 


B.I.C. lf«. Doc. 


B.I.C. Ifa. Doe. 


* TreatiM with 
Native Princoa, 
S80. 


* Id. 901. 


PYT— QUE. 

and falls into the Jumna on the right side, in lat. 25° 25^, 
long. 81° 14' ; its total length of oourse being eighty miles. 
It “ is sacred* among the Hindoos ; and its oataract near 
Jorai, as well as its romantic oourse to the plains below, is ex- 
ceedingly interesting.” 

PYTHEEA,^ in the district of Aldemau, territory of Oade, 
a village four miles S.W. of the right bank of the river Tons 
(North-eastern), 65 miles S.E. of the city of Oude. Butter 
estimates^ its population at 400, of whom 100 are Mussulmans. 
Lat. 26° 16', long. 82° 48'. 

PYTIANI RIVER. — One of the mouths of the river Indus. 
It communicates with the Buggaur, the western branch of the 
Indus, in lat. 24° 86', long. 67° 21', and flows into the set in 
lat. 24° 24', long. 67° 13'. Little difficulty would be ex- 
perienced in entering the creek, it being better defined than 
most of the mouths of the Indus. 

PYTON. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad or 
territory of tlie Nizam, situate on the left bank of the 
Godavery river, and 58 miles N.E. by E. from Ahmednuggnr. 
Lat. 19° 29', long. 75° 28'. 


Q. 

QABUR SHAKWALA, in the British district of Bhnt- 
teeana, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinees, 
a town on the route from Mundate to Beekaneer, 71 miles S. 
by W. of the former. Lat. 29° 50', long. 74° S'. 

QtJEDAH. — A native state on the Malay peninsula, occu- 
pying that portion of the mainland which lies opposite the 
British possession of Prince of Wales Island. Province 
Wellesley forms its western boundary. Quedah, the principtl 
place, is in lat. 6°, long. 100° 80'. 

In 1786 1 an agreement was entered into with the rsjah of 
Quedah, under which Prince of Wales Island was ceded to the 
British, in consideration of an annual stipend of 6,000 Spanish 
dollars.^ In 1800 a further treaty was concluded with the 
rajah, under which Province Wellesley was transferred to the‘ai" C0m 
British, and the annual payment to the rajah increased to 



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realpatidar.com . QUILON. 

10,000 dollars.* In 1821 the king of Siam inraded Quedah, 
and expelled the rajah, but was induced, in 1842, upon the 
submiasion of the latter, to reinstate him in the most valuable 
portion of his former territory. At a subsequent date, the 
rajah of Quedah placed himself in a position of hostility to- 
wards the British, who visited his misconduct by withholding 
payment of his stipend. Upon its restoration, the arrears 
which had accumulated during the period of suspension were 
declared forfeited.* 

QUILON,^ in the native state of Travancore, presidency 
of Madras, a town on the seacoast, in a bight* where ships 
may anchor under shelter, at about two and a half or three 
miles from the fort. A small British foroe is usually stationed 
here. ** The ground,* on which the cantonment stands, rises by 
a gentle ascent fmm the sea, and includes an area of nearly 
five miles in circumference.” ** There is no natural boundary 
between the military cantonment and the Travancore territory, 
but a broad road round the cantonment points out the line of 
demarcation.” There is in the cantonment a barrack for Euro- 
pean troops, formerly occupied by a company of foot-artillery, 
but for many years past untenanted, and now fast falling to 
decay: there is also a European hospital. The site of the 
cantonment is healthy, being in the highest part about forty 
feet above the sea. The soil is for the most part sandy ; but 
within its limits is a considerable piece of swampy ground. 
Water is abundant and good. There is a jail here, under the 
charge of the Travancore authorities. The roads about the 
cantonment are of laterite, broken small, and are in excellent 
condition. With Trivandrum, the capital of Travancore, the 
conxmunication is carried on almost entirely by means of 
canals, dug parallel to the low sandy shore, and connecting the 
different lakes formed by the backwater.” There is also a 
military road, adapted for wlieeled carriages, which, however, is 
but little frequented, owing to the great facility of water 
communication, and which, in 1848, was represented as out of 
repair. Northwards; towards Alle pi and Cochin, there are similar 
opportunities for communication by water ; but horses and 
cattle can travel by an ill-formed sandy road along the beach. 
In a direction north-easterly, there is a line of communication 
with Tiunevelly by a pass through the mountains ; but it is 

239 


• Id. 804. 


* IndU Pol. DUp. 
18 Doe. 1880. 

t B.I.O. Ms. Doe. 

* Honburgb. 
EMt-IndU Dirsc- 
torj, I. 814. 


* Report on Med. 
Topograph j end 
SutUtlee of 
Si'utbem Dlrfsloo 
of Madree Armj, 
li>0. 


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realpatidar.com QUO — BAG. 

odIj an indifferent route, and is rather a footpath than a road. 
The yegetable productions of Quilon are timber, cocoanuts, 
coir or cocoanut-fibre, pepper, cardamoms, ginger, betelnuts, 
and coffee. The population is stated to be about 20,000. An 
* MftdrM Eccim. Episcopal chuFch was some years ago erected at this place.'^ 
1 ^ 1 . 9iBf>7. Distance from Trirandrum, N.W., 88 miles; Cananore, S.E., 
Id. 8 July, 1898. 225 ; Mangsloio, 8.E., 808 ; Bombay, S.E., 740 ; Bangalore, 

8. W., 290 ; Madras, 8.W., 885. Lat. 8° 53', long. 76° 89'. 

E.I.C. M.. Doc QUOMOBOODBNUQGUB, in the British district of 
Delhi, lieutenant-gOTemorship of the North-West Prorince^ a 
village on the route from Bohtuk to the city of Delhi, and 11 
miles W. of the latter. The road in this part of the route ia 
good. Lat. 28° 40', long. 77° 6'. 


R. 


* E.r.C. M». Doe. 
BlMck^r. Mnhrulta 
War, £8. 

* Garden, Tabtaa 
of Routea, 119. 

* Trarab, 1. 918. 


* Slatbtlca of 
N.W. ProT. 198. 


E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ma. D>»e. 


E.I.C. Mb. Doc. 


* Tranaaela. of 
Roy. At. Soc. I. 
800— Franklin. 
Mem uii Bundel' 
khand. 


RAAT,*®iu the British district of Hum eerpore, the principal 
place of the pergunnah of the same name, a small town on the 
route from Jubulpoor by Kitha to Calpee, 46 miles* 8. of the 
latter. It has a bazar, and supplies and water are abundant. 
Davidson* styles it a popiilous and busy village,” though a 
short time before his arrival the corpses of seventy of the 
inhabitants had been burned, in consequence of dreadful 
mortality, caused by malaria, resulting from the numerous 
swamps, tanks, and the rank vegetation with which the place 
is surrounded. Baat contains^ a population of 8,616 in- 
habitants. Lat. 25° 86', long. 79° 88'. 

RACHEBRY. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, 
or territory of the Nizam, 19 miles from the left bank of the 
Qodavery river, and 158 miles N.B. from Hyderabad. . Lat. 
18° 59', long. 80° 18'. 

RACHOL. — A town in the Portuguese state of Goa, situate 
14 miles S.8.E. from Goa. Lat. 15° 19', long. 74° 4'. 

RACHOOTEE, in the British district of Cuddapah, presi- 
dency of Madras, a town situate on the Mundaveer or Chittair, 
a small stream tributary to the river Northern Pennair or. 
Pennaur. It is the principal place of a subdivision of 
* Rabat of Fraoklio.i 


340 


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realpatidar.com RAC — RAD. 

same niune. Distance from the town of Cuddapab, S., 30 
miles ; Nellore, S.W., 86 ; Madras, N.W., 123. Lat. 14° 3', 
long. 78° 49'. 

RACHUR. — A town in the British district of Guntoor, b.i.c. Ms. doc. 
presidency of Madras, 29 miles S.E. by E. of Giintoor. 

Lat. 16° 3', long. 80° 60'. 

RACKEE, in the Sinde Sagur Dooab division of the Punjab, b.t.c. m*. Doe. 
a town situated on the left bank of the Swan river, 54 miles 
8.S.E. of the town of Attock. Lat. 33° 16', long. 72° 48'. 

RACKLING. — A town in the native state of Sikhim, 19 b.i.c. mi. doo. 
miles N. from Dazjeeling, and 116 miles N.N.E. from Pumeah. 

Lat. 27° 18', long. 88° 22'. 

RADHUNPOOR, a petty state in the north-western quarter 
of Guzerat, including the pergunnahs of Mooijpoor and 
Summee. It lies between lat. 23° 26' and 23° 58', and long. 

71° 28' and 72° 3' ; and is bounded on the north by Therwarra; 
on the south by Mundall and Juijoowarra; on the east by the 
Puttun district ; and on the west by that of Warye. Its 
dimensions are about forty miles by twenty. 

During the months of April, May, June, and July, the heat 
is excessive ; in August and September, if rain falls, the 
weather is agreeable ; October and November are again hot ; 
but from December until the return of the heat in April, the 
climate is delightful. There are three descriptions of soil — 
sandy, black, and saline. The chief products are wheat, cotton, 
and all the common grains. Salt is both manufactured and 
self-produced. The British government rent the Unwerpoora 
salt-pans of the nawab, at the annual sum of 11,048 rupees. 

The district is traversed by the Bunnas river, and by the 
minor streams of the Surruswutti and Roopan. One of the 
great roads from Hindostan and Palee to the Mundavie 
Bunder, in Cutch, passes through Radhunpoor. The popula- 
tion, principally Hindoo, consists of about 45,000 souls. Rad- 
hunpoor is not tributary either to the British or any other 
government, but pays black mail to the surrounding Coolie 
districts. A police force, consisting of 235 sowars and 320 
foot-men, is kept up by the state, and detachments are spread 
about in the different villages for their protection. In case of 

foreign invasion, the state is entirely dependent on the British realpatidar.com 

government. The first connection of that government with 
6 a 241 


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RADHUNPOOB. 

Radhunpoor was in 1818, in which year Captain Csmac, th^ 
Resident at Baroda, concluded an engagement between the 
nawab and the Guicowar, by which the Guicowar state wm 
empowered, under the advice and mediation of the British 
goremment, to control the external relations of Badhunpoor, 
and to assist the nawab with forces in defending it from foreign 
invasion, but excluded from any interference in the internal 
affairs of the country. During the five following yean, the 
Rosas and other marauders having greatly infested the north- 
west part of Guxerat, and more particularly this petty sti^ 
the nawab voluntarily solicited the aid of the British govern- 
ment to expel them, and offered to pay a share of the expenaea 
of the war. The required aid was afforded. In 1819, Colonel 
Barclay marched with a force and expelled the freebooten from 
all parts of Guzerat ; and an agreement was negotiated with 
the nawab of Radhunpoor, by whi^ he consented to pa j a 
yearly tribute to the British government, leaving the actual 
amount to be subsequently decided. In 1822 the tribute was 
fixed at 17,000 rupees per annum for five yeauw, after which it 
was to be left to the British government to increase the amount 
or not. The engagement continued in force until the year 
1825, when the home authorities, oonsidering the stste unable 
to bear the amount of tribute imposed, it was, by the order of 
the Bombay government, remitted in full in the month of July 
of that year. 

The Radhunpoor state is under the management of the 
British agent at Pahlunpoor, who controls its relations with 
the neighbouring states, but avoids all interference in its 
internal affairs. It has enjoyed perfect tranquillity siiioe its 
connection with the British government in 1819. 

The first person of the reigning family of which there is any 
record is Sheer Khan Babee, who was thannadar of Cbowal io 
1668. His grandson, Mahomed Khan Jehan, was the first of 
the family appointed as foujdar of Radhunpoor, in 1715. He 
left two sons, Kumaboodun and Mahomed Unwar. A few 
days after their father* s death, Moobarigul Moolk, then 
aoubahdar of Guzerat, gave the pergunnahs of Summee sod 
Mooijpoor to the eldest, with the title of Jowan Murd Kbao, 
and appointed the second foujdar of Radhunpoor. relii 1765tir'.com 
Jowan Murd Khan died, and was succeeded by his eldest too, 

243 



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realpatidar.com EAD— RAE. 

Gazeeoddeen, in the pergunnaha of Summee and Mooijpoor, 
hia second son aucceeding to that of Eadhunpoor. In 1787, 
the latter died childleaa. In 1813, Gazeeoddeen died, leaving 
two aona. Sheer Khan and Kumaloodeen Khan. The former 
succeeded to the Eadhunpoor pergunnah, and the latter to 
those of Summee and Mooijpoor. In 1814, the latter djing 
without issue, Sheer Khan succeeded to the nawaubship of the 
three pergunnaha. Sheer Khan died in 1825, and with the 
unanimous consent of the people was succeeded by the present 
chief, Zoorawor Khan, an only son, by a slave-girl. But 
Zoorawar being at this time only three years of age, Sirdar 
Bebee, the second wife of the late chief, was appointed regent 
during his minority. In 1837, he was intrusted^ with the 
management of his own affairs. He is now about thirty-two 
years of age, and has a son, heir-apparent to the chieftainship. 

EADHUNPOOR,* in Guzerat, or territory of the Gui- 
cowar, a town on the route from Ahmedabad to Hydrabad, 
in Scinde, 85 miles direct N.W. of former, 270 8.E. of latter. 
Though a considerable* and forti6ed town, and not devoid of 
trade and manufactures, the majority of its population are 
cultivators, principally Rajpoots and Coolies. Its principal 
exports are butter, hides, and grain, and coarse cotton cloths 
the local manufacture. The chief, styled^ nawaub of Eadhun- 
poor, is a Mussulman, of the influential family of Babi, and 
has an annual income of 1,50,000 rupees. He acknowledges 
fealty to the Guicowar, by annually presenting to him a horse 
and clothes. His military establishment consists of sixty 
horse and 550 infantry. Population 15,000. Lat. 23^ 50', 
long. 71° 30'. 

EAEEBAG. — A towm in the British district of Belgaum, 
presidency of Bombay, 48 miles N.N.E. of Belgaum. Lat. 
16° 20', long. 74° 50^. 

EAJSEGURH,* in the British collectorate of Tannah, pre- 
sidency of Bombay, a fort situate amidst the Northern Ghats. 
During the last campaign against the Peishwa, it was regarded 
as one of the strongest fortresses in India, and, in fact, as 
impregnable* as Gibraltar.” It was invested by a British 
force under Colonel Brother, in April, 1818, and surrendered* 
after a bombardment of fourteen days, by which every building, 
except one granary, was reduced to ashes. Eaeegurh, originally 

B 2 *« 


* Borobaf Pol. 
Dl«p. 20 Auf. 
18S8. 


I E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* TrmiMcis of 
»nd Phjrs. 
8oe. Botnboy, I. 

00 — GIbaon, 
Sketch of Ousenit. 


* Cluoo, Itinerary 
of Western India, 
40. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


I E.l.C. Ms. Doe. 


• Duff. Hist, of 
MahraUas,ill. 484. 

* Blacker, Mem. 

of War In India, ipatidar.com 


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* Du% i. 140. 141 
100 . 


* Id. at Mipr*, 
1. 307. 


• IfortburRh, 
India Directory, 
L 009. 


* B.I.C. Me. Doe. 


• Oardea. Tables 
oi Bootee, 40. 


I E.I.C. Me. Doe. 


> Oardea, Tables 
or Boatee, 110. 


* E.I.C. Me. Doc. 


* Buchanaa. Sur- 
vey oT Eaeum 
India, U. 037. 


* Id. U. 037. 


BAE. 

. denominated Kairi,^ in 1G48 fell into the hands of Sersjee, who 
changed its name to Baeegiirh, and made it his capital. In 
1690^ it was taken by the forces of Aurungzebe, and hiTmg 
reverted to the Mahrattas during the decadence of the Maho- 
metan empire, was finally taken by the British forces, sb 
already stated. Bairi, as this fort was originally called, must 
not be confounded with another place of the same name in 
Sawuntwarree, on the coast* of the South Concan. Baeegurh 
is distant 8.E. from Bombay 65 miles, S.W. from Poona 32, 

N.W. from Sattara 62. Lat. 18° 14^ long. 73° 3(y. 

BAEEN. — One of the Cis-Sutluj hill states. It is bounded 
on the north, east, and south by the native state of Buasahir, 
and on the west by Turroch and Bussahir. It extends from 
lat. 31° 2'— 31° 12', and from long. 77° 47'— 77° 57', and is 
twelve miles in length from north to south, and five in breadth. 

BAEEPOOH,* in the British district of Minpooree, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the cantonment of AJlygurh to that of Mio- 
pooree, and 65^ miles S.E. of the former. The road in this part 
of the route is bad ; the country is level and partly cultirsted, 
partly overrun with jungle. Lat. 27° 39', long. 78° 54'. 

BAEEPOOB,^ in the British district of Cawnpore, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the cantonment of Cawnpore to that of Calpee, 
and 16^ miles S.W. of the former. The road in this part of 
the route is bad, the country partially cultivated. Lat. 26^25', 
long. 80° 12'. 

BAEGANJ,^* in the British district of Dinajepore, pre- 
sidency of Bengal, a town on the west boundary, towards the 
British district Pumea, on the left or east bank of the rirer 
Kooluk. It is the principal mart* in the district, and netrlj 
engrosses the traffic of an extent of rich country about seventj 
miles in length and twenty in breadth. Bich merchants hare 
numerous stores here, consisting of large yards, inclosed bj 
fences of straw hurdles or mats, and containing many huts and 
sheds filled with wares. The streets of the town sire narrow, 
irregular, and filthy, ** but* it is a place of great stir, aod 
crowded with boatmen and drivers of cattle.*’ It ia said ' 

“ that,* on an average for eight months in the year, 6,000 loaded r.com 

w Baegaoj, Prioos't Market ; from R*o, '*prinoo,** aod Ganj, "marksl* 

344 


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realpatidar.com KAJis — KAO-. 

oxen arrive each day.” It contains about 1,000 houses, a 
number which, according to the usually received ratio of 
inmates to dwellings, would assign it a population of about 5,000. 
Distant W. from the town of Dinajepoor 82 miles ; N.W. 
from Calcutta, by Dinajepoor, 292. Lat. 25° 40\ long. 88° 8'. 

itAEKOTE,' in Sirhind, a town situate thirty miles from the 
left bank of the Sutlej. It belongs to the petty chief of a 
territory having an area^ of six square miles, with about 800 
inhabitants. It is under the protection and control of the 
British. The town is distant N.W. of Calcutta, by Delhi and 
Hansee, 1,130 miles.* Lat. 80° 40 \ long. 75° 89^. 

RAEPOOR. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Oodeypoor, 
61 miles N.N.E. from Oodeypoor, and 82 miles S.S.W. from 
Ajmeer. Lat. 25° 26', long. 74° 9'. 

RAEPOOR, in the British district of Allygurh, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Futtehgurh to Meerut, and 106 miles N.W. of the 
former, is situate near the left bank of the Kalee Nuddee 
(East), in an open country but partially cultivated. The road 
in this part of the route is good. Lat. 28° 5', long. 78° 17'. 

RAQAVAPOORAM. — A town in the British district of 
Masulipatam, presidency of Madras, 68 miles N. by W. of 
Masulipatam. Lat. 17° 8', long. 80° 59'. 

RAGOOGHUR,^ • in the territory of Gwalior, or posses- 
sions of Scindia, a town on the route from Goona to Mow, 
16 miles* S.W. of former, 169 N.E. of latter. This, which is 
represented to be a considerable* place, is situate on a feeder 
of the river Parbuttee. It has a bazar and a fort, which, though 
now much dilapidated, was in the early part of the present cen- 
tury so strong as for a considerable time to baffle^ the disci- 
plined army of Doulut Rao Scindia. It was founded* in the 
time of Shahjehan, who reigned from 1628 to 1658, by Lai 
Singh, a Rajpoot chief ; and after the rest of Malwa had been 
subjugated by the Mahrattas, his successors long resisted, 
until Dhokul Singh was, in a.d. 1821, finally defeated by the 
contingent force of Gwalior, commanded by British ofiBcers. 
By the mediation of the British authorities, he was allowed to 
retain* Ragooghur, with an estate of 55,000 rupees, on con- 

* Ragbwagarb of TASsin ; IlAgbtigarb of ibe PersiaD ' and Urdu writeri ; 
Ragoogorb of Malcolm.* 

245 


I B.I.C. MaDoe. 


• ParlUmefitaiy 
Return, 1851. 


* Garden, Tables 
of Routes, 149, 
171. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ml. Doe. 


* B.I.C. lit. Doe. 


■ Garden, Tables 
of Routes, 180. 

* OenKBl and 
Airra Guide, 1849, 
Tol. li. part 1. 408. 


* llaleolm. Cen- 
tral India, I. 478. 

• Id. I. 404. 


* Id 1. 487. 

* Riieawnn Lai, 
Mem. of Amrer 
Khen. 89. SA. 

* Centrwl India, 
1 408. 


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B»AGK— RAJI. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


E.I.C. .Mt. Doc. 


1 E.I.C. M*. Doe. 


• Oardrn, Table* 
of Route*. Sa. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


* E.I.C. Mn. Doe. 

* Garden, Table* 
of Roiitea, 1. 

* Hcber, Narrat. 
of Journ. 1. 017. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


Garden, Table* 
of Routes, 993. 


dition that Bome retainers of the family should be always in the 
8er\'ice of the maharajah of Gwalior. Distant N.E. of Oojein 
130 miles, S. of Agra 200. Lat. 24® SO', long. 77® 11'. 

BAQOONAUTUPOOR, in the territory of Gwalior, or 
possessions of Scindia’s family, a town 77 miles W. of Gwalior, 
near the south or right bank of the river Chumbul. Lat. 

26® 4', long. 76® 56'. 

BALIA. — A town in the British district of Nowgong, in 
Upper Assam, presidency of Bengal, 20 miles S.W. by W. of 
Nowgong. Lat. 26® 12', long. 92® 31'. 

RAUATAH. — A town in the British district of Ahmed- 
nuggur, presidency of Bombay, 47 miles N.N.W. of Ahmed- 
nuggur. Lat. 19® 42', long. 74® 30'. 

RAIIDINPOOR. — See Radhunpoob. 

RAlllNPUR,^ in the British district of Allahabad, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the cantonment of Allahabad to Jounpore, and 
eight miles ^ N.E. of the former. The road in this part of the 
route is good ; the country fertile, well cultivated, and studded 
with villages. Lat. 25® 28', long. 82®. 

RAH LAI, in the British district of Agra, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
southern frontier, towards the territory of Dholpoor, 17 milea 
S. of the city of Agrtt. Lat. 26® 56', long. 78® 6'. 

RAHM GlIUB,^ in the Rajpoot state of Jeypoor, a village, 
with fort, on the route from Agra to Ajmeer, 72 miles^ W. of 
former, 156 E. of latter. The fort ** is built^ of stone, with six 
round towers, perched on a steep eminence, with a double 
embattled wall stretching down one side to a wall at its foot.*’ 

Lat. 27® 3', long. 76® 58'. 

RAHOOREE. — A towm in the British district of Ahmed- 
nuggur, presidency of Bombay, 21 miles N.N.W. of Ahmed- 
nuggur. Lat. 19° 23', long. 74® 40'. 

RAHUN, in the Rajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a town on the 
route from Nusserabad to Nagor, and 57 miles N.W. of the 
former. It has a large bazar : w^ater is obtained from a tank 
and fifty wells. The road in this part of the route is good, 
and passes over an immense plain, covered with scanty bush- 

jungle. Lnt. 26° 46', long. 74° 8'. .gtidancom 

RAllYGAUW. — A town in the native state of Nepal, 


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aituate on the right bank of the Bhyroee river, and 21 miles 
S. by W. from Jemlah. Lat. 29^, long. 81° 87'. 

BAICHAO. — A town in the Bajpoot state of Jhalawar, 
eight miles S.E. from Jhalra Patun, and 89 miles E. from 
Neemuch. Lat. 24° 27', long. 76° 20'. 

BAICHOOB. — A town in one of the recently sequestrated 
districts of the native state of Hyderabad, 111 miles S.W. by 
S. from Hyderabad. Lat. 16° 10', long. 77° 24'. 

BAIDEE. — A town in the British district of Chota Xag- 
poor, presidency of Bengal, 41 miles S.W. by S. of Lohadugga. 
Lat. 22° 65', long. 84° 28'. 

BAIDROOG. — A town in the British district of Bellary, 
presidency of Madras, 31 miles S. of Bellary. Lat. 14° 41', 
long. 76° 56'. 

BAINQUBH.^ — A fort surrounded by a small district, in- 
closed by the territory of Bussahir. It is situate on the left 
bank of the Pabur, and at the time of the expulsion of the 
GK>orkhas in 1815, consisted of a rampart surrounding a small 
peak, and having rude houses for the accommodation of the 
garrison. Jacquemont^ describes it, at the time of his visit, in 
1830, as forty yards long and twenty broad, with a weak 
rampart about twenty feet high, along the inside of which 
were ranged the lodgings of the garrison, no better than dog- 
holes. It is commanded from various points even by musketry, 
and has no regular supply of water, as the Pabur runs below, 
at the perpendicular depth of 476 feet.* The Goorkha garrison, 
which surrendered to the British, was supplied from tanks, 
sufBcing for about a month's consumption. The Pabur, at 
about a musket-shot below the fort, is crossed by a sanga or 
wooden bridge, forty yards long. The river, in that part 
deep, meanders through a level tract about 200 yards wide, 
fertile, and bearing 6ne crops of rice, wheat, and opium poppies. 
It is one of the most delightful spots amidst the Himalayas, and 
is held by a small community of Brahmins, who have charge of 
two temples built in the Chinese style. Hindostanee is spoken 
iu considerable purity, and the inhabitants in easy circum- 
stances resemble in make, complexion, and countenance, the 
Hindoos of the plains; while the labouring classes differ 
nothing from the ordinary mountaineers. 

Kaingurh belonged to Bussahir^ previously to the invasion 

247 


E.I.C. M». Doe. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doe- 


I B.I.C. Triffoo. 
Burr. 

E.l.C. Mt. Doe. 
FrmMr, Tour lo 
Hlmalayt, S4a» 
844. 


* Voytft, Iv. lAO. 


’ Jacqiiemont, ut 
supra, 140. 


^ real ^atidar.com 

^ Fraser, ut rtpra, 

848. 


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BAI. 


* Tremllet, 730. 

* Garden. Table* 
of Route*, 17tt, 

m. 

7 Ai. R*«. lie. 
890* — Ho«li(*on 
and Herbert, 
Tri|t<in. Surv. of 
Himalnja. 

£ l.C. M*. Doe. 


E.l.C. M* Doc. 


I B.I.C. M*. Doe. 

* Horvburgh, 
India Director/, 
1. 803. 

* Duff, Hl*t. of 
Ifahrvtia*, 1. 188. 


* R.I.C. Mu. Doc. 

« A*. Re*, arlil M 
— Coulthard, ou 
the Trap Forma- 
tion of tho Safar 
DIatrict. 

I HUt. of India, 

II. 140. 

* Index to Map of 
Hlnduaian. 

* Index to Map of 
Ifalwa, 374. 


of the Goorkhas, by whose garrison, on the 10th J une, 1816, 
it was surrendered to the British. In the subsequent settle- 
ment of the hill states, it was reserved, with a small surrounding 
district about five miles long and three miles wide, but at a 
later period* was transferred to the chief of Keonthul, in ex- 
change for territory now forming part of Simla. Distant 
N.W. from Calcutta by Kurnaul 1,075 miles.® Elevation of 
the fort above the level of the sea, 5,408 feet ; of the bed of 
the Pabur below the fort, 4,032 feet.^ Lat. 31° 7', long. 77° 48'. 

RAIPOOR, in the British district of Calpee, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on tho 
route from Calpee to Etawah, 16 miles N.W. of Calpee. 

Lat. 26° 17', long. 79° 36'. 

RAIPOOR, in the British district of Suharunpoor, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Suharunpoor to Sirmoor, 20 miles N. of the former. 

Lat. 30° 15', long. 77° 40'. 

RAiPORE. — See Rajapobe. 

RAIREE. — A river of Jodhpoor, rising on tho confines of 
Mairwara, in lat. 25° 55', long. 74° 4', and, flowing in a westerly 
direction for eighty -eight miles, falls into the Loonee river, in 
lat. 25° 54', long. 72° 51'. 

RAIREE,' on the coast of Rutnagherry, in the South 
Concan, presidency of Bombay, a fort* on a rocky eminence at 
the mouth of a small river, navigable for boats of considerable 
size. It was built in 1662,® by Sevajee ; subsequently passed 
into the hands of the rulers of Sawuntwarree ; and, becoming a 
stronghold of the pirates sent out by that state, was in a.d. 

1765 taken by a British force, but restored in the following 
year. By virtue of a treaty concluded in 1810, it passed back 
to the English ; and their possession was confirmed by another 
treaty concluded in 1820. This place is also called Teswunt- 
gurh. Distant S. from Bombay 225 miles. Lat. 15° 45', 
long. 73° 44'. 

RAISEEN,'^ in Malwa, a strong fort in territory of 
Bhopal, 23 miles N.E. of the town of Bhopal, in an elevated 
tract, a peak in its vicinity rising to the height* of 2,500 feet. 

The fort is on the route from Hoshungabad to Saugor, 50 

* Reysen of TasAio ; Haiseen of Briggs's Index ; Raisin of Elphinstone ;9dtiddr.C0m 
Rasin of Kennell ;* Raaseen of Malcolm.* 

248 


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realpatidar.com BAI — BAJ. 

mOcs^ N. of former, 87 S.W. of latter. It is built at the 
eiftern eitremitj of a sandstone hill, and on the roost elevated 
put of it. ** It is veiy conspicuous^ for manj miles around, 
ind said to have been built bj the celebrated king (Bama) of 
Ajodba, as a place of refuge from the temporary anger of his 
brother (Bharata) ; and that the hill arose at his desire.” 
According to this tradition, probably conveying some truth 
mixed with fable, the era of its foundation was about* 775 
Tears before Christ. Though little noticed of late years, it 
was formerly of importance ; and when, in 1543, it was 
besieged by Shir Shah, Padshah of Delhi, and one of the most 
powerful and martial princes who ever ruled Hindostan, the 
nege was protracted for a length of time. When the place at 
length capitulated,^ on condition that the Hindoo garrison 
(boold be allowed to march out unmolested with their arms 
and property, Shir Shah commanded his troops to attack them, 
and after a desperate resistance they were slaughtered to a man. 
On the dismemberment of the empire, towards the middle of 
the eighteenth century, the fort was, with the adjacent country, 
wiwd by the Mahrattas, from whom it was wrested,® about 
AJ). 1748, by the nawaub of Bhopal. At this place, in 1818, 
was negotiated the treaty^ between the British government 
■ad the nawaub. Distant £. from Oojein 125 miles, S. from 
Gwalior 202, 8. from Agra 260, S.W. from Allahabad 290, 
N.W. from Nagpoor 170. Lat. 28® 22', long. 77® 56'. 

BAITPOOB,^ in the British district of Aligurh, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
roQtc from the cantonment of Aligurh to that of Muttra, and 
20 miles^ S.W. of the former. The road in this part of the 
route is heavy, and bad for carriages ; the country open, with 
a sandy soil, partially cultivated. Lat. 27® 38', long. 78® 1'. 

BA J A BETA. — A town in the British district of Beerbhoom, 
presidency of Bengal, 159 miles N.W. of Calcutta. Lat. 24° 8', 
long. 86® 4(y. 

RAJ AH AT. — A town in the British district of Twenty-four 
Pergunnahs, presidency of Bengal, 19 miles S.S.W. of Calcutta. 
Ut. 22® 20', long. 88® 20'. 

Rajah bell, in the Daman division of the Punjab, a 

w See article Oudb, vol. iit. p. 39. 

24V 


* Oardra, Tablaa 
of Route*, 907. 

< Conitberd, at 
•uprm, 71. 


* PerUhte. IJ. 190. 
Kiphlnttooe, II. 
IM. 


* Malcolm, Cea- 
trml Indie, I. 800. 

^ Treailet with 
the Netlee Powers, 
085. 


* B.I.O. Me. Doe. 


« Oarden, Teblee 
of Routce, 49. 


E.I.C. Me. Doe. 


E.I.C. Me. Doc. 


R l.C. Me. Doe. 

realpatidar.com 


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realpatidar.com • 

town situated on the right bank of the Indus, 128 miles S.S. W. 
of the town of Peshawar. Lat. 82° 14', long. 71° 11'. 

B.i.c. Ms. Doe. RAJ AHMUNDBOOG. — A town in the British district of 

North Canara, presidency of Madras, 15 miles N.N.W. of 
Honahwar. Lat. 14° 31', long. 74° 26'. 

* E.I.C. Ml Doe. BAJAHMUNDRY.' — A British district named from its 

principal plaoe, and forming part of the territories subject to 
the presidency of Madras. It is bounded on the north by 
Orissa ; on the north-east by the district of Vizaigapatam ; on 
the south-east by the Bay of Bengal ; on the west by the 
British district of Masulipatam ; and on the north-west by the 
territory of the Nizam. It lies between lat. 16° 18' — 17° 88', 

• PAriiamonurj long. 81° 7' — 82° 40', and has an area of 6,050^ square miles. 

seacoast, commencing at the outlet from the Lake of Colair, 
proceeds eastwards for ten miles to Point Narsipore, at the 
mouth of the Narsipore river, or southern branch of the 
Qodavery. In this estuary ships of small draught may find 

a Honbunth, shelter, as there are eight* or nine feet of water on the bar, 
three, four, or five fathoms insiide ; but ships of con- 
siderable burthen cannot be brought nearer to the shore than 
four or five miles, in consequence of shoals extending out to 
sea. From Narsipore Point the coast of this district extends 
in a direction north-east, along the seaward face of the delta 
of the Qodavery, a distance of fifty-seven miles, to Point 
Gordeware, a low narrow sand-bank, extending north and 
south several miles, on the west side of which is the estuary 
of the great northern branch of the Godavery. Opposite to this 
are several shoals and low islands, caused probably by the ac- 
cumulation of silt, swept down by that vast torrent. About 
seven miles north-west of Point Gordeware is the estuary of 
another and smaller branch of the same river, generally called 
Coringa river, from the town of Coringa, situate on its bank. 

This admits vessels of moderate burthen, having twelve or 
fourteen feet of water on the bar at spring tides. On Hope 
Island, a small sand-bank above water, about five miles east- 
ward of the mouth of the Coringa river, is a lighthouse for the 
guidance of shipping on this intricate and shoaly coast, which 
is so low, that the sea has, in violent storms, extensively over- 
flowed and devastated tlie land. A little north of Hope Island, . id a r. com 
and the shoals lying about it, the coast becomes bolder and 

200 


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more free from dangers, so that large ships can approach 
within two or three miles of it ; and it continues to be of the 
same nature for thirty-seven miles, to Yamawaram, at the 
north-eastern extremity of the district i its direction during 
that distance being nearly north-east. The northern and 
north-western part of the district is hilly ; the ground there 
participating of the character of the Eastern Ghats, situate 
farther west. The geological formation of those hills is 
granite,^ intermixed with gneiss* and amygdaloidal trap, and 
kunkur or calcareous tufa, with' a scanty admixture of fine 
porcelain clay. East of those hills of primitive formation, are 
others less elevated, and of alluvial formation, principally 
sandstone,* containing valuable deposits of iron-ore.^ In the 
bed of the Godavery are abundance of fragments of chalcedony, 
cornelians, agates, quartz, and crystals. 

Towards the coast, the country for the most part is alluvial, 
fertile, level, and low, and in the rainy season extensively 
inundated. The only considerable river is the Godavery, which 
enters the district at the northern frontier, in lat. 1 7^ 29^, long. 
81^ 34', and holds a course, generally southerly, through the 
gorges of the Eastern Ghats for twenty-five miles, to Poor- 
saotputnum, where it passes into the plain, through which it 
continues to hold a southerly course, slightly inclining to east, 
for twenty miles, to the town of Kajabmundry ; about four miles 
below which it divaricates into two branches, the right flowing 
first southerly for thirty- two miles, subsequently south-westerly 
for thirteen miles, to Point Narsipore, where it falls into the 
Bay of Bengal ; the other, or left branch, taking a course south- 
east and subsequently east for fifty-two miles, falls into the 
same bay three or four miles south-east of Coringa. The total 
length of the river's course through this district, measured 
along the main line and continued by either branch to the sea, 
is about 100 miles ; but if the two branches be included in the 
measurement (and each during a considerable portion of the 
year has a large volume of water), the total length of fertilizing 
stream must be nearly 160 miles. During the greater part of 
the year, it is navigable* for boats in all parts within this dis- 
trict, and large quantities of teak timber are floated down it 
to the sea. The deltas between the two branches are ** known* 
to be the richest and most fertile landscapes in the peninsula.” 

»i 


* If ad r«« Joans, of 
Lit. and Scianca, 
V. S4 — Bent«, 
Sotea Oaological 
on Northero 
Circari. 

* Report oo lied. 
Topographj and 
Sutlaiica of 
Northern DWUlon 
of Madras Armjr, 
Sal. 

* Hejne, Tracla 
on India, 9S4. 

^ Bensa, ui aupni, 
S4. 


* Dalrrmple. 

Oriental Meinoira, 

II. 56 — On Water- 

Inf the circ»». lpatidar.com 

• Hejne. TracU ^ 
on India, 865. 


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realpatidar.com BA J AHlVnJNDBY. 

Formerly this enormous torrent during the dry season “ dwin- 
I Report, ut died to a small stream, generally fordable;’*^ but since the 
construction of a dam or annicut across the river at the head 
of the delta, a never-failing supply of water, previously allowed, 
to flow in useless abundance to the sea, is retained for pur- 
• ifadnit ReTeno# poses of irrigation.^ Numerous small islands or lunkas, as 
IMS *******’ they are vernacularly called, are formed it its course by the 
*'*'^**^' deposits of silt ; and as they are very fertile, and consequently 
valuable, their formation is assisted by the proprietors of 
adjacent lands, who plant in the bed of the river a species of 
iong grass, which, shooting up with great strength and 
luxuriance, obstructs the sand and mud in their progress 
downwards, until in successive years they form islands of con- 
siderable area, and especially desirable, in consequence of being 
suitable for producing tobacco (the most lucrative crop) in the 
^eyne, Trmreit, highest perfection.® During spring and the early part of 
summer, the climate is very hot ; but it does not appear that 
any exact register of the temperature has been made public. 

The wind during that period is either westerly or south- 
westerly, and sweeps along great quantities of very fine white 
sand, rendering the season very disagreeable and oppressive. 

The south-west monsoon succeeds, and the river becomes 
swollen from the rains which fall in the more elevated region 
west of the Eastern Ghats. In October the north-east mon- 
soon sets in, and from that time until March, the climate is 
peculiarly healthy in the plains ; but throughout the year a 
deadly malaria broods in the jungly valleys and gorges in the 
hills in the northern and north-western part of the district. 

Of the xoology of the country little has been made public ; 
but it comprehends hyaenas, jackals, foxes, antelopes, and hares. 

The deep jungly valleys of the mountains in the west and north 
of the district must harbour great numbers of wild beasts, but 
the pestilential air of those secluded tracts renders it imprac- 
ticable to explore them. Of domestic animals, sheep, which 
are numerous, are of small size, but the mutton is good ; kine 
are abundant, but their flesh is indifierent ; poultry of all kinds 
are very plentiful. 

The soil in the plain is generally a rich alluvial deposit, and 
along the banks of the river is the fertile dark-colouredrearthtidar.com 
known by the name of the black cotton ground. The principal 

262 


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realpatidar.coi BAJAHMUNDKY. 

ilimeDtaiy crops are rice, maize, millet, pulse of various kinds, 
oil-ieeds, and sugarcane. Many European vegetables succeed 
dariag the cool season. Of commercial crops, the principal 
ire tobacco, indigo, and cotton. The cocoanut-palm and 
polzDjra-palm grow well in the sandy soil along the seashore. 
The quantity of cotton produced in one year, according to 
official return,^ was 4,150,000 pounds. 

The population is returned at 1,012,036 an amount which, 
eompared with the area, indicates a relative density of 167 to 
the square mile. The great majority are Brahminists. Of 
Moasulmans, now a small body, the number must formerly 
hire been considerable, as there are many mosques in Bajah- 
mundiy and other places. Serious disturbances have occurred 
from time to time in the hill districts of this collectorate, but 
bj the adoption of conciliatory measures, peace and good order 
appear to have been re-established.^ 

Rajahmundry, the principal place, Samulkotta, and Coringa, 
the only towns of importance, are described under their respec- 
tire names in the alphabetical arrangement. 

The principal routes are — 1. From north-east to south-west, 
from Calcutta, through Vizagapatam and Bajahmundry, to 
Bilore; 2. from east to west, from Samulkotta, through Bajah- 
mondry, to Hyderabad ; 8. from south to north, from Bajah- 
mondry to Nagpore. 

Bajahmundry is one of the five Northern Circars which were 
obtained by the French in 1753, and transferred in 1759, by 
the results of war, to the British, to whom their possession was 
confirmed in 1765, by the emperor of Delhi. 

BAJAHMUNDBY.* — The principal place of the British 
district of the same name, presidency of Madras. It is situate 
on ground^ slightly elevated, on the left or north bank of the 
hrer Godavery, here a mile broad, and during inundations 
baring a vast body of water, which fills the channel from bank 
to bank, and sweeps along in its course from the upper country 
nfti’ of wood, trees, and herds of cattle. The town consists 
of one principal street, about half a mile in length fh>m 
oorth to south, and containing the chief bazar. The houses on 
oich tide are generally of one story, built of mud and tUed. 
From the principal street are several narrow lanes, running 
cist and west. Those to the west proceed to the bank of the 


* Report on Col- 
ton- Wool In 
India. 401. 

* Parllamentarj 
Return, 10 April, 
1151. 


• Madras Judirlal 
Ol!*p. 1)1 Jen. 
1841. 


* E.I.C Ma. Doc. 


* Report on the 
Mad. Topocraphy 
end StatUtIca of 
Northern DIrUlon 
of Madma Anaj, 
41. 

* Hajoe. Trmcts 
on India, SS4. 


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RAJ. 


S.l.C. Ms. Doc. 


1 B.I.C. Doe. 


* Sothcrland. 
BkeCchc* of Poli- 
tleel Relatlona, 

lao. 

* Tre«tl«« with 
Netlvo Power*. 
689 . 


SJ.O. M*. Doe. 


river in an oblique direction, and consist of mean bouses, built 
of mud and tiled, and containing in some few places a larger 
description of dwelling with upper stories ; and in those reside 
the zemindars or landholders of the vicinitj, and some are 
inhabited bj wealthy traders, principally Brahmins. The streets 
on the east side of the bazar are narrow and very irregular, 
and inhabited by people of various denominations, but princi- 
pally Qontoos. The fort, situate north of the town, has a 
square ground-plan, with high walls of mud, and a ditch now 
partially filled up. It contains the barracks, hospital, jail, 
magazine, and the lines of the garrison. The jail is very sub- 
stantially built and fire-proof, there being no wood in its 
construction except for the doors and windows, and is capable 
of containing 400 persons. Within the fort are also the 
court-house and lodges for European officers. The inhabi- 
tants are supplied from the river with water for drinking and 
for culinary purposes, as that of the wells is brackish, and the 
tanks are an imperfect resource, as they sometimes become 
dry. The population is estimated at from 15,000 to 20,000 ; of 
whom the Mussulmans form but a small and indigent class, 
though numerous mosques, still to be seen, indicate them to 
have been formerly numerous and wealthy. Distance from 
Ellore, N.E., 60 miles ; Madras, N.E., 285 ; Calcutta, 8. W., 

580. Lat. ir, long. 81° 50^. 

RAJAH POLLI AM. — A town in the British district of 
Tinnevelly, presidency of Madras, 51 miles N.N.W. of Tinne- 
velly. Lat. 0° 27', long. 77° 81'. 

RAJAHPOOB. — A town in the native state of Oude, 
situate on the right bank of the Ghogra river, and 50 miles 
N.N.E. from Lneknow. Lat. 27° 80', long. 81° 20'. 

BAJAKHAIRA,' in the territory of Dholpoor, a town, the 
principal place of a small district of the same name. The rana 
or prince of Gohud, having by treaty, in 1804, ceded^ the fort 
of Gohud, with the districts dependent on it, to the East-India 
Company, was granted^ the small district of Rajakhaira, with 
that of Baree and Dholpoor ; and these now form the raj or 
territory held by the rana of Dholpoor. Rajakhaira is 28 miles 
N .E. of the town of Dholpoor, 20 S.E. of Agra. Lat. 28° 55', 
long. 78° 15'. realpatidar.com 

RAJ AM. — A town in the British district of Yizagapatam, 

3M 


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presidency of Madras, 58 miles N.N.E. of Vizagapatam. Lat. 
18® 27', long. 83® 44'. 

BAJAOBI, or BAJA W UB,* in the north of the Punjab, 
a town situate on the banks of a stream, which, rising in the 
Pir Panjal, or mountain bounding Cashmere on the south, falls 
into the Chenaub. The houses are generally built of mud, 
strengthened with frames of timber, but a few of those of the 
wealthier classes are of brick. Elevation above the sea 2,800 
feet. 3 Lat. 88® 19', long. 74® 21'. 

BAJAPOOB. — A town on the coast of Bombay, in the 
district of Jinjeera, or territory of the Hubsies, situate on 
the northern point of land forming the entrance of the 
harbour of Bajapoor. Lat. 18° 18', long. 73® 8'. — See also 
JlWJlCERA. 

BAJAPOOB. — A town in the British district of Butna- 
geriah, presidency of Bombay, 80 miles S.E. by 8. of Butna* 
geriah. Lat. 16® 89', long. 73® 85'. 

BAJAPOOB,^ in the British district of Banda, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small town, with 
bazar, on the route from Allahabad cantonment to that of Banda, 
16 miles ^ W. of the former, 60 E. of the latter. Here is a ferry 
across the Jumna, the bed of which is sandy, and about 800 
yards wide, with the left bank sloping, the right steep. In the 
dry season the stream occupies about half the bed. Lat. 
26® 24', long. 81® 14'. 

BAJAPOBE,* in the British district of Gk)ruckpore, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small 
town on the leB bank of the Qhogra, at the confluence of the 
Baptee. It contains, according to Buchanan,’ 150 houses, or 
rather huts. Distant S.E. from Goruckpore cantonment 85 
miles. Lat. 26® 14', long. 88® 48'. 

BAJABAMPOBE. — A town in the British district of 
Dinajepore, presidency of Bengal, five miles N.E. of Dinaje- 
pore. Lat. 25® 36', long. 88® 41'. 

BAJAUBA, in the British district of Agra, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
right bank of the Jnrona, immediately below the embouchure 
of the Baun Ootunghun, and 82 miles S.E. of the city of Agra. 
Lat. 26® 58', long. 78® 82'. 

BAJBABBEE. — A town in the British district of Cuttack, 

2U 


I Vlfrne* Kashmir, 
I. 8S«. 

P. Von HuksI. 
Kasrhmir. I. 170. 
Monrrr Pui^. 
Bokh. II SOO. 

* Joum As. Soe. 
Brna. 1841, p. 118 
— > Brooms a^ 
Cunolnirharo, on 
Soarraa of Punjab 
Rlrrrs. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


> E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Garden, Tablet 
•f Routes, '28. 


* E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


• Surrey of 
Eastern India, 

II. aoi. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


B.I.a Ma. Doe. 


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B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


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EAJ. 


B.1.0. Mt. Doc, 


> B.I.C. M*. Doc. 


« Oartlcn. T»bl«« 
of Routeii, 111. 


> B l.C. Trlgoo. 
Surr. 


* Jaequcmont, 
Yojfc, V. SI8. 


• Barr, March 
from Delhi to 
Cabul. 94. 

* IfuiMljt Skaichca 
In XndU. I. 149. 


• Darden, Table* 
of Route*, 179. 

* B.I.C. M*. Doo. 


* Parliamentarf 
Return, April, 
1851 . 

* Rental and 
Atra Guide, 1841, 
▼ol. 11. part I. 898. 


presidency of Bengal, 65 oiilea E.N.E. of Cuttack. Lat. 20° 42', 
long. 86° 44'. 

RAJEAKA, in the British district of Ghoorgaon, lieutenant- 
gorernorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Namol toEewaree, and six miles S.W. of the latter. 

Lat. 28° 8', long. 76° 35'. 

EAJEHPOOE,^ in the British district of Furruckabad, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from Calpee to Futtehgurh, and nine miles* S. of the 
latter. The road in this part of the route is good, the country 
well wooded and cultivated. Lat. 27° 14', long. 70° 42'. 

EAJEPOOEAH,^ in Sirhind, a town on the route from 
Umballa to Loodiana, and 13 miles N.W. of the former place. 

It has grown up about a palace built by one of the Mogul 
emperors,* and hence its name.® The wall inclosing this relic 
of former greatness is still in good preservation. Opposite to 
it is the town, surrounded by a high brick wall, with only one 
entrance, and near it a large caravanserai, with numerous 
turrets and bastions, and opposite its gateway a massive round 
tower, built of brick.* It is at present employed as a prison 
for convicts* sentenced to work on the roads. There is a bazar 
in the town, which is well supplied with w'ater ; and the sur- 
rounding country, level and fertile, affords abundant supplies. 
Eajepoorah is distant N.W. from Calcutta 1,033 miles.* Lat. 

30° 20', long. 76° 41'. 

EAJESHAYE,* a British district within the presidency of 
Bengal, is bounded on the north by the British district of Dinaje- 
pore; on the north-east by the British district Bagoora or Bogra; 
on the east and south-east by the British district Pubna ; on 
the south by the Podda or Ganges, dividing it from the British 
district Nuddea; on the south-west by the same stream, divid- 
ing it from the British district Moorshedabad ; and on the west 
by the British district Maldah. It lies between lat. 24° 6' — 

24° 58', long. 88° 18' — 89° 20' ; is sixty-two miles in length 
from east to west, and fifty in breadth. The area, according to 
official* statement, is 2,084 square miles. According to a recent 
publication,* “ To the westward the country is hilly, and over- 
run to a comparatively large extent with grass-jungle. The 
hills go off to the west and north : there is no regular com 

♦ From Raja, “ king,'* and Para, “houea.** 

296 


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. . . KAJE8HAYE. 

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them, but an almost unconnected scattering of them dots the 
country where they abound. The other parts of the district 
are flat table-land, where there is chiefly a rich cultivation.’* 
It is a very moist tract, having numerous rivers streaming from 
the Himalaya, situate north of it. The Ganges, called in this 
part of its course the Podda, touches on the district at the 
south-west side, at Burgatchee, in lat. 24° 26', long. 88° 2(y, 
and, holding a course south-east along the south-western fron- 
tier for sixty-five miles, passes away from it at Belmarea, at the 
south-east comer, in lat. 24° KX, long. 88° 69'. The Maha- 
nunda, flowing from the north, touches on this district at 
Rohunpur, and, continuing its southerly course, falls into the 
Ganges at Godagari. The other principal rivers traversing the 
district are the Attree, the Jubuna, the Nagor, the Burrul, and 
the Narrud, receiving the united drainage of the jhils or swampy 
lakes of Maunda, Dulabari, and Chilum. During the perio- 
dical inundations, the district is intersected by numerous 
other watercourses, the channels of which are dry for the 
greater part of the year. Many of those watercourses stagnat- 
ing, give rise to swamps or jhils, of which that of Chilum is the 
largest, extending during the rains, in a direction from south- 
east to north-west, about twenty-five miles, with an average 
breadth of about five, one-half being comprised within this dis- 
trict, the other half within the neighbouring district of Pubna. 
Two others, the jhil of Dulabari and that of Maunda, are each 
about eight miles in length and three in breadth, and others 
of inferior dimensions are numerous ; and there are also some 
tanks, or artificial pieces of water, of considerable dimensions. 

“The year^ may be said to be divided into three seasons. 
The hot season is from March to May, during which the 
thermometer ranges from 80^ to 100°. In June the regular 
rainy season commences, and continues till the end of Septem- 
ber. During this period the rain falls with little intermission 
for several days, seldom followed by many days of fair weather. 
Cool winds prevail from October till February.” 

Of wild animals, there are the tiger, leopard, deer, wild 
buflalo, wild sw ine ; which two last cause great havoc in culti- 
vated grounds. The principal domestic animals are the bufifalo, 
kine, goat, and sheep. Rice is the staple crop ; but there is 
considerable cultivation of wheat, oats, barley, pulse of various 

« B 267 


* B^nical and 
Xfra Guide, 1841, 
vol. U. port 1. 960. 


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* FArUu(iMi)t*T7 
Rettirn, ApHt, 
l§9l. 


t B.I.a H». Doe, 


* Hiiehaniin, Sur-^ 
nf 

Itidio, 1, 

Jijyrn, Ai, 9i>C, 
Beng. 1H34. p. OG0. 


RAJ GEER. 

com 

kinde^ oil-Beeds^ cucurbitficeciia planta, fiweet potatoes, hemp, 
onion, garlic, capsicum, turmeric, ginger, sugarcane, pine- 
apple* Of fruit-trees, ibero are the ntango, jsk (Artocarpus 
integrifolius), tamarind, pomegrauate, lemoQ, and citron* The 
cocoanut and betelnut are cultivated, but they are neither 
common nor produced in great perfection. Of articles of 
commerce, the most important are indigo and silk, of whicb 
there are large annual exports. The population, according to 
official^ return, is 671,000 ; a number which, if compared with 
the area, indicates a relative density of 322 to the square mile, 

The majority of the population are Hindoos ; the Mussulmans 
are in considerable numbers, and amongst them the Patana are 
the most numerous* A large portion of the lower orders are 
of a mixed class, whose observances are founded on the united * 
tenets of Islam and Brahmanism* Baliya, the locality of the 
civil establishment of the district, and Nator, the only places 
which can be called towns, are described under their respective 
names in the alphabetical arrangement. The principal routes 
are, 1. that from south to north, from Calcutta to Darjeeling; 

2* from south west to north-east, from Berhampoor to 
Jumalpoor. The district was ceded to the Kast-lndia Company 
by the grant of the Dewanny, made by the emperor of Delhi 
in 1765. 

RAJ GEER,* or RAJAGBIHA, in the British district of 
Bcbar, presidency of Bengal, a small town denominated from 
its containing the Rajagriha,^ or royal palace of the ancient 
sovereigns of Magadha or Behar. It is situate amidst the 
summits of the Rajagriha hills, and near the north-western 
extremity of the range, and on the huge and massy rampart of 
an old fortress. This fortress, which bears every mark of 
great antiquity, is of the form of an irregular pentagon, and 
consists of a great rampart of earthwork, surrounded by a 
ditch, and inclosing a space of considerable diameter. The 
ditch appears to have been about 100 feet wide, and all the 
earth excavated from it has been heaped up to form the 
rampart. The space at the south- w'est comer of this ancient 
work has been inclosed from the rest, so as to form a separate 
fortress. This w^ork is attributed to Shcr Shah, the Pathan 
chief who deposed Humayun and expelled him from India. 
Within the inclosuro of the great fort are numerous 

laa 


Goi 


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realpatidar.com RAJ . 

mounds, probably the ruins of the residences of Jarasandha* 
aod his court, as that monarch, the paramount sorereign^ of 
India, is considered to have here had his seat of government, 
Aroond the inclosure are several great mounds, probably also 
the ruins of buildings. In the vicinity of this place is a 
mound four miles long, 150 feet broad at the base, and twelve 
feet high. It now serves to dam up the inundation from the 
periodical rains, and thus form an artificial lake ; but, according 
to Buchanan,^ its main purpose originally was to serve as a 
causeway to the royal residence. At a short distance south of 
the town are numerous hot springs, the water of which has a 
temperature of about 108^. The number of houses has been 
computed at 800, which, according to the usually assumed 
srerage of inmates to each, would assign it a population of 
4,000 persons. Rajagriha is 40 miles S. of Patna. Lat. 
25® 2 ', long. 85"^ 29'. 

BAJQHAT,^ in the south-western comer of the Debra 
Doon, a village with a ferry over the Jumna, there, when 
crossed by Moorcroft* in the middle of February, about 100 
feet broad. The ferry is a short distance below the confluence 
of the Giree and J umna. Elevation above the sea 1,516 feet.^ 
Lat. 30P 26', long. 77^ 45'. 

BAJ GHAT, in the British distnet of Boolundshuhur, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the right bank of the Ganges, 78 miles S.E. of Delhi. 
Lat. 28^ 14', long. 78° 25'. 

RAJGHITR. — A town in the province of Guzerat, or do- 
minions of the Guicowar, 30 miles N.E. from Baroda, and 72 
miles RS.E. from Ahmedabad. Lat. 22° 31', long. 73° 35'. 

BAJGHUR- — A town in the recently-lapsed territory of 
Nagpoor, situate on the right bank of the Wein Gunga river, 
and 88 miles S.S.E. from Nagpoor. Lat. 20° 3', long. 79° 49'. 

BAJGHUR. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Oodeypoor 
or Meywar, situate on the right bank of the Banas river, and 
77 miles S.S.E. from Ajmeer. Lat. 25° 29', long. 75° 11'. 

BAJQUR,^ in the territory of the rajah of Putteeala, a fort 
two miles from the right bank of the river Giree, a quadrangle 
built of uncemented stone, and sixty-six feet long and fifty-five 
wide. Elevation above the sea 7,175 feet.* Lat. 30° 53', 
long. 77° 14'. 

8 2 2^* 


* As Rrs. xl.81. 

* PHn§ejK India 
Tabtss, It. 00. 


• Jniim. As Soe. 
Betig. al sapra. 


> K.T.C. Ms. Doe. 
E.I.C- Trlje- Sarr. 
« PtinJ. ilokbsrm. 

I. 07. 

* As. Res. lie. 
8-JH * — IludKSOfi 
and Herbert, 
Triiton. Sure, of 
IllQialajras, 

E.I.e. Ms. Doe. 


R.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


E I.C. Ms. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ms, Doc. 


I E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


• As. Re* lie. 
aSI*— Ilodsson 

TH,on'"^r«Tealpatidar.com 
of Hlinalaja. 


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RAJ. 


B.I.O. Mt. Doc. 


* PrMcr, Toor In 
Hlmalaja, 190. 


* B.I.C. Trifoo. 
Burr. 


I Oardcn, Tablet 
of Rouiet, 900. 

* Jacquemont, 

▼I. S40. 410. 
TranMcU. Get>l. 
8oc. 9nd ttriet, 
lOiO, p. 140— 
PrmMr, Journ. 
from Delhi to 
Bombaj. 

> E.l.C. Ma. Doc. 


• Irvine, Topof. 
of AJiucor, 41. 

* Vojafct. tL 400. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


RAJGTJR. — A town of Baghelcund, in the natire state of 
Rewah, situate on the left bank of the Sone river, and 54 miles 
E. bj N. from Rewah. Lat. 24® 35', long. 82® 13'. 

RAJGURH. — A town in the native state of Gwalior, or 
territory of Scindia, 75 miles S.W. by S. from Gwalior, and 68 
miles W. by S. from Jbansee. Lat. 25® 20', long. 77® 35'. 

RAJGURH, in Sirmor, a ruined fort belonging to the 
rajah of that state. It is situate on a natural terrace or flat 
projection ‘ from the side of a mountain, and is of a square 
outline, with a tower at each comer about forty feet high and 
twenty square. Inside, along the inclosing wall, are the remains 
of buildings to accommodate the inmates, the area in the 
middle being about forty feet square. The whole structure is 
of slate rock very neatly cut, and bonded throughout with 
large beams, put together in a substantial and workmanlike 
manner. It was fired and nearly demolished by the GK>orkha9 
in 1814. Elevation above the sea 7,115 feet.* Lat. 30® 52', 
long. 77® 23'. 

RAJGURH, in the Rajpoot state of Alwar, under the 
management of the Governor- General's agent for Rajpootana, 
a town on the route from Nusserabad to Muttra, and 76 miles ^ 

S.W. of the latter. It is situate on an eminence surmounted 
by a large fort, and rising abruptly from the bottom of a valley 
inclosed by steep hills.* 'Troops can obtain water and supplies 
here in abundance. The road to the north-east, or towards 
Muttra, is sandy and stony ; to the south-west, or towards 
Nusserabad, good. Lat. 27® 14', long. 76® 42'. 

RAJGURH,^ in the British district of Ajmeer, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village, the 
principal place of a pergunnah of the same name, according to 
official* return having a population of 12,340 persons. Accord- 
ing to Jacquemont,* here are the ruins of a fortress, the 
history of which is altogether unknown. The edifice itself is 
insignificant, but the inclosing rampart is lofty and massive, 
constructed of great masses of rough stone, and environing an 
extensive area. Contiguous is a small lake, apparently artificial, 
and altogether the site is delightful. Distance S. from Ajmeer 
10 miles, from Nusserabad W. six. Lat. 26® 19', long. 74® 44'. 

RAJGURH. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Beekaneer, lpatidar.com 

2S0 


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realpatidar.com RAJ 

140 miles E.N.E. fW>m Beekaneer, and 40 miles S.S.W. from 
Hissar. Lat. 28® 38', long. 75® 81'. 

RAJGURH. — A town of Malwa, meriting notice only as 
the residence of the rawnl or chief inheriting a share of the 
tract called Omutwarra. An account of the mode of territorial 
division, and such other particulars as deserve mention, will be 
found under the article Omutwarra. Recently,^ the afiairs of 
the rawul fell into that state of confusion not unusual in the 
East, and after the failure of some milder expedients for 
restoring them, it became necessary for the British government 
temporarily to assume the management, and assign a stipend 
for the support of the chief. Lat. 23® 69', long. 76® 49'. 

RAJHLEE,^ in Sirhind, a village on the route from 
Hansee to Loodiana, and 56 miles N. of the former town. 
It is situate on a branch of the river Guggur, in a low, level 
country, liable to be overflowed by its inundations, at which 
time the road becomes impracticable for artillery or carriages, 
though at other times good. Distant N.W. from Calcutta 
1,0323 nailes. Lat. 29® 52', long. 76® 2'. 

RAJHPOOR, in the territory of Alwar, under the political 
management of the Governor- General’s agent for Rajpootana, 
a small town on the route from the town of Alwar to Jey- 
pore, and 55 miles N.E. of the latter. It has a fort situate on 
an eminence rising abruptly from the plain. Lat. 27® 10', 
long. 76® 36'. 

RAJKOTE,* in the peninsula of Kattywar, province of 
Guzerat, a town in the prant or district of Hallar. The 
territory annexed to it contains fifty-five 3 villages, and a 
population of 20,000. It belongs to a Rajpoot thakoor or 
chief, who has an annual income of 34,500 rupees, out of 
which he pays an annual tribute* of 17,000 rupees to the 
British government. A church has been erected in the town 
for the accommodation of the Christian community.^ Distance 
from Ahmedabad, S.W., 125 miles; Baroda, W., 150. Lat. 
22® 18', long. 70® 60'. 

RAJMAHAL,* in the British district of Bhaugulpore, pre- 
sidency of Bengal, a town situate ou the right bank of the 
Ganges, and on the main line of railway now under con- 
struction from Calcutta and the valley of the Ganges to Delhi 

2S1 


> Pol. DIsp. to 
India, 90 August, 
1S40. 


I E.l.C. Trigon. 
Burr. 


* Oarden, TahTaa 
of Ruuin, 149, 
179, loe. 

Jacquemont, 

Tl. 94S. 


I B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* Jacob, Report 
on Katteewar, 00. 


* C1uo«, Append, 
to Itinerary of 
Western India, 54. 

* Bombay Rcclea. 
DUp. 19 July, 
1648. 

I E.l.C. Ms. Doe. 


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EAJMAJIAL. 


* HHwr, Plarrmt. 

I. 1M. 

* Val«nUik, 
Tr«v«to. 

^ Blphlmlon*, 
Hitt, of lodla. 

It. 978. 

* BochaMO, II. OB. 


• Id. II. 7B. 


Y As. Kf. III. 
—On Efjrpt and 
th# Nllo. 

* PrInMp, India 
Tabim. II. QQ. 

* K. OB. 

* Stuart, Hitt, of 
Benfsl. ItfO. 


* Id. 840. 899. 

» Id. 809. 

* Tliomton. HItl. 
of Brliitli Erapira 
In India. I. 449. 


■ As. Rm. Iv. OB. 
107. 


and the north-west frontier. The site of the town ia a bank 
of considerable elevation and steepness, round which the 
Ganges, here at its greatest magnitude, sweeps^ with great 
violence, and sometimes rends* awaj large portions of the land. 

The place is principally remarkable for the ruins of a palace, 
built by Shajohan’s son^ Shuja, viceroy of Bengal. The Jama- 
Diasjit, or principal mosque, built by Man Singh, viceroy of 
Akbar, is a spacious* building of imposing aspect, but of rude 
execution. It is 188 feet in length, and sixty wide. Another 
mosque of inferior size was built by Futehjung Khan, a 
rival of Man Singh. Here, also, are the ruins of a palace, 
built by Cossim Ali, the soobahdar of Bengal, raised and sub- 
sequently ex|>elled by the East-India Company. The general 
aspect of the town ia ruinous and dismal, as it is now a 
collection of wretched houses or huts, dispersed amongst twelve 
market-places, situate at considerable and inconvenient dis- 
tances from each other. The permanent population is estimated 
at about 30,000* persons ; and the transitory population ia 
considerable, the number of travellers by land and water being 
great. The supply of provisions to such passengers is the 
chief support to the town. 

Rajmuhal is considered by Wilford as a place of great 
antiquity, and identical with Kajagriha,^ built by Balarama, 
brother of Krishna, who, according to Hindoo chronology, is 
conjectured to have lived 3,101* years B.c. Buchanan, on the 
other hand, mentions* that the natives consider the place as of 
very recent date, owing its origin to Man Singh,^ the Bajpoot 
viceroy of Akbar ; and hence the name of Akbarabad, given to 
it in honour of the Padshah, and generally used by the Mus- 
sulmans to designate it. In the reign of Shahjehan, his son 
Shuja^ held the same high trust, until defeated and expelled* 
by his brother Aurungzebe. It was occupied by the British 
troops after they had, at Oondwa Nullah, forced^ the lines of 
Cossim Ali, in 1763, and was formally ceded to the East-India 
Company by the firman of Shah Alum in 1765, granting them 
the Dewanny of Bengal.® Distant N.W. from Calcutta, by 

* A detaile<l socount of the mountaioeers of the bigblaodfl south and 
south-west of Rajmahal is given by Stewart,* but the scope of the present, |patidar.COm 
work does not admit even of a close compression of the mass of curious 
information contained in it. 

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Burhampoor, 196 niiles ; hj water, by the course of the 
Ganges, 249^ I^t, 25“ 1', long. 87“ SCf. 

BAJNtTGGTJB. — ^A town in the Bajpoot state of Oodey- 
poor, 39 tniles from Oodeypoor, and 107 miles S.S.W* 

from Ajmeer. Lat, 25“ 4', long. 74“ 2^* 

BAJNTJGIIIi, in Bundelcnnd, a town in the raj of Chutter- E.na ift dm- 
pore, hence often called the raj of Bajnugur, It is situate 85 
miles 8. of Calpee* Lat* 24“ 52', long. 80“. 

BAJKTJGUB, — A town in the British district of Silhet, s.lc, Vb-Dm. 
presidency of Bengal, 26 miles S. of Silhet- Xiat. 24“ 32^, 
long. 91“ 52', 

BAJOOKONDD0. — A town in the natire state of Hyder- b.lc. mb.dm. 
abad, or dominions of the Nizam, 23 miles E.8.E, from 
Hyderabad, and 108 miles N,N.E, from KumooL Xat. 17“ 12', 
long. 78“ 51', 

BAJ OOBA. — town in the native state of Hyderabad, or e.i.c, m*. dob. 
dominions of the Nizam, situate on the right bank of the 
Weln Gunga river, and 180 miles N. by E. from Hyderabad. 

Lat. 19“ 49^, long. 79^ 26'. 

BAJOORT. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or b.i.c. 
territory of the Nizam, 138 miles N.W. by W. from Hyder- 
abad, and 100 miles N.E. from Bholapoor. Lat. 18“ 40^, 
long. 77“. 

BAJ PEEPLA.'— A petty Bajpoot state in the Bewa * e.i.c. mi. dm, 

Caonta division of Guzerat- It is bounded on the north by 
the Nerbudda river ; on the east by the district of Akrauuee ; 
on the west by the British eollectorate of Broach ; on the 
south by the Guicowar’s district of Wusraee, and the district 
of Mandavee, now incorporated with the col lectors te of Surat. 

It lies between lat, 21“ 23' and 21“ 69', and long. 73“ 5' and 

74“. The area is 1,050 square miles,^ inhabited by a population * India sueibUc*. 

of 122,100. ^ 

^ Duricg part of the jCAr the diataooe ia rendered mneh more by the 
necessity of resorting to the ci rent tons ronie through the Sunderbunda, 

Some time since m pliui was snggeeted for making a rainaU froni Rajmabal ^ Repoft of llie 

to the oonfluonee of the email river Karri with the river Hooghly, near 

the town of Culna, which wonld, during the dry seaeoni have effected a indtn Rev, D^p- 

cooeiderable earing of dietance ; but, upon oonsideFation, it was regarded is !>«:. 1M4. 

as itn practicable, and on this account, as well probably ae with reference rGalpatidar.COITI 

to the projected connection of Rnjmahal with Calcutta by railway, it was 

not deemed expedient that the work should be undertaken. 

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realpatidar.com BAJPEEPLA. 

Many parte of the state are inhabited by a wild race, com* 
posed of Bajpoots and Bbeels, but the lowlands oontain a lai^e 
population of Koonbees, belonging to the iodustnoue portion 
of the agricultural peasantry, whose Tillages indicate, from 
their flourishing condition, the industry peculiar to that class. 

It is watered by the riTcr Kurgun, on which is situated the 
capita^ Nandode, 

The sovereigns of I>elhi endeavoured at an early period to 
impose a tribute upon Bajpeepla. The attempt was made 
without success, but its rulers agreed to keep up a body of 
horse and foot, whose services should be available when re- 
quired. Akbar first established a tribute in lieu of this force, 
but it was paid only so long as authority was retained in the 
country by the Mahometan rulers. Subsequently, Damojee 
Bow Guicowar, with the consent of the Peishwa, revived the 
claim, and the rajah consented to pay annually the sum of 
40,000 rupees to the Guicowar state. Thus Bajpeepla 'was 
constituted one of the original tributary possessions obtained 
by the Guicowar family on the establisbment of its power in 
Guzerat ; and from the year 1764 to 1780 the Guicowar con- 
tinued to receive tribute to, the amount above stated. From 
the last-named period the successive rulers of Guzerat availed 
themselves of various favourable opportunities for increasing 
the amount, until it Anally reached a lac of rupees, a sum alto- 
gether disproportionate to the ability of the Bajpeepla state to 
pay. In 1822, the amount of tribute was Axed at 60,000 
rupees. An agreement was also entered into for discharging the 
arrears ; and to secure the fulfilment of the revised engagement, 
a receiver of all the revenaes was appointed under British 
guarantee, which arrangement still prevails. 

For many years the state w&b a prey to internal dissensions, 
owing to the claims set up by rival candidates to the guddee. 

Bam Sing, whom bis father, Ajeeb Sing, had intended to set 
aside, was placed on the guddee by the aid of his Arab troops, 
but becoming unfit to conduct the business of tbe state, the 
sanction of the British government was given to an arrange- 
ment by which Pertaub assumed the management of affairs in 
the name of his disqualifled parent. The legitimacy of Pertaub . , 
was disputed by his uncle Nhar Sing, who established ' ar.com 
allogation, and laid claim to succeed os rightful heir, but being 

2&t 


d Gocgie 


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•realpatidar.com raJPEEPLA. 


blind, bin eldest bod, Yereesaljee, was proclaimed rajah bj 
tbe united authority of the British and Guicowar govern* 
ments. 


The tenns entered into by this chief are, to pay the amount 
of tnbute to the Guicowar government ; to restrain his wild 
tribes; not to harbour offender^ escaping from justice, and to 
ibide by the decision of the Qritish government in certain 
ipecified cases. 

B^ah Vereesaljee, who was bom in 1810, Btill continues to 
idminister the affairs of the state. 

Tbe force maintained by the rajah, for purpose of police 
And state, consists of 100 horse and 285 sebundies, at an annual 
cost of 47,000 rupees. 

Tbe rerenue of this district formerly amounted to 3,45,500 
rupees, but a gradual falling off has taken place : in the year 
1S43, it only reached 2,22,783 rupees ; and a further decline 
bta subsequently taken place.^ With a view to the adoption of 
•ome remedial measures, the Court of Directors in 1848 called 
tbe attention of the Bombay government to tbe fact that this 
state, which was delivered to the rajah*8 management in a 
prosperous condition, was again falling into difficulties, and 
diat tbe annual disbursements actually exceeded the receipts.^ 
An inquiry was thereupon instituted, and the results disclosed 
tbe eiiatence of a gross system of misappropriation and decep* 
tion on the part both of tbe rajah and potadar or receiver of 
tbe revenue. There also appeared strong ground for suspect* 
log certain inferior officers of corruption ; and the oppression 
of tbe people by illegal exactions and other nefarious practices, 
via clearly established. Various modes of removing these 
and preventing their recurrence, were suggested,^ and 
wbaequently decided upon. 

Three miles to the east of Numoodra, in the Bajpeepla dis* 
hict, lie tbe celebrated cornel ian-mines. Tbe stones arc con- 
^®yed by tbe merchants to Cambay, where, being cut and 
P®^**bed, they are formed into the beautiful ornaments for which 
city is celebrated. The revenue derived from the mines 
bM greatly declined, and they now scarcely yield 1,000 rupees 
per annum. 

Within the last few years, the rajah has suppressed suttee, 
Mid baa likewise abolished burning as a capital punishment. 

an 


* PftrliuncnUry 

Paper. 

Suti»tlct of Sa- 
liva SUiea. 


• Bofnbar Pol. 
DIap. SO MarcK, 
1847. 


« rd. 14 March, 
184U. 

Id. 90 Fab. 1800. 


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RAJ. 


B.I.C. Mb. Due. 


S.I.C. Mb Doe. 


ladle Pol. Dtop. 
4 AuguBt, 1841 . 


B.I.C. Mb. Dor. 


E.I.C. Mb. Dor. 


Primogeniture goTems the suooession, and the custom is not 
infringed. 

RAJPEEPLA. — A town in the Rewa Caunta diyiaion of 
Guzerat. A Rajpoot, named Cbokrana, haying quarrelled 
with his father, the rajah of Oojein, retired to this country, 
and fixed his residence in Peepla, situated on the top of a 
lofty hill, now styled Old Rajpeepla, to distinguish it from the 
modem yillage of that name. Having made this spot the seat 
of goverameut, its old name was abandoned, and that of Raj- 
peepla, now the general appellation of the whole province, 
given to it. The place is almost inaccessible, and for carts, or 
any kind of carriage, altogether so. It was, however, a safe 
retreat for the rajahs whenever the country was invaded by a 
powerful enemy. In modem times, Nbar Sing was enabled by 
local advantages to hold out against a superior force sent 
against him by the Guicowar government. Lat. 21^ 47', 
long. 78° 29'. 

RAJPEETA. — A town in the British district of Pachete, 
presidency of Bengal, 80 miles N.W. of Rogonatpoor. I^it. 
23° 60', long. 86° 26'. 

RAJ POOR. — A town of Allee Mohun, in Malwa, presidency 
of Bengal, and the present residence of the rajah. It is a large 
and well-built town, and has a capital bazar, with a market-day 
on Monday. Lat. 22° 20'. long. 74° 21'. 

RAJPOOR, in the Julinder Dooab division of the Punjab, 
a town situated nine miles from the left bank of the Beas, and 
43 miles N.E. of the town of Julinder. Lat. 81° 46', long. 
76° 13'. 

RAJPOOR, in the British district of Cawnpore, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Cal pee to Etawah, and 16 miles N.W. of the 
former. The road in this part of the route is rather good, the 
country partially cultivated. Lat. 26° 18', long. 79° 45'. 

RAJPOOR, in the British district of the Dehra Doon, a 
village on the route fjx)m the town of Dehra to the sanatory 
station of Landour, and six miles and a half S. of the latter. 
The road to Dehra is very good, having a gentle declivity to 
that town from Landour : it is for the first three miles 
steep, but easier for the remaining part. There is a good bazar, ^ 


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realpatidar.com bAJ 

and Kero are kept the camels and elephanta of the Tisitors to ’ JuKiyemont, 

Landotir.^ Lat, 80° 24^ long* 78° lO', 

BAJPOOBA, in the Britbh diatriet of Bareillj, division of a.i.cMii. doc, 

Pillibheet, lieutenant-governorship of the North-'West Pro- 
vinces, a village on the route bjr Nanakmath and Ruderpoor, 
from the town of FilUbheet to Kasheepore, 20 miles S*E- of 
the latter- Lat, 29° 3', long. 70° 16'. 

RAJPOOBA. — A* town in the Bajpoot state of Beekaneer, e.ix3* u^doc. 

112 miles N.K by B. from Beekaneer, and 62 miles S*W. 
from Hissar. Lat* 28° 38', long. 76° 4^ 

B A J PO OBE E, — See B a j apoob . 

BAJPOOTAKA,* — An extensive tract of Western India, »exc. Mi.Dot 
so denominated from its prevailing population, the Rajpoots. 

It is bounded on the north-east by the British dietricta 
Butteeana and Kurreeana, and the native state of Jbujhur; 
on the east by the British district of Goorgaon, and by 
Bhurtpore, Dholpore, and Gwalior ; on the south by the 
province of Omutwara, by the territories of Scindia, of Holkar* 
and of the Guicowar, by Jabbooa and the presidency of Bom- 
bay ; on the west by Scinde | and on the north-west by 
Bbawulpore and the British district of Butteeanee. Befined 
by these limits, it lies between lat* 28° 35' — 29° 57', long* 

70° 5' — 77° 40^ ; is 420 miles in length east to west, and 
400 in breadth. The detailed areas of the states, as given in an 
official document,^ are in square miles as follows Oodeypore * or 

or Mewar, 11,614 ^ Jeypore, 16,261 Joudpore, 85,672; 

Jhallawar, 2,200 ; Eotah,t 4,839 ; Bhoondee, 2,291 ; Alwur, 

3,673 ; Bickaneer, 17,676 ; Jessulmere, 12,252 ; Kishengurh, 

724; Banswarra, 1,440; Fertabgurh, 1,467; Doongerpore, 

1,000; Kerowlee, 1,878; Serohee, 8,024; giving a total of 
114,391 square miles. 

Each of those states is noticed under its respective name 
in the alphabetical arrangement* In the present state of our 
information respecting Bajpootana, the result of any attempt 
to estimate its aggregate population cau at best be only a 

^ Bbekawiitiee Is DOt BpeclaUj enanierated, b«ing comprisad within 
Jey|>oro, 

+ KotAh, with Bhoondee, forms the division of Rajpootane denoininstod realpatidar.COm 

Hamutee* 

W 


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RAJPOOTANA. 


* OrUnUl Muff. 
810. 


4 PrHfhU. I. 178. 
Bird. Prrfncv to 
Trantlotinn of 
HIM. of Giijarmt, 
bj All Molifttn* 
med Klum. 71. 
BlpliInMon^. II UU 
of IndlM. 1. 000. 

* PerlfliU, I. 177. 
Bird. 70. 
Blphinston^y 

i. Oil. 

* Elliot, Supple- 
ment loOIntMiT, 
70, *1 patBitn. 

’ Id. 108 . 

* Tod. Annele, 

I. 110 

* Traniact«. Lit. 
6«>c. Ibirnbnf, 

It 22:t->f«o 
murdu. Accounte 
of Culch. 

* F.I|ihlti«lone, 
HIM. I. 000. 


■ Senecrit Did. 
701. 

* 8heke«peor, 
ool 048. 


tolerable approximation. If the scale adopted by Malcolm for 
Central India, in 1820, before the country had recovered from 
the ravages of the Mahrattas, be now considered applicable to 
Kajpootana (ninety-eight to the square mile), the entire 
population will be upwards of 11,000,000. 

The widely-spread sept of Rajpoots* are considered off- 
sets from the Kshetriyas, one of the four great castes into 
which the Hindoos were originally divided. In the dim and 
uncertain light in which Hindoo history lies previously to the 
^lahoroedan invasion in the tenth century, it is not safe to 
form any judgment as to the period when the Rajpoots ap- 
peared as a distinct race. Their origin is by Hindoo tradition 
placed in Mount* Aboo, bordering on Guserat. Their power 
and renown appear to have been at their acme about the 
close of the twelfth century, when Ajmere and Delhi were 
held in union by one of their princes, Kunnouj by another, 
Guzerat by a third ; but their power soon fell before the 
enthusiasm, ferocity, and military qualities of the Mussulmans. 

Pirthi Raj, the sovereign of Ajmere and Delhi, in 1191 defeated^ 
at Tirouri Shahabuddin Muhammad, sultan of Ghor, but was 
in 1193 defeated by that monarch in a g^reat battle, and being 
taken prisoner, was put to death. Following out his success, 
Shahabuddin in 1194 defeated* Jain Chandra, the Rajpoot 
rajah of Kunnouj ; and by these shocks, the sway of the 
Rajpoots was restricted within limits nearly corresponding 
with those which form their present boundaries. Besides the 
tract denominated Rajpootana, the race is dispersed* over many 
parts of India ; as in Bundelcund, where many of the chiefs 
are Rajpoots, and in Baghelkhand or Rewa, the rajah of which 
is a BagheP Rajpoot ; also in Gurhwal,* and several others of 
the hill states, and in the territory of Cutch.® An able^ 
writer adverts with much felicity to the ** peculiar character of 
the Rajpoots, arising from their situation as the military class 
of the original Hindoo system. The other classes,’* he con- 
tinues, though kept together as castes by community of 
religious rites, weoe mixed up in civil society, and were under 
no chiefs except the ordinary magistrates of the country. But 

* According to Wilaon,* R«jpatra ; from R*j, "a king,^ aad Fiiir,jgp QQp-| 
"non ** — ** a detoeodant* of a raja,” 

28B 


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, ... EAJPOOTANA. 

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the Bajpoots were bom eoldiers ; each division bad its hereditary 
leader, and each formed a separate community, like clans in 
other countries, the members of which were bound by many 
ties to their chiefs and to each other. The rules of caste stiU 
subsisted, and tended to render more powerful the connection 
Just described. As the chiefs of those clans stood in the same 
relation to the rajah as their own relations did to them, the 
king, nobility, and soldiery, ail made one body, united by the 
strongest feelings of kindred and military devotion. The sort 
of feudal system that prevailed among the Bajpoots, gave 
additional stability to this attachment, and altogether produced 
the pride of birth, the high spirit, and the romantic notions so 
striking in the miUtary class of that period. Their enthusiasm 
was kept up by the songs of their bards, and inflamed by 
frequent contests for glory or for love. They treated women 
with a respect unusual in the East, and were guided even 
towards their enemies by rules of honour, which it was dts^ 
graceful to violate* But although they had so many character- 
istics of chivaliy, they had not the high-strained sentiments 
and artiflcial refinements of our knights, and were more in the 
spirit of Homer^s heroes, than of Spen8er*s or Ario 3 to*s. If 
to these qualities we add a strong disposition to indolence 
(which may have existed formerly, though not likely to figure 
in history), and make allowances for the effects of a long period 
of depression, we have the character of the Rajpoots of the 
present day, who bear much the same resemblance to their 
ancestors that those did to the warriors of the Maha Bharat. 
With all the noble qualities of the early Rajpoots was mixed a 
simplicity, derived from the want of intercourse with other 
nations, which rendered them inferior in practice ability, and 
even in military efficiency, to men actuated by much less 
elevated sentiments than theirs. “ Another intelligent writer,® 
who spent much time among the Rajpoots, gives a less favourable 
account of them. He says, ** The warlike character of the 
Rajpoot has been very much overrated. There appears to be 
very little chivalrous feeling in his breast. By nature, Rajpoots 
are generally powerful, muscular men, active by habit and 
practising gymnastics (though, when not excited, inclined to 
indolence to a high degree) ; those who possess horses are 


* Irtine, Topor. 
of AjDisn, tOS. 


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RAJPOOTANA. 

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generally good horsemen. Some are> by constant practice, 
dexterous in the use of lance or sword, and, individually, must 
be often superior to one of an enemy trained to act in com- 
bination, according to a rigid system of discipline. But 
amongst a large body of Rajpoot horse, only a few would 
be found such superior men at arms, or so to venture. The 
Rajpoots do not possess the cool determinate courage, ready 
to dare any danger, and requiring no artificial excitement. 
According to their own accounts, even in their former attacks 
on caravans and towns, surprise was their object ; and if suc- 
cessful, they were equally cruel and rapacious, showing no 
mercy to their captives ; and if they met with much resistance, 
became as cowardly as they had before been violent, and 
resorted to flight : fighting was not their object. In all their 
single combats, and all assaults, they resorted to the excitement 
of opium before commencing battle : their own bards describe 
the eyes of their heroes as being red from opium. Among 
their rajahs, the treacherous murders of each’ other on record 
were numerous and long premeditated.” There is probably 
much truth in this latter view. Many gloomy shadows darken 
the portrait of the Rajpoot character, and contrast painfully 
with the bright hues depicted in the earlier notice. Among 
them may be reckoned the practice of suttee under its most 
atrocious forms, the horrible holocaust being increased in 
cases where the rank and wealth of the deceased were thought 
• Malcolm. On- to demand the addition, by forcibly throwing* numbers of 
imi India, 11. 907 . either attendant slaves or retainers, into the flames, 

together with the chief victim. 

As another fearful stain on Rajpoot manners, may be men- 
tioned the once universally prevalent crime of female infanti- 
4 Mnicoim, 11. m. cide.^ To such an extent was it carried among some tribes, 
that, in 1818 , when Maemurdo* wrote, it is stated that among 
ut Miprn, 990. the ofisprlng of 8,000 married Jhareja Rajpoots, not more than 
sixty females were living ; and it was cbnsidered probable that 
the number did not exceed thirty. To such an extent was 
this cruelty to daughters carried, that they were sometimes 
destroyed after attaining adolescence ; the instinct of affection, 
even when strengthened by time and habit, being insufficient 
to overcome the suggestions of pride, or imaginary expediency. 

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RAJPOOTANA. 

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In 1810, when the rajahs of Joudpore and Jejpore became 
suitors^ for a princess of Oodeypore, and supported their pre- 
tensions by waging war against each other, the family of the 
unhappy girl terminated the contest by putting her to death. 
Some years ago, the marriageable daughter of the rajah of 
Bickaneer was put to death ^ under similar circumstances, and 
from similar motives. A practice, less hideously criminal, but 
most dangerous to themselves and others, is their addiction to 
the use of opium, already adverted to, in which they indulge to 
a degree which first inflames their passions, then impairs their 
intellects, leading in the last stage to permanent and hopeless 
fatuity. Before the debilitating drug has efiected this dire 
result, it is to the Rajpoot the source of false courage and 
insensate desperation. Furious from its influence, Rajpoot 
armies have in many instances recklessly rushed on certain 
death, and, neither giving nor receiving quarter, have perished 
to a man. The most appalling manifestation of this madness 
is denominated johar. It consists in an army or garrison, 
reduced to despair and inflamed by opium, butchering their 
families in the first place, and then rushing on the enemy and 
fighting till destroyed. Notwithstanding, however, their 
deficiency in steady courage, and their inferiority in discipline 
and tactics, it is certain that the Rajpoots have succeeded in 
rendering themselves formidable to some of the greatest 
military characters of India. Baber, exercised from boyhood 
in the most varied and fierce scenes of warfare, honestly 
relates^ the dismay into which himself and his veterans were 
thrown by the approach of Rana Sanka, of Mewar, the champion 
of Brahminism, on whose overthrow the Mussulman sultan 
assumed, for the first time, the much-desired title of Ghasi, or 
** champion victorious in defence of the faith.” Subsequently, 
Sher Shab, the Afghan who defeated and dethroned Humayon, 
the son of Baber, and the padshah of Delhi, having invaded 
Rajpootana at the head of 80,000 men, was fiercely encountered, 
and nearly repulsed by Kunbha, a Rajpoot chief, at the head 
of 10,000 of his clan. The Afghan observed,* after his dearly- 
won victory, that he had almost lost the empire of India for a 
handful of joar, alluding to a coarse grain forming the staple 
crop in the barren country, which he found so obstinately 

Vi 


* ButMwun Lai. 
Uein. of Muham- 
med Ameor Khan. 
400. 

Malrotm, Central 
India, i. 540. 

Tod. I. 4S3. 

^ Prin»ep. Note 
on p. 400 of Bua- 
aavun Lai. 


• Memoir^ 5M. 
SSI. 


0 Ferielita, II. 185, 
184. 


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BAJ. 


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defended 


1 India Pol. DUp. 
81 Jao. 1885. 


* Id. 80 Oct. 1844. 

• Id. 14 April, 
1B47. 

B.I.C. Ub, Doe. 


DoIImu, 

103. 


E.IX?. M*. Doe. 


In more recent times, the Bajpoots have scarcely 
sustained their former reputation. 

Notwithstanding their many strongholds, their numerous 
forces, and boasted military prowess, they offered little resist- 
ance to the Mahrattas, who at will desolated their lands, until 
shielded by the British power. Some of the Bajpoot states 
were brought into connection with the British government 
early in the present century, by the Marquis of Wellesley. 
His successor. Sir George Barlow, adopted a different policy ; 
but experience having manifested the wisdom of that of the 
previous Governor- General, it was resumed by the Marquis of 
Hastings, and these states became generally subject to British 
influence, and entitled to the benefit of British protection. 
The required powers are exercised through an ofiicer called 
the Govemor-G^nerars agent for the states of Bajpootana.^ 
The connection appears to have been greatly beneficial to the 
country. European principles of justice and policy are gradu- 
ally making way. Arrangements have been introduced for the 
decision of international questions,^ as well as for the general 
administration of justice, and are said to be working well.^ 

BAJULA. — A town in the peninsula of Kattywar, province 
of Guzerat, in the prant or district of Babriawar. Distance 
from Ahmedabad S.W. 155 miles, Baroda 145. Lat. 21^ 2^, 
long. 71® 28'. 

BAJULDESIB, in the Bajpoot state of Beekaneer, a town 
on the route from Butungurh to the town of Beekaneer, and 
75 miles £. of the latter. It has four towers for its defence, 
and contains 283 houses, and six wells 100 feet deep. The 
road in this part of the route is sandy, as is the surrounding 
country, though producing in some places crops of bajra 
(Holcus spicatus). Lat. 28® 1', long. 74® 34'. 

BAJUMPETT. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, 
or territory of the Nizam, 66 miles N. by W. from Hyderabad, 
and 166 miles E. by N. from Sholapoor. Lat. 18® 17', long. 


78® 21'. 

E.i.e. Ms. Doc. BAJUNPOOB. — A town in the native state of Bhawul- 

poor, situate on the left bank of the Indus river, and 116 miles 
S.W. by W. from Bhawulpoor. Lat. 28® 31', long. 70° 10'. 

B.I.C. Ms. Doc. BAJUB. — A town in the territory belonging to Ali Moorad, 

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RAK— KAL. 


27 miles S.E. from the leR bank of the Indus, and 27 miles 
S.E. by E. from Bukkur. Lat. 27° 26', long. 69° 16'. 

RAKCHAM, in Bussahir, a village situate in the valley of 
the Buspa, on the right ^ bank of the river of that name, and 
near the confluence of a stream called the Gor. The site of 
the village is striking and not unpleasing, at the western 
extremity of a glen, and at the base of a huge mass of bare 
rocks, which rise abruptly in numerous black spires above the 
village. The dell is about three furlongs wide, and produces 
thriving crops of wheat and barley. Elevation above the sea 
10,456* feet. Lat. 31° 22', long. 78° 27'. 

RAKHA. — A town in the native state of Nepal, situate on 
the right bank of the Gunduck or Salagra river, and 145 miles 
W.N.W. from Khatmandoo. Lat. 28° 37', long. 83° 13'. 

RAKISH BOON. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, 
or dominions of the Nizam, situate on the right bank of the 
Godavery river, and 37 miles S. by W. from Jaulnah. Lat. 
19° 20', long. 75° 46'. 

RAKRI, in the British district of Aligurh, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 12 miles 
S.E. of the cantonment of Aligurh. Lat. 27° 46', long. 
78° 15'. 

RALA. — A town in the British district of Arracan, pre- 
sidency of Bengal, 22 miles N.W. by W. of Arracan. Lat. 
20° 51', long. 93° 8'. 

RALDANG,* or WEST KAILAS, in Bussahir, a lofty moun- 
tain of Koonawar, separating the valley of the Buspa from that 
of the Tidung. Gerard,* who viewed it from the left bank of the 
Sutlej, gives the following description : — ** Some idea of it may 
be formed by imagining an assemblage of pointed peaks, pre- 
senting a vast surface of snow, viewed under an angle of 
twenty-seven degrees, and at a distance of not more than five 
miles in a direct line.” The highest peak has an elevation of 
21,103 feet. Lat. 31° 29', long. 78° 21'. 

RALEIGAON. — A town in one of the recently sequestrated 
districts of the native state of Hyderabad, 85 miles S.E. from 
Ellichpoor. Lat. 20° 27', long. 78° 36'. 

RALHOOPOOR, in the British district of Benares, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 

S iji llTS 


' Llojd and 
Oerard, Tourt In 
Himalaya. II. 48, 
51. 


* Gerard. Koona> 
wur. Map. 

E.I.C. Me. Doc. 


B.X.C. Ma. Doc. 


K.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


' E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 
Aa. Rea. al». 885* 
oHodicaon and 
Herbert, Sure, of 
Himalaya. 

* Journ. A*. Soc. 
Bonir. 1848, p. 308 
— Journey from 
Subalhu to 
Shipke. 


E.I.C. .Ma. Doc. 

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RAM. 


E.l.C. Doe. 


I E.l.C. Ms. Doe. 


• Biichnniin, 
Journej from 
Madnu, tlirouirh 
Mraore. Cnfuirm, 
•lul Mnlabsr, 

I. 1<». 104. 

• Wilks. HltCnriral 
Sketches, ill. 204. 


I B.I.e. Ms. Doe. 


• tliirdcii. Tablet 
of Routes. 


* Horsbiirjrh, 
Direetorj. I. 47& 
E.I C. Ms. Doe. 
K.I.e. Trifon. 
Sure. 

As. Res. siv. 

— Hodffson, Bur- 
eef of Jumna 
and Oan|tt>«. 

Id. Op. sill.— 
Fra«er. Journ. to 
Source of J unina. 


E.l.C. Ms. Doe. 


the route from Benares to Sasseram, five miles S.E. of the 
former. Lat. 26® 14', long. 83° 7'. 

RAMA. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Jodhpoor, 46 
miles 8.S.W. from Jodhpoor, and 128 miles W.S.W. from 
Ajmeer. Lat. 25° 41', long. 72° 64'. 

RAMAGIRI,^ in the territory of Mysore, a town with a 
fort, the principal place of a tollook or subdivision of the 
same name. It is situate^ on the right or west side of the 
river Arkavati. The fort is situate on a high rocky hill of 
granite, and is capable of defence, yet it surrendered* promptly, 

A.D. 1791, to the British force which advanced against it. The 
jungles and rough ground about it are very much infested by 
tigers. Distant from Seringapatam, N.E., 48 miles ; Bangalore, 

S.W., 26. Lat. 12° 45', long. 77° SC/. 

RAMAREE,^ in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Almora to the frontier of south-western Tibet, by 
the Juwahir Pass, 67* miles N.E. of the former, 89 S.W. of 
the latter. There is encamping-gronnd near a spring between 
the road and the village, but no supplies are procurable. Lat. 

29° 68', long. 80° 9'. 

RAM AS. — A high blufi* headland on the coast of Goa, 

“ forming in two level points when seen either from the north- 
ward or southward : that called False Cape is highest and 
first discernible ; the other, less elevated, forms the extremity 
of the true cape, on which is a small fort belonging to the 
Portuguese.*'^ Lat. 16° 6', long. 73° 58'. 

RAMA SERAI, in Gurhwal, a valley extending in a 
direction from north-west to south-east, between lat. 30° 46' — 

30° 68', and long. 78° — 78° 12'. It is about a mile wide, fertile, 
and well watered, and formerly was well cultivated, and con- 
tained several good villages ; but of late years, in consequence of 
Goorkha devastation, is nearly desolate, overrun with jungle, 
and full of wild beasts. The Caroalda river, which flows down 
the valley, falls into the Jumna on the right side. 

RAMBUDRAPOOR. — A town in the native state of Hyder- 
abad, or dominions of the Nizam, situate on the left bank of 
the Godavery river, and 168 miles B. by N. from Hyderabad. 

Lat. 17° 48', long. 81° 2'. realpatidar.com 

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realpatidar.com EAM. 

EAMDOOKG. — A town within the territories of Bombaj, 
situate 54 miles £. bj N. from Belgaum, and 66 miles S.S.W. 
from Beejapoor. Lat. 15^ 58', long. 75^ 22'. 

RA MESUB,* in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- 
goremorship of the North-West Provinces, a village with a 
Hindoo temple at the confluence of the rivers Suijoo and 
Eastern Ramgunga. Elevation above the sea 1,500^ feet. 
Eat. 29^ 32', long. 80° 8'. 

RAMESWARAM.^* — An island at the western extremity of 
Adam's Bridge, forming the northern boundary of the Gulf of 
Manaar, and extending in a direction nearly east and west, 
between Ceylon and the south-eastern coast of the peninsula 
of India. It is represented to be about fourteen miles in 
length t from south-east to north-west, and five in breadth. It 
is uncultivated, and principally inhabited by Brahmins and 
their followers, who are supported by the profits derived from 
the great pagoda and other temples. The entrance to the 
principal temple is through a fine gateway about 100 feet high, 
and elaborately carved, its form being trapezoid. The work- 
manship is massive and regular, and in a style of architecture 
resembling the Egyptian. Within is a cloister, having a 
passage between a triple row of pillars, to a square of about 
600 feet, cloistered all round, and into which the sacred temples 
open. The whole is well built, and is one of the finest struc- 
tures in India. It appears to be dedicated to the divinity 
Siva, of whom, according to Brahminical legend, Rameswara^ 
or Rama is an avatar or incarnation. According to the Rama- 
yana and other Puranic legends, Ravana, the demon tyrant of 
Lanka, having abducted^ Sita, the consort of Rama, the injured 
monarch pursued the ravisher, who carried off his prize to 
Lanka ; so that pursuit was stayed by the intervening sea, 
until ‘*Nala,^ the son of fire, then commenced to make a 
bridge over the sea, and prayed his father that all the great 
stones, and other heavy articles necessary for the work, 
might be deprived of their w'eight and float on the sea. 

* pAmeswAr of Briggs's Index ; from Ram a, the hero and divinity of 
that name, and Iswar, god the god Rama. 

*t‘ Aooordtng to McKeneie,' the Uland is low, sandy, and oocnltivated ; 
but Lord Valeniia* mentions the hills of Ramiseram." 

T 2 


E.I.C. Ms Doc. 


I E.I.e. M4. Doc. 
K.I.e. Trlgoii. 
Surr. 


* Brandc, Jotimal, 
rl. e^^Wrbb. 
Table of HciyhU. 

I E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 
Aa. nes. r. .nO. 


» WII>on, Sanscrit 
Diet. 1:IS; and 
As. Rrs ivit. 107 

— On ReltjtlniM 
SiTia of the H in- 
dot «. 

*Aa. Rea avii. OOS 

— Wilson, on the 
Dbtnysiacs of 
Nonnus. 

* Journ. Aa. Soc. 

Bcnfc. IK43. No. 

CBiai 11^7— 

Ravenshstr, 

Translation from 
the Pudma 
Poornn. 

* Aa Res. vl. 4SQ 

— Ri'Tnarks on 
the Anilquliirs on 
tht> West and 
South Coasts of 

ceytrn*. ’ealpatidar.coiTi 

* impels, I. 338. 


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realpatidar.com RAMESWARAM. 

This prayer being granted, he soon completed the bridge, 
over which the troops marched to Lanka.” Such is the 
fabled origin of the long bank forming the northern boun- 
dary of the Gulf of Manaar, and called by the Brahminists 
“ Rama’s Bridge by the Mussulmans and Christians, “Adam’s 
Bridge.” 

Near* the town of Rameswaram is a fresh-water lake, about 
three miles in circumference. The great pagoda is a celebrated 
place of pilgrimage, frequented by crowds from all parts of 
India ; it is under the guardianship and management of a chief, 
styled Pandaram, who must observe celibacy through life, and 
on his death is succeeded by his sister’s son, or, should there 
not bo any such, by the next eldest collateral male relative. 

The image of the deity is every morning drenched with water 
brought on the shoulders of fakirs from the Ganges, and poured 
over it, and which, having received additional sanctity by this 
rite, is sold to devotees at a high price. A* splendid view of 
this pagoda is given by Danicll. 

At the western extremity of the island is the small town of 
•«d E^pt. No. lx. Paumbaum, and between it and the mainland of India is a 
passage, formerly so beset with rocks and shoals as to be nearly 
unavailable for navigation. Measures for its improvement 
have recently been taken with success, of which some notice 
will be found under the article Paumbaum. According to 
local tradition, this island was connected with the mainland of 
India until the early part of the Rfteenth century, when the 
connecting neck of land was partially swept away by the sea 
during a dreadful hurricane, and the breakers were brought to 
their present extent by a succession of similar irruptions. 
Geological observation lends some support to this. The bottom 
consists in general of sandstone of the same kind as that on 
Rameswaram and the neighbouring part of the continent of 
India. The number of pilgrims visiting annually the pagoda is 
estimated at 30,000, the fixed population at 4,288, of whom 811 
are Brahmins, 620 Mussulmans, 372 native Christians, other 
classes 2,485. The population would appear to be well lodged, 
as the number of houses is considerable in proportion to its 
amount; but these being constructed in a great measure to 
meet the resort of pilgrims, a judgment framed with referencA^^'^^'^'^^'^ 
only to the accommodation thus provided would probably be 

276 


* Report on Med. 
Topoffrnphj xnd 
SuitUtIn of Ram- 
meMoraiB, 109. 


• Tw^ntj-fbtir 
•Vlaw* in St. Mo- 
lonx, th« Cx|** of 
Good Hop#, India, 


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realpatidar.com BAM. 

CdlidouB. The town of Baines warsm is in lat. 9^ 18', long. 
79^21'. 

MMGHAT,* in the British district of Bolundshuhur, lieu- 
teoant-goTemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Alljgurh to Bareilly, and 30 miles N.E. of the 
former, situate on the right bank of the Ganges, here crossed 

ferry. The bed of the river is about a mile* and half wide, 
tod the stream in the dry season usually occupies one-third of 
that space, and is sometimes divided into two or more channels. 
The road to the south-west, or towards Allygurh, is good ; to 
tbe north-east heavy. Bamghat is 80 miles S.£. of Delhi. 
Lat 28® 9^, long. 78° 3(f . 

BAMGHEBBY, in Hyderabad, or territory of the Nizam, 
1 town 110 miles N.E. of the city of Hyderabad. Lat. 18° 38', 
long. 79® 39'. 

KAMGUNGA (EASTEBN).^ — A river rising in the British 
district of Kumaon, on the southern declivity of the main 
chain of the Himalaya, at an elevation of about 9,0Q0 feet, 
and in lat. 30° 11', long. 80° 8'. It holds a course generally 
■outberlj for about tifly-five miles, to Bamesur, where it falls 
into the Suijoo, on the left side. Its descent must be very 
^id, as the point of its confluence with the Suijoo is estimated 
to be only 1,500* feet above the sea. The name of Bamgunga 
a oflen given to the united stream as far as its confluence 
with the Kalee. Webb, who crossed it by a spar bridge, in 
Wt 29® 48', long. 80° 12', about thirty miles from its source, 
fbnnd it to be there unfordable during the rainy season, but 
ascertained that it could be forded at other times, when it had 
a depth of four feet. Twelve miles higher up the stream, it is 
W)ased by the route from Almora to the Juwahir Pass into 
Tibet, and is there “ fordable,* except in the rains, when a rope 
l>ndge is thrown across it.** 

bamgunga (WESTEBN).i— A river rising in the British 
distnet of Kumaon, amidst the outer or lower group of the 
Himtlajas, and in lat. 30° 6', long. 79° 20*. The stream is 
^TOed by a junction of several small rills, flowing from various 
Erections. The elevation of its remotest source above the sea 
^loes not appear to be ascertained, but that of Dewalee Khal, a 
^ple situate on a summit two or three miles from it, is 
<»144 feet. At the confluence with the Kothar stream, about 

277 


I B.I.e. Ms. Doe. 
Lumaden. JoMm. 
from India, 4. 


• Oardoti, Table* 
of Route*, 41. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


I R.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* Dollard, Topo- 
f rapbj of Kale* 
Kuraaon, SS. 


^ Garden, Table* 
of Route*, 03. 

I B.I.e. Ma. Doc. 


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EAMQUNGA. 


* Joum. In India, 
1. OSA. 

* TaMaa of 
Routaa, 86. 


* Garden. 89. 


» Id. 84. 


• I.um*den, Jnum. 
from India to 
Ilrltaln, 6. 


five miles lower down, the elermtion is 3,838 feet. Its course 
for the first twenty miles is in a south-easterly direction ; it 
then becomes south-westerly, and so continues to its exit from 
the hills, in lat. 29 ^ 8(y, long. 78^ 49^, at the distance of about 
ninety miles from its source. In this upper part of its course, 
it receives numerous mountain-streams, on both the right and 
left sides. A short distance below its entrance into the plain, 
and about 100 miles from its source, it takes a southerly direc- 
tion, which it holds for fifteen miles, and in lat. 29 ° 17 \ long. 
78^ 42^, receives the Koh, a considerable feeder, on the right 
side. At the town of Moradabad, forty miles below this con- 
fiuence, the Hamgunga, in the early part of December, when it 
is probably lowest, is described by Heber* as “ a sluggish river, 
as wide nearly in this place as the Severn at Shrewsbury, but 
shallow and fordable.” Garden^ states that the bed is a mile 
wide here, and that the stream in the dry season is usually 
divided into two or three channels, from one to three feet deep, 
with tuieven sandy bottom, and that the passage in the wet 
season is made by ferry. Fifteen miles below this, it, in lat. 
28° 41', long. 79° 1', receives on the left side the Kosee, a con- 
siderable stream, but continues even after this accession ford- 
able^ from the month of December to that of Juno, sixty miles 
lower. Besides some feeders of less size, it receives on the left 
side the Sunka, and is not usually fordable^ below Jalalabad, 
soventy-three miles further, in lat. 27° 44', long. 79° 40'. Sixty 
miles still lower, it on the left side receives the Deoha or Gurrah, 
a considerable stream. Ten miles below this last confluence, the 
Bamg^nga falls into the Ganges on the left side, nearly oppo- 
site® the ancient city of Kanouj, and in lat. 27° 7', long. 80^ 8'. 
Its total* length of course is about 373 miles. 


* Errlkund« von 
Asian. 1.1. 1018. 


• Raport on Sat- 
tlamrnt of Our* 
wnl, 37. 

3 As. Rot. x% \. 908 
— Sinl Skatth of 
Kumaon. 


* Ritter ' ban fallen into an oversight in stating that this river forma the 
l>oondary between Gurhwal and Kumaon : Der (Rainganga) die provins 
Gherwal im West von Kamaun im Osten scheidet.** If he mean bj the 
province Gurhwal ** the raj or state of that name, the dividing-line is the 
course of the Alakmanda; if the portion of Gurwhal now included in the 
British district Kumaon, the boundary on the east, dividing it from 
Kumaon proper, is stated by Batten* to be an ** imaginary** line ''crossiog 
the Ramgunga river near ila numerous sources, and again recrossing it at 
the upper part of the Patlee Dhoon.” Ritter, however, may have been , 
lea into the error by Tn.m.» rea.patidar.com 

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realpatidar.com RAM. 

RAMGUNQE,^ in the territory of Oude, a yUlage on the 
route from Cawnpore to Lucknow, 16 miles^ N.E. of the 
former, 37 S.W. of the latter. Lat. 26® 37^ long. 80® 37'. 

RAMGUNJE. — A town in the British district of Bulloah, 
presidency of Bengal, 12 miles N. of Bulloah. Lat. 23® 3', 
long. 00® 67'. 

h RAMGUR. — A town in the recently lapsed territory of 
Nagpoor, 80 miles S. from Bustur, and 76 miles N. by E. from 
Rajahm undry. Lat. 18® 5', long. 82®. 

RAMGURH,* otherwise called HAZAREEBAGH, formerly 
part of a ooUectorate of wider dimensions. In 1832 a general 
insurrection broke out on the south-west frontier of Bengal, 
and extending to this locality, the disturbed tracts comprised 
within the present district of Ramghur were withdrawn from 
the operation of the ordinary regulations,^ and annexed to the 
territory under the administration of the political agent for the 
south-west frontier of Bengal. Both the names by which the 
district is designated are derived from towns situate within its 
limits. It is bounded on the north by the British district 
Behar ; on the north-east by the British district of Mongheer ; 
on the east by the British district Beerbhoom ; on the 
south-east by the British district Pachete ; on the south by 
the British district Cbota Nagpore ; and on the south-west 
and west by the British district Palamow. It lies between lat. 
23® 20'— 24® 60', loftg. 83® 60'— 86® 38' ; is 175 mUes in length 
from east to west, and ninety in breadth : the area is 8,524 
square miles. Many groups of hills are dispersed over the 
district ; there is also much undulating* ground, consisting of 
plateaus of moderate extent, separated by gentle depressions. 
Of these plateaus one of the most extensive and elevated is 
that of Hoxareebagh, nearly in the middle of the district, and 
having, it is stated, an elevation of 1,800 fect^ above the sea. 
Many of the mountains are of primitive formation, — granite, 
quartz, or gneiss; but others, of later formation, abound in coal* 
and iron : the latter, though smelted to a great extent, is re- 
puted not to be of the best quality. Lead-ore is said to have 
been discovered in the vicinity of Hazareebagh ; and it is con- 
jectured that silver-ore may be obtained in the same mine. 
There are ores of antimony in many places. In the vicinity 

279 


> B.f.C. M«. Doe. 

* Garden, Tablet 
of Routea, 121. 


E.I.C. Ml. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ml. Doc. 


I E.I.C. Ml. Doc. 


* Rerutatlon xllL 
of IKM. 
Thnmlon, Hilt, 
of India, V. 90l. 


* Jacqucmont, 

Vojaffe, III. 990. 

Traniacti. Med. 

A%. Soc. B<*nfr. 

1820, Calcutta, 
p. 286, Breton, 

Med. Topofrraphf 
of Karoitliiir. 

* Jar<)uenioiit, 

III. 800. 

* Report of Com- 
mittee on Mineral 
Rrtoiircei of 
India, Calcutta, 

1887, p. 17. 

Jacquemont, 

111 . 993 , 200 . 

Jniirn. Ai. 9«re. .. , 

B«.g iw8.^ fwsatidar.com 


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realpatidar.com RAMGURH. 

of Hazareebagh are beds of very fine mica, from which large 
transparent laminse are obtained. 

The whole country is very thinly peopled, insomuch that 

• ut tupni, HI. Jacquemont, on one occasion* at least, scarcely observed a 

house in a day's journey, though travelling along the direct 
road from Calcutta to Benares. As far as the eye could reach, 
nothing could be seen but thick forests, the lairs of lions, 
tigers, leopards, bears, hyienas, foxes, jackals, wild dogs, wild 
buffaloes, wild kine, wild swine, hog deer, and other kinds ; 
monkeys, porcupines, and some other quadrupeds of less im- 
portance. Tigers are particularly numerous ; and the dread of 
their ravages so great as sometimes to have impelled the in- 
f Bnfton. ut habitants to desert their homes.’ Everywhere in those forests 
**^'*"' lurk the monstrous boa, and several venomous species of 

serpents, as the cobra de capello and karait. The timber is 
fine ; and together with the sal (Shores robusta), are found a 
great variety of trees and plants, unknown to Europeans. In 
many parts the forests are totally impenetrable, and where of 
practicable access, the air during & portion of the year is so 
pestiferous as to cause almost certain death to those exposed to 
its influence. The winter and beginning of spring are the 
healthier times, and are, in consequence of the elevation, so cool 
that ice is formed on stagnant water. 

The rivers arc numerous, but none of them of great volume. 

The principal drainage is to the south-east, towards the estuary 
of the Ganges, by the Damooda, and its tributary the 
Barrackur, the torrent flowing by Hazareebagh. Other 
streams flow northward, as the Mohana and Leelajan, passing 
into Behar ; others again westward, discharging themselves 
into the river Koel ; and a few small tributaries find their way 
southward through the channel of the Soobunreeka river into 
the Bay of Bengal. This great diversity in the directions of 
the watercourses indicates that the general elevation of the 
district is greater than tliat of the tracts surrounding it. 

The inhabitants are in a low state of civilization, and live, 
thinly scattered over this spacious country, in small villages, 
consisting of wretched huts of hurdles, mud, and matting, 

• Breton, ut covered with a thin roof of thatch. “ The natives* of these 

supra. 945. districts are principally agriculturists ; many are occupied m^tidar.com 

trades of different kinds, and some are engaged as soldiers. 

280 


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HAM. 


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They are ia general temperate, industrious,* and tolerably 
cleanly in their houses and persons.” 

There are scarcely any places in this district which can 
properly be denominated towns. Samgurh and Hazareebagh, 
which are the principal collections of dwellings, are described 
under their respective names in the alphabetical arrangement. 

The population some years since was vaguely conjectured* to 
amount to half a million. More recently it has been computed 
at 872,216,^ — a number far more consistent with probability. 

The main course of communication from south-east to north* 
west, between Calcutta and the North-Western Provinces, lies 
through this district, in tw'o distinct lines, nearly parallel, and 
at an average distance from each other of about twenty miles. 
That* more to the south-west passes through Deigwar, 
Hazareebagh, Kuikumsandee, and Kanaehuttee ; the other 
line, more to the north-east, is the grand trunk road, and passes 
through Doomree, Dhourara, and Churparun, shortening the 
route about three miles. The district of Bamghur* is within 
the limits of the Dewanny granted to the £ast*India Com- 
pany in 1765, by Shah Alum, emperor of Delhi. 

RAMQURH. — A town within the district of the same 
name. As it communicates its name to the surrounding tract 
of country, it may be presumed to have been formerly a place 
of some importance; but it is now utterly inconsiderable. 
Lat. 23® 42', long. 85® 80'. 

RAMGURH,^ in the British district of Ramgurh, territory 
of Saugor and Nerbudda, lieutenant-governorship of the North- 
West Provinces, a town on the route from Sohagpoor to 
Nagpoor, 45 miles S.W. by S. of the former. Lat. 22® 49', 
long. 81° 1'. 

The territory of which this town is the chief place, forms a 
subdivision under the jurisdiction of the political agent for the 
Saugor and Nerbudda provinces. Its population is returned 
at 41,766.* The district was ceded to the British by the rajah 
of Nagpore, in commutation of subsidy. 

RAMGURH. — A town of Malwa, in the native state of 


* Hamilton, 
Oaietteer, il. 4A3. 

* ParllnfnentArjr 
Return, ISdl. 


• Garden, Table* 
of Route*, I6S, 
170. 


^ Rrnnell Index 
to DivUlun* of 
Ben};al and Debar. 


E.I.e. n*. Doc. 


I E.l.a M*. Doc. 


• Dittrlrt Sureej 
Map of Ratnxhur 
and Sohafepoor, 
IS42. 

E.I.C. M*. Doc. 


* Hamilton,' however, g^vee a different and very nn&vourable aocoont ' Oaietteer, il. 
of the population : Thie district has been long fatally distinguished for r63lp3tid3r.C0rn 

the nameroQS crimes and devastations oommitted.’’ 

281 


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B.I.C. M*. Doc. 


I B.l.a U». Doe. 

* BoIImu, Tour lo 
R^warm, 10. 


B.I.C. M». Doe. 


* Oardrn, Tnblot 
of Ruuirt, 149. 

* JacniiemonCp 
vi. 


R.I.O. Ifc. Doc. 


E.I.C. 31s. Doe. 


B.I.C. Us. Doc. 


* R I.C. Ms. Doc. 
E.r.C. Trigon. 
Surr. 


BAM. 

Bun^anee, 21 miles S.W. fix>m Burwanee, and 67 miles K. 
from Dhoolia. Lat. 21® 6(y, long. 74® 49'. 

KAMGUBH, in the British district of Ajmeer» lieutenssU 
governorship of the North-West Provinoes, a town on the 
route from Ajmeer to Oodeypoor, 89 miles SAW. of the 
former. Lat. 25® 69', long. 74° 82'. 

RAMQUBII,^ in the Bajpoot territoiy of Shekhawutee, a 
town on the west frontier towards Beekaneer. It is a thriving’ 
place, neatly fortified, and contains the residences of sereni 
wealthy bankers. Distance W. from Delhi 140 miles, N.W. 
from Jeypore 100, E. from Beekaneer 108. Lat. 28° 
long. 75® 5'. 

BAMQURH. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Jeypoor, 41 
miles N.W. by W. from Jeypoor, and 68 miles N.E. by N. from 
Ajmeer. Lat. 27® 16', long. 76® 21'. 

RAMGURH, in the Rajpoot territory of Alwar, under the 
political management of the Goremoi^General's agent for 
Rajpootaua, a town on the route from Alwar, by way of 
Ferozpore, to Delhi, and 95 miles’ S. of the latter. It has 
about 2,000 habitations,’ small and wretched in the extreme, 
each generally not more than seven or eight feet long, and of 
the same width, and scantily covered with straw. According 
to the usual proportion of inmates to houses in this region, the 
number of inhabitants is probably about 10,000. Lat. 27° 35', 
long. 76® 62'. 

RAMGURH, in the British district of Baitool, territory of 
Saugur and Nerbudda, lieutenant-governorship of the North- 
West Provinces, a town on the route fit>m Baitool to Korgoon, 

54 miles W. of the former. Lat. 21® 49', long. 77® 8'. 

RAMGURH. — A town in the native state of Ghmlior, or 
territory of Scindia’s family, 36 miles N. from Ghvaltor, and Si 
miles S.S.E. from Agra. Lat. 26® 44', long. 78® 12'. 

RAMGURH. — A town in the British district of Chittagong, 
presidency of Bengal, 48 miles N. by W. of Chittagong. liSt 
23®, long. 91® 43'. 

RAMGURH,’ in the hill state of Hindoor, a fortress on the 
steep and high ridge which, rising from the left bank of the 
Sutlej, has a south-easterly direction, and ultimately joins the 
Himalaya. In the beginning of November, 1814, at the eon^arLcom 
mencement of the Goorkha war, it was invested by the British 


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anj xmder G^eral Ochterlony, who, by a oottnie of tedious 
jet wonderfully energetic and laborious operations, succeeded 
to eooTejhig battering-guns up the precipitous and preriously 
tnckJess declirity. The defences were in consequence speedily 
demolished, and the garrison capitulated.^ Elewation shore the 
set 4,054 feet. Distant N.W. firom Calcutta 1,094* miles, 
lat. 81® 6', long. 76° 51'. 

RAMGUHH, in the Hajpoot state of Jesulmeer, a fort and 
riliags 85 miles N.W. of the town of Jesulmeer, is situate at 
the termination of a low rocky ridge of recent formation, 
extending from Cutch in rarious ramifications, but generally 
in s northerly direction. Hamgurh is in lat. 27° Ifi', long. 
7(f42f. 

BlHGURH, in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- 
goremorship of the North-West Prorinces, a village with a 
ixmgilow, or public reception-house, on the route from Almora 
to Bareilly, and 19 miles S.W. of the former. Water is scarce 
bere; supplies, however, are abundant, though Heber was 
Btmck by the general indigence of the population. “The 
bouses, people, children, and animals showed marks of poverty. 
Almost all the children were naked, and the grown persons, 
except their black blankets, had scarcely a rag to cover them. 
^ bouses were ranged in a line, with a row of still smaller 
buti opposite, which seemed to be for their cattle, though in 
England they might have passed for very poor pig-sties. The 
bouses indeed were little better, none of them high enough to 
Btand np in ; the largest not more than ten feet square, and the 
door, the only aperture, a square hole of about four feet every 
This place had formerly a fort, as the name indicates, 
but it has been allowed to fall to decay. Elevation above the 

4,872 feet. Lat. 29° 27', long. 79° 87'. 

BAMGUBRAH. — A town of Bundelcund, in the native 
■tite of Punnah, situate 48 miles S. by E. from the town of 
^ name, and 69 miles N.N.E. from Jubbulpoor. Lat. 24° 3', 
bmg. 80® 28'. 

BAMGUHTAL,^ in the British district of Gk>ruckpore, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a jhil or 
ibiQow lake* dose tO the cantonment of Goruckpore. At the 
dose of the rainy season it is about six miles long and three 
brotd, but even at that time is shallow and overgrown with 

283 


• Thornton, Brit. 
Bropiro In Indio, 
Ir. 200. 

Llojrd, Joum. to 
Hlmolnyo. I. 111. 
Prascr, Joum. to 
Hlmalajro, 10. 

* Garden, Tablet 
Routca, 170, 800. 
Bolleou, Toor 
through Rajwara, 
187. 

Tod, Annalt of 
Rajasthan, II. 8SO, 


B.I.e. Sfa. Doe. 
K.I.C. Trlgon. 
Sure. 

Hebar, Joum. In 
India, I. 480. 


E.I.e. Ms. Doe. 


* E.I.e. Ma. Doo. 


* Buchanan, 9ur- 
aey of Fn^trrn 
India, li. SOI. 


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* of 

MoH. KtiiJ PliJI, 

hi ao<1 — Ituttfir. 
an (hfr In 

0(tTuektx>r«Hi 

E.LC. Ml. Doc. 


1 E-l.C. Ml. Doi!. 


• (^ardpn, T:itjlea 

tff t8«l. 

■ Stirvfty, vol. Ill, 
Api'rrid. tO^ Mud 
tcil« SSdb 


E.I.C. Ml. Doc. 


E I.C. M* l>oc. 


> BJ.C. Ml. Doc. 


^ llcj'Orl; on Mod. 

uiid 

Slnttillcn of Kim-> 
rua, 

* Jaiim. Eojr- A«- 
Soc. No. V. 107 — 
AccDiiTil of (he 

Province of Ham* 
onil. 


BAM, 

weeds, and in the shoaler parts with aquatic trees. As the hot, 
dry season advances, the vegetation increases, and the water 
diminishes, and becomes dirty and crowded with reptiles and 
insects, the decaying remains of which, and of the vegets* 
tion, produce malaria.* During the rainy season, when the 
jhil and the contiguous river Baptee swell, ao as to coa^ 
municate, this malar ta is either mitigated or total! j euBpended. 
Lat. 26° 4^\ long. 83° 24^ 

BAMJUNBAH, — A town in the British district of Palamow, 
presidency of Bengal, 24 miles W. by S. of Palamow. lat 
23° 46^ long. 83° 4(y, 

BAMKOLA,^ in the British district of Qoruckpore, lieor 
tenaut'governorship of the North-West Provinces, a Btiudl 
town on the route from the cantonment of Goruckpore to 
Betiya, 28* miles E, of the former, 54 W. of the latter. 
Buchanan* styles it a market^town, yet elsewhere states that 
it does not deserve the name of town. It has, howeTer, a 
bazar, and supplies and water are abundant. Distant NW. 
from Dinapore 110 miles. Dat. 26° SO', long- 83° 66'* 

BAMMADHEBBT,^ — A town in the British district of 
Madura, presidency of Madras, 63 miles N. of Madura. JAt 
10° 41', long. 78° 12'. 

BAM MESS WUB. — A town in the British district of Pooree, 
presidency of Bengal, 28 miles N-W- by W- of Juggumiut. 
Dat. 20° 1', long, 85° 83^ 

BAMNAD,^ in the British district of Madura, presidencj 
of Madras, a town, the priDcipal place of an extensive Ecmla- 
darry or feudal estate of the same name, is situate five or bU 
miles from the seacoast of Palk*s Bay, and about a mile sod > 
half from the right bank of the river Yigai or Vtgaini. 
is about tw o miles * and a half in circumference, surrounded by 
a wall and a ditch, and defended by numerous small basttcoB, 
but the works are now in a ruinous condition, and the ditch 
nearly filled up* Though the streets are narrow* and iU 
trived, the houses are moderately well built. There are a few 
mosques, which, though not conspicuous, are by no meaiu 
inelegapt. The fort is contiguous to the town, on the west tf 
it, and between them runs a wide street, with two rows of 
bazars regularly built. The ground-plan of the fort is 
equil.iteral quadrangle, the sides of whicli respectively ficing 


"^OOOiC J 


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the cardinal points, are each half a mile in length, and consist 
of a single wall twentj-seven feet high and five feet thick, with- 
out rampart, but with loopholes,^ and surrounded bj a ditch. 
There are thirtj-two^ bastions and one gateway, which is on 
the east side. In the centre stands the palace or residence of 
the zemindar. This fort was built about two hundred years ago, 
by Moghava Ragunatha Setupatti, who at the same time con- 
structed the large reservoir or tank on the north side. Con- 
tiguous to the palace is a handsome residence, built by Colonel 
Martinez, who for nearly forty years commanded here, and near 
it a small but neat Protestant church, kept in good repair. The 
few principal streets, which are w'ithin the fort, are wide and 
airy. There are, however, several mean streets, with mud- 
built houses. The number of inhabitants within the fort is 
about 5,000, principally dependent on the zemindar. The only 
manufacturing industry worth notice in the town, is that of 
coarse cloths for native w'ear; any other business is trade in 
provisions and wares for the supply of the population. This 
place is garrisoned by a company of native troops. It is a hot 
station, but the evenings are usually cool, from the influence of 
the sea-breeze, and altogether it is a very healthy place. Dis- 
tance from Palamkotta, N.E., 87 miles; Madura, S.E., 60; 
Tanjore, S., 100 ; Madras, S.W., 275. Lat. 0® 24', long. 78° flO'. 

RAMNAGAR,* in the district of Aldemau, territory of 
Oude, a village on the route from Pertabgurh to Fyzabad, 
46 miles N. of the former, 18 S. of the latter. Butter^ 
estimates its population at 400, all Hindoos. Lat. 26° 24', 
long. 82° 66'. 

RAMNAGAR,^ in the British district of Cawnpore, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the cantonment of Cawnpore to that of Futteh- 
gurh, and 12^ miles N.W. of the former. The road in this part 
of the route is good in the dry season. Lat. 26° 35', long. 
80P 17'. 

RAMNAGHUR. — A town in the native state of Oude, 
situate on the right bank of the Gogra river, and 82 miles 
E.N.E. from Lucknow. Lat. 27° 3', long. 81° 28'. 

RAMNAGUR. — A town in the British district of Nuddea, 
presidency of Bengal, 96 miles N. of Calcutta. Lat. 23° 57', 
long. 88° 30'. 

2S3 


* Lord Vnr^ntla. 
Trmvflt, i. .T4S. 

* Account of Pro- 
vince, ut •upra. 


* E.I.C. Ms Dor. 


• To|»*»cr»phy of 
Oudh, 19d. 


I E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


* Garden, Tnblee 
of Route*, 120. 


B.I C. Ms. Doc. 

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* Rum««, BokU. 

I. 4S. 

Hough, Narr. 
Eap. In Aff . 8AS. 


* P. Von Hugel, 
Kaachmir, III. S49. 

K.I.C Ha. Doe. 


1 E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


■ Surrey of 
Kaatem India, 
II. 904. 


Garden, Tablet 
of Routea, 19. 


E.I.C. Ha Doe. 


E.I.C. Ha. Doe. 


I B.I.C. Ma. Doc. 

* Garden, Tablet 
of Routea, 103. 


RAM. 

BAMNEGHUR,^ or RAMNUGGUR, in the Panjsb, a 
walled town close to the left or east bank of the Chenaab, 
stands on a spacious plain, where, during the reign of Banjeet 
Singh, the Sikh troops frequently mustered for campaigiMto 
the westward. There is a ferry here across the Chenaob, 
which, at its lowest season, was found to be 300 yards wide, 
and for the most part nine feet deep, running at the rate of i 
mile and a half an hour. Two miles below the town there is, 
however, a ford, where the depth does not exceed tkrss feet 
when the water is low. This place was called Rasulnuggar, or 
“ Prophet’s Town,” until stormed in 1778 by Maha Singh, the 
father of Runjeet, when it received the present name,* signi^- 
ing the ** town of God.” Lat. 82® 20^, long. 73° 5Qf. 

RAMNUGGUR. — A town in the dominions of GoUb 
Singb, the ruler of Cashmere, 95 miles S.S.E. from Sirinagur, 
and 100 miles N. E. from Lahore. Lat. 82° 45', long. 
75° 25'. 

RAMNUGGUR,^ in the British district of Gomckpore, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a imall 
town near the south-eastern frontier, towards the BritiBh dis- 
trict of Sarun. According to Buchanan, it contains 200 houiM.^ 
Distant S.E. from Goruckpore cantonment 50 miles. Ltt 
26° lO', long. 84° 2'. 

RAMNUGGUR, in the British district of MinjK)orec, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village oo 
the route from the city of Agra to the cantonment of Mia* 
pooree, and 25 miles W. of the latter. The road in thii part 
of the route is laid under water to the depth of from one to 
three feet during the periodical rains in the latter part of 
summer, at other times it is tolerably good ; the country is flat 
and partially cnltivated. Lat. 27° 8', long. 78° 45'. 

RAMNUGGUR. — A town in the British district of Samn, 
presidency of Bengal, 80 miles N.N.W. of Bettiafa. Lat 
27° 9', long. 84° 23'. 

RAMNUGGUR. — A town in the native state of Bswih, 
situate on the left hank of the Sone river, and 28 miles S. £ros 
Rewah. Lat. 24° 10', long. 81° 20'. 

RAMNUGUR,t in the British district of Futtehpore, lieu- 
tenant-go vemorsb ip of the North-West Provinces, a town 
the right bank of the Ganges, 879 miles* from Calcutta by way 

aua 


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oftlie mer, and 71 milea bj water abore Allahabad ; 24 milea 
b)’lAod £. of the town of Futtehpore. Lat. 25 ° 55', long. 
81® 15'. 

RAMNUGUB,^ in the Britiah district of AJlahabad, lieu- 
tenint-goTerDorahip of the North-West Prorincee, a small 
tovn on the route, bj the Kutra Pass, from the cantonment 
of Allahabad to Bewa, and 26 miles^ 8.E. of the former. The 
rood to the north-west, or towards Allahabad, is much cut up 
by rannes, to the south-east It is good, and the country is well 
cultifated. Lat. 26 ° 15', long. 82° 11'. 

BAMNUGUB. — A town in the native state of Oude, 
situate on the right bank of the Gogra river, and 65 miles £. 
bom Locknow. Lat. 26° 47', long. 81° 53'. 

RAMNUGUB,^ in the British district of Benares, lieute- 
naot-gofernorsbip of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
nght bank of the Ganges, and at present the residence of the 
titular rajah of Benares. The fort in which the rajah resides is 
a huge pile* of building, rising directly from fine ghats or flights 
of stairs, giving access to the sacred^ stream. Bamnugur con- 
s population of 9,490 inhabitants,* and is distant N. W. 
of Gdcutta 673 miles* by water, or 850 taking the Sunderbund 
pwMge; four miles 8. of the city of Benares, or higher up 
the stream ; 425* from Calcutta by the new line of road. Lat. 
25" 16', long. 83° 6'. 

bamnugur, in the British district of Bareilly, lieute- 
ntnt-goTemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Shahjehanpoor to Pilleebheet, 40 miles N. of the 
former. Lat. 28° 28', long. 79° 58'. 

BAMOO. — A town in the British district of Chittagong, 
preaideocy of Bengal, 68 miles 8.8. £. of Chittagong. Lat. 
21® 24', long. 92° 13'. 

BAMOO dERAJ. — A town within the dominions of Gholab 
8iogh, the ruler of Cashmere, 17 miles 8. from Sirinagur, and 
75 miles N. from Jamoo. Lat. 33° 50', long. 74° 56'. 

BAMPOOR, in the British district of Sahar unpoor, lieu- 
loamt-governorship of Agra, presidency of Bengal, a town, the 

® Aeoordiog to Hamilton,' bnilt of atone. He also mentiona "two 
n^ooa atreete, croaaing each other st right aoglea, which compose the 
*xi«ttog town of Remoeghur.'* Daniell baa given a splendid view of the 
reaidenoe of the rajah, and also of a noble baoli^ or well. 

287 


I B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Onrdm, Tables 
of Routes, as. 


1 E.I.C. Ma Doe. 


’ Dartdsoo. 
TraveU In Up|>er 
India, II. 8. 

* Statbtics of 
If.W. Pros, lea 

* Garden, Tables 
of RouUa, 101, 
108. 

* Id. 170. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


B.I.C Mi. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ma Doc. 

Thornton, Settle* 
men! of Saharun* 
pore, 8U. 

I Oasetteer. 11.484. 

•Oiienul Scenery, 

Twenty-four 

view.,^nd. 1708 , realpatidar.com 

vol. I. No. ilv. ^ 

* Id. Twenty-four 
Views. Lend. 1801, 

No. SI. 


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E.I.C. Ms. Hoc. 


E.I.C. Mr I>oc. 


B.I.C. Mr l)<ic. 


E.I.C. Mi Doc. 
Oanlcn, 1*ablc« of 
Routca. M. 


I B.ix;. Mr Doc. 


* StatUtIca of 
N.W. Proa. 07. 

I E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


* Garden. Tables 
o' Routsa, lOI, 
lOS. 


* Oardsn, Tables 
of Routes, 4. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 
Tbnmton, Ssitls* 
msnt of SabaruD* 
pore, 09. 


* E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


KAM. 


priocipal place of the pergunnah of the same name, la in lat 
29® 48', long. 77® 31'. 

KAMPOOR. — A town in the British district of Milabsr, 
presidency of Madras, 71 miles E. by S. of Cannanore. Lat. 
11® 42', long. 76® 29'. 

RAMPOOR.~A town in the native state of Guaerat, or 
dominions of the Guicowar, 64 miles E. by N. from Baroda, 
and 112 miles E.S.E. from Ahmedabad. Lat. 22® 26', long. 
74® 12'. 


RAM POOR. — A town in the British district of Bellary, 
presidency of Madras, 63 miles N.E. by N. of Beilary. Lat 
16® 66', long. 77® 24'. 

KAMPOOR, in the British district of Bareilly, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on tbe 
route from the town of Bareilly to Seetapore, and 32 milet 
S.W. of the former. The road in this part of the route ia * 
good, the country open and partially cultivated. Lat. 28^ 15', 
long. 79® 67'. 

KAMPOOR,^ in the British district of Muttra, lieutenant- * 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the right . 
bank of the river Jumna, 23 miles N. of Muttra. Bampoor ; 
contains a population^ of 11,711 inhabitants. Lat. 27® 56f j 
long. 77® 38'. ! 

RAMPOOR,* in the British district of Miraapoor, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the left bank of the Ganges, 12 miles N.W., or higher up the 
stream, than the city of Mirsapoor; 738* N.W. of Calcutta by 
water, or 910 if the Sunderbund passage be taken. Lat. 26® 14', * 
long. 82® 30'. 

RAMPOOR, in the British district of Allygurb, lieutenant- ' 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the j 
route from the city of Agra to Bareilly, and 45 miles * N.B. of j 
the former. The road in this part of the route is good, the j 
country level and partially cultivated. Lat. 27® 43', long. 
78® 28'. 


RAMPOOR, in the British district of Suharunpoor, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town, the 
principal place of the pergunnah of the same name, is in lat 
29® 48', long. 77® 31'. realpatid< 

RAMPOOR,^ in the district of Salon, territory of Oude, 


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a town on the route from Cawnpore to Pertabgurh, 26 miles^ 
N.W. of the latter. Butter* estimates the population at 4,000, 
principally cultivators, 1,000 of the number being Mussulmans. 
The zemindar or proprietor resides in a fort, and has 1,000 
armed followers, to protect him from the oppression of the 
government. Lat. 25° 53', long. 81° 47'. 

RA]VlPOOR,^ in the district of Aldemau, territory of Oude, 
a town near the north-east frontier, towards the British district 
of Qoruckpore. A considerable quantity of sugar is made 
there. Butter^ estimates the population at 1,000, including 
800 Mussulmans. Lat. 26° 36', long. 82° 12'. 

BAMPOOR. — A town of Bussahir, in the division of 
Koonawar, situate on the left bank of the Sutlej river, and 
86 miles N.E. from Simla. Lat. 31° 27', long. 77° 41'. 

RAMPOOR. — A town of Baghelcund, in the native state of 
Rewah, situate on the left bank of the Sone river, and 20 miles 
S.E. from Rewah. Lat. 24° 19', long. 81° 33'. 

RAMPOOR. — A town in the native state of Oude, situate 
on the left bank of the Ghogra river, and 138 miles N.N.W. 
from Lucknow. Lat. 28° 46', long. 80° 23'. 

RAMPOOR. — A town in the recently lapsed territory of 
Nagpoor, 98 miles N.W. from Nagpoor, and 47 miles S.E. 
from Hoosungabad. Lat. 22° 18', long. 78° 17'. 

BAMPOOR. — A town in the native state of Oude, situate 
on the left bank of the Chowka river, and 40 miles N.E. by N. 
from Lucknow. Lat. 27° 20', long. 81° 22'. 

RAMPOOR. — A town in the native state of Nepal, situate 
on the right bank of the Gunduck or Salagra river, and 93 
miles W. from Khatmandoo. Lat. 27° 46', long. 83° 49'. 

RAMPOOR. — A town in the British district of Rajeshaye, 
presidency of Bengal, 125 miles N. of Calcutta. Lat. 24° 23', 
long. 88° 38'. 

RAMPOOR,^ within the British division of Rohilcund, an 
extensive fief or jaghire, is bounded on the west and north by 
the British district of Moradabad; on the north-east and 
south-east by the British district of Bareilly. It lies between 
lat. 28° fiCy— 29° 11', long. 78° 55'— 79° 30', and has an area of 
720 square miles. It is a level, fertile country, abundantly 
supplied with water in its northern division by the rivers 
Kosila and Nahul, both of which hold a course generally 
6 ^ ‘ 28 !) 


« Oard«n, Tabin 
of Route*, 189. 

* Topography of 
Oudh, 195. 

> B.I.C. Mt. Doe. 

• Topography of 
Oudh, 196. 

E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 

B.LC. Mt. Doc. 


E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


E.I.C. Mt. Doo. 

B.IX*. Mt. Doe. 

* E.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


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RAMPOOR. 


* Hfrbep. Jniimej 
In Indliv 464. 

■ Id. u| tuprpi« 

I. 4M. 

Jount. Al Soc. 
Brnff 164^4 vsitII. 
— tlt^rbert. 
nlnificnl tti‘]nirl 
at 

* U 406. 


* K-I.C. Ht.Ddc. 


* Trnvfilt tn Upper 
IndlAt 1- 


T B T.C- Mji. Ihic. 
af 

NoElrt Sture*. 


southerly, and nearly parallel to eacli other j the latter on 
an average about ten milea east of the former. The southern 
diYiaion is irrigated by the Batngunga, which, after receiving 
the waters of the Kosila^ traverses this quarter of the territory 
in a south-easterly direction. The northern part of the dis- 
trict adjoins the Tcrai, or tract of marshy forest which extends 
along the base of the mountains, and is much overrun with 
jungle, wood, and grass, of such luxuriafit^ growth as to be 
sufficient to coDceal a man on horseback. The air in conse- 
quence is dreadfully pestilential,^ except in the coldest part of 
winter and the time of the heaviest rains. The malaria acts 
very unfavourably on the population, who are described by 
lleber^ as “ a very ugly and miserable race of human beings, 
with large heads and particularly protninent ears, fiat noses, 
tumid bellies, slender limbs, and sallow complexions ; and have 
scarcely any garments but a blanket of black wool,’^ The 
general slope of the country is from north to south, as indicated 
by the descent of the rivers in that direction, as well as 
actual measurement ; Huddurpoor, on the northern frontier, 
in lat. 28° 58', having an elevation of 630® feet above the sea, 
whilst at the town of Kampoor, a few miles farther south, in 
lat. 28^ 48', the elevation is but 646 feet.® Davidson^ describes 
the country in the vicinity of the town of Kampoor as ex- 
ceedingly “ rich and beautiful. The eye wanders with delight 
over one continuous sheet of ripening corn, interspersed with 
groves of mango, clumps of bain boo, and little viHages/' 
The general thriving cultivation of the country bears favourable 
testimony to the iudustry and intelligence of the Patans, the 
principal occupants of the soil. The population has been com- 
puted at upwards of 320,000.^ The annual revenue is at 
present estimated at 100,0001, The nawaub maintains a 

military force of 500 cavalry and 1,447 infantry. 

This territoiy was possessed by Fyzoola Khau, a chieftain 
who gave considerable trouble both to the Vizier and the 
British government, during the administratiou of the latter by 
Warren Hastings. On the death of that personage in 1794, 
the pretensions of his eldest son and lawful successor were 
opposed by a younger brother, w-ho raised a rebellion, made 
prisoner the rightful heir, and subsequently murdered 
British force under Sir Boberfc Abercrombie defeated that of 



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the usurper ; an event followed hy the depoeal of the latter, 
and the grant of a jaghire to the infant son of the murdered 
ehieftain. On the death of the late chief,® in 1840, without 
direct male heirs, the right of a daughter to the succession 
was discussed and rejected m favour of the next male claimant, 
Mahomed Saeed Khan, who had served the British government 
in the important office of deputy^collector of Budaon,® Some 
disturbances took place previouslj to the final arrangement of 
the succession, in which the minister of the deceased chieftain 
and some of bis dependants and followers were murdered^ 
Their families were provided for by the new ruler, who, 
according to report, exercises his authority mildly and 
judiciously.^ 

RAMPOOB.' — The principal place of the jaghire of the same 
name. It is situate on the left bank of the Kosila, here 450® 
yards wide, and from two feet to two and a half deep from 
Hecember to June, for which time it is fordable, but must 
during the rainy season be crossed by ferry. It is a large 
town, densely peopled, irregularly built of mud, and surrounded 
by a thin belt of bamboos,® trees, and brushwood ; at the 
back of which there is a low ruined parapet, the only entrances 
being by narrow ways, defended* by strong wooden barriers. 
The upper order of inhabitants are for the most part Rohilla 
Patans, a handsome indolent race. The choulc or market'ploce 
is decorated by a lofty mosque.* A little north of the town is 
the tomb of Pyzoola Khan, raised on a terrace of masonry, and 
shaded by trees. Rampoor is 546 feet above the sea. Distant 
N.W. from Calcutta 789 miles. Lat. 28° 48', long. 79° 5'. 

RAMPOOR,^ the capital of Bussahir, is situate on the left 
bank of the Sutluj, over the bed of which its site is elevated 
188® feet. Fraser,® who approached it from the south-east, by 
ascending along the left bank of the Sutluj, describee the way 
as very rugged. The town is situate at the western base of a 
lofty and nearly perpendicular mountain, which, on the east, 
stretches to the outer range of the Himalaya. The cliff 
surrounds the town in the form of a funnel, which confines the 

* HAmiltoQ * aUkiea, Duritig tlie lifetime of Fjroola Khsu, Rampoor 
was Y&rj pronperotaa, &nd at liis death compreheoded a apace four mtlea 
in circamferenoe, aurrouuded hj a thick bamboo hedge, within which were 
mud fortificattooB, and contained above 100,000 iDbabitaTiiB/^ 

IT 2 


• 1 >« CrtiJi, Pot. 
R€laUi]ni, S-7« 
Mundj, Sleetche* 
In IndlB, 11. IV. 


* India Pol. 
l>ec. 1S40. 


■ Id. I Feb. 1843- 

* E.I.C. Mf . rioe^ 
Fatvlar, Jaum. 
Benf. end. I- ilS. 
» Oanl#ii, Tablet 
or Reulet, 80. 


* Dttlcfiori, 
Trarelt tn North- 
ern India, I. es. 

^ Hrber, Tf«vcl> 
In India, t. 330. 


* E.LC. Trtgon. 
Surr. 

E 10. Mm. Dchl 

* Gerard, Koona- 
wur, Teble Lil. 

No. 148. at end 
of vol. 

’ Tourt in Hima- 
laya, 2&3. 


* Description of 

Hindoiian, 1. 449 )atidar.com 



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* Llofd 

Tour* In 
lllmjiluja. It. 

A*. Km. IV. 4i>‘i 
— Harbcri. on tha 
Lavaii of Ibo 
8atl^. 

* Lloyd and 
Oarard, IL 30«. 


• Id. 11. S0«. 
E.T.C. Ms. I>oc. 


E.I.C. Ms. IkM*. 


< E.I.C. Ms. l>oc. 


RAM. 

air ; and in the hot season the rocks radiate the heat in eucb 
a manner as then to render the climate nearly insupportable. 
The climate in winter, on the contrary, is represented as cold* 
and damp, so that the thermometer is frequently lower than at 
Kotgurh, which is 3,500 feet more eleyated. The expanse on 
which the town is built is rugged, so that the streets and 
houses rise in tiers one above another. Some of the houses 
are well built of stone, commonly two* stories high, and 
covered with slate, which is thick, of a blue colour, and laid on 
with considerable neatness. The palace of the rajah, situate at 
the north-east corner of the town, is a collection of buildings, 
some of three, some of four stories high, covered with Tery 
large oblong slates, laid on curved roofs, having the concaritj 
outwards, in the Chinese style. They have wooden balconie^ 
ornamented with neat carvings. The Dewan Khana, or bail 
of audience, has the remains of grandeur, being spacious and 
ornamented with carving and fresco, much defaced by tbe 
Gorkhas when they held this town. There is another residence 
usually occupied by the inferior branches of tbe ruling family. 
Both the palaces are built of stone, uncemented, but bonded by 
means of numerous beams of larch. The town, previously to 
the havoc made by the Gorkhas, was larger than at present, 
having from 300 to 400 houses, and a large baaar, filled with 
the wares of Hindostan, the Himalayan regions, and of Tartsrr. 
It has begun to recover since it has been taken under Brithb 
protection. The rajah of Bussahir resides here during winter, 
retiring from the heat in the summer months to the more 
elevated station of Saharun. The elevation of Rampoor abore 
the sea is 3,300 feet.* Lat. 31° 27', long. 77° 40'. 

RAMPOOR SHAHPOOR, in the British district of 
Allygurh, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Pro- 
vinces, a village on the route from Meerut to Muttra, and 44 
miles N.E. of the latter. The road in this part of the route b 
good ; the country open, with a sandy soil, partially cultivated. 
Lat. 28° 3', long. 77° 55'. 

RAMPOORA. — A town in the native state of Indoic, or 
territory of Holkar, 34 miles E. firora Neemuch, and 124 milo^ 
N. by W. from Indore. Lat. 24° 26', long. 75° 26'. . 

RAMPOORA,* in the British district of Cawnpore, 

tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 

2!« 


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the route from the cantonment of Etawa to that of Cawnpore, 
and 45^ miles W. of the latter. The road in this part of the 
route is rather good, the country cultivated. Lat. 26^ 21', 
long. 79° 46'. 

BAMPOOBA,^ in Bajpootana, a town, the principal place 
of a pergunnah, part of the possessions^ held by the noted 
Patan freebooter Muhammad Ameer Khan. It is surrounded 
by a rampart of great strength, being in some places forty^ 
feet in thickness, and where weakest twenty feet. It was on 
the 15th May, 1804, taken by storm by a British force com- 
manded by Colonel Don. The storming party rushed forward, 
provided with a twelve-pounder,^ and with it blew open three 
gates, which in succession lay on the way into the fort. Of 
the enemy’s garrison, above 1,000 strong, forty or fifty were 
killed ; the number of wounded was very great, and about 400 
attempting to fly, were cut up by the British cavalry in the 
adjoining plain. It was subsequently, by the declaratory 
article of the treaty of 1805,* restored by the British govern- 
ment to Holkar, and in 1818, when the battle of Mahidpore 
had placed Holkar’s dominions at the disposal of the British 
government, Bampoora was* added as a free gift to the pos- 
sessions which had been guaranteed in the previous year to 
Ameer Khan. The area of the territory is 152 square miles. 
Its separate revenue is not known, but with that of Tonk it 
amounts to 2,00,000 rupees. The estimate of its population is 
included in that of the whole of the possessions of Ameer 
Khan, for which see Tonk. The town is distant 8. from 
Jeypore 70 miles, S.E. from Nusserabad 90, W. from Agra 
145. Lat. 25° 58', long. 76° 14'. 

BAMPOOKA,^ in the territory of Indor, or possessions of 
Holkar’s family, a town on the route* from Neemuch to Kota, 
formerly the capital and residence* of the court, before the 
selection of the town of Indor. It is situate a mile from 
the north bank of the river Taloyi,* at the base of a ridge 
of hills. It is of considerable size, surrounded by a wall, and 
has a good bazar. North-east of the town is a Hindoo temple, 
a place of pilgrimage in the month of April. Here, in January, 
1818, Boshun Beg,* in command of a body of infantry with 
sixteen guns, the relics of the force defeated at Mehidpoor, 
^ According to Garden, Toolsee. 

299 


• Oard«ii. Tablet 
of Route*, 180. 


■ B.I.C. Me. Doc. 

• Prlneep, Preface 
to Tranelalloo of 
Mem. of Ameer 
Khan by Buaawun 
Lai, p.lll. 

* Appendix to 
Notea on Trane- 
acta. In the Mah- 
ralta Bmplra, 101. 

< Thom. War In 
India, 841. 


* Traalie* with 
Native Power*, 
Calcutta, 1848, 
L 010. 

* Traatlea, ut 
aupra, 040. 


I E.I.C. M*. Doe. 


* Oarden, Table* 
of Route*, 980. 

* Malcolm. Index 
to Map of Malwa, 
971. 


^ Blacker. Mem. 
of Operailooa of 
Rfiileb Army in, , 

India, too. ealpatidar.com 


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BAM. 


* Danfrrfleld. 
T»bl« of RUva- 
tloM. In Malcolm’s 
Cantiml India* 

U. S40. 

E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


OardsD, Tables of 
Routes, 87. 


> E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


* tftatlsllcs of 
N.W. Pror. 00. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


> E.I C. Ms. Doc. 


* Garden, Tables 
of Routes, 809. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


attempted to make head against the British arms, but was 
immediatelj defeated, and his troops dispersed. Bampoora 
has annexed to it several pergiinnahs, containing 500 villages, 
and yielding an annual revenue of 8,75,000 rupees. Elevation 
above the sea 1,360^ feet. Distance N. from Indor 120 miles, 
from Oojein 95. Lat. 24® 28', long. 75® 25'. 

BAMPOORA. — A town in the native state of Gwalior, or 
territory of Scindia’s family, 123 miles S. W. by S. from Gwalior, 
and 120 miles N.W. by W. from Saugur. Lat. 24® 45', long. 

77® 11'. 

BAMPOOBEA, in the British district of Bareilly, division 
of Pilibit, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Pro- 
vinces, a village on the route from Bareilly to Petoragurh, and 
37 miles N.E. of the former. The road in this part of the 
route is bad ; the country low, level, fertile, an4 well cultivated. 

Lat. 28® 41', long. 79® 52'. 

BAMPOOBEE,* in the British district of Bijnour, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town five 
miles S.E. from Nujeebabad : it contains a population of 8,207^ 
inhabitants. Lat. 29® 34', long. 78® 29'. 

BAMPORA, in the territory of Gwalior, a town five miles 
south of the confluenoe of the Sindh with the Jumna. Lat. 

26® 22', long. 79® 6'. 

BAMPOBE,^ in the British district of Jounpoor, a town on 
the route from Jounpoor cantonment to that of Mirzapoor, 

21^ miles S. of the former, 22 N. of the latter. Supplies and 
water are abundant and good here, and the road in this part of 
the route is good. Lat. 25® 29', long. 82® 88'. 

BAMPOBE — A town in the British district of Tipperah, 
presidency of Bengal, 52 miles N. of Tipperah. Lat. 24® 13', 
long. 91® icy. 

BAMBEE. — A town in the British district of Arracan, 
presidency of Bengal, it is situate on the island of Bamree, 

31 miles S.E. of Kyouk Phyou. The island is separated from 
the mainland of Arracan by a narrow but deep channel. Its 
length is about fifty miles from north to south, and its extreme 
breadth twenty. After the occupation of Arracan in 1825, a 
British detachment was sent against Bamree, which, upon 
approaching, they found to be evacuated ; possession of it wastidar.com 
accordingly taken on the 22nd April, and since that period it 


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RAM. 


bu continaed under the government of the East- India Com- 
psnj. Lat. of town 19° 5', long. 93° 54'. 

&AMBYE, one of the Cossja hill states, bounded on the 
north by the British district of Camroop ; on the south-east by 
the native states of Muriow and Nustung; and on the west by 
the territory occupied by the Garrow hill tribes. It is about 
forty miles in length from north to south, and twelve in breadth, 
iod contains an area of 328 square^ miles. Its centre is in lat. ' Indian 8uti»- 
25° 35', long. 91® 18'. *'“■ 

RAMSAHGAON. — A town in the British district of Now- e.i.c. m«.i>oc. 
gong, in Upper Assam, presidency of Bengal, 46 miles S.E. by 
£. of Nowgong. Ijat. 25° 59', long. 93° 22'. 

BulMSURRA, in the British district of Bhutteeana, lieu- £.i.c. ii». Doe. 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Hissar to Mooltan, 74 miles W. by N. of the 
former. Lat. 29° 23', long. 74° 88'. 

RAMTEAK,^ in the territory of Nagpore, on the route > e.i.o. m*. doc. 
from Saugor to Nagpore, 24* miles N.E. of the latter, a town * Oardeo. Tawat 
on an elevated ground, the geological formation of which is ^ *^'*“*^ 
primitive,^ being either granite or gneiss. East of the town is * a*. r««. xviii. 

• tteep peaked hill, on the summit of which, about 500 feet 

ihove the circumjacent plain, is a group of Brahminicol temples, 

loeeas to which from below “ is by a broad^ steep flight of « id. ariii. 200 — 

well-laid gneiss steps, with resting-places and seats at intervals. 

The whole is of the best construction, and promises to last as 
long as the hill itself.” East, south, and west, the view is 
extenBive over the plain of Nagpoor, varied with villages, tanks, 
tod mango-groves ; and to the north the view is over a valley 
of similar character, about two miles in width ; beyond which 
ntends the first range of hills, covered with jungle, and in the 
dutance rising in gradations to the great Vindbya range. The 
principal temple and accompanying buildings are dedicated to 
Bama, whose votaries make a grand jatra or pilgrimage^ thither * Jenkins, Report 
annually, commencing on the full moon of the lunar month °“ Nngpore, as. 
Rartik, and lasting ten days. It is frequented by persons 
horn all parts of the Nagpoor territory, and from such portions 
of that of the Nizam as lie north of the Godavery ; and it is 
computed 100,000 persons then resort to it. In the valley 


Qorth of the temples is a large fine tank, round which are 
Beveral small handsome edifices, dedicated to religious purposes, 


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RAM— RAN. 


E.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


• B.I.C. M*. Doe. 
B.I.C. Trlfoo. 
Burr. 

* Skinner, Bicur- 
•lona In India, 

1. 889. 


* Jacquemont, 
Yojage, ir. 78. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


> E.l.C. Ma. Doe. 


* Voyagea, HI. 878. 


and communicating with the group on the top of the hill bj a 
noble, easy, and loRy flight of steps formed of gneiss. Lat. 
21° 24', long. 79° 22'. 

RAMUREDDYPET. — A town in the native state of 
Hyderabad, or territory of the Nizam, 76 miles N. from 
Hyderabad, and 174 miles E.N.E. from Sholapoor. Lat. 
18° 27', long. 78° 25'. 

RANA,^ in Gurhwal, a village on the lefl bank of the 
Jumna, consists of about twenty houses, neatly built of stone,* 
and roofed with shingles. The sides of the hills sloping to the 
river are fertile, producing grain and potatoes, the culture of 
which latter has been recently introduced into this part of the 
Himalayan regions. Elevation above the sea 7,084* feet. 
Lat. 30° 65', long. 78° 26'. 

RANAUSUN. — A town in the province of Guzerat, or 
dominions of the Guicowar, 87 miles S.E. from Deesa, and 48 
miles N.E. from Ahmedabad. Lat. 23° 28', long. 73° 9'. 

RANEEBULA, in the British district of Bhuttiana, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Hansee to Bhutnair, and 28 miles E. of the 
latter. The surrounding country is sandy and barren, and the 
road in this part of the route heavy and bad. Lat. 29° 82^, 
long. 74° 49'. 

RANEE GODOWN. — A town in the British district of 
Camroop, in Lower Assam, presidency of Bengal, 14 miles 
S.W. of Gowhatty. Lat. 26°, long. 91° 35'. 

RANEEGUNGE,^ • in the British district of Bancoora,, 
presidency of Bengal, a town four miles to the left or S.W. 
of the route from Calcutta to Benares, 126 miles N.W. of 
former, 295 S.E. of latter. It is situate on the river Damoo- 
dah, amidst the rich coal-measures generally known as the 
Burdwan Collieries. The geological formation, according to 
Jacquemont,* is — 1. Superficial stratified sandstone, effervesc- 
ing, and about thirty feet thick ; 2. sandstone, scarcely effer- 
vescing but very hard, and about a yard thick ; 3. argillaceous 
schist, containing marks of vegetables ; 4. workable coal, at 


• Joiirn. A*. Soe. 
Uonff. 1848, p. 788 
— Homfniy, on 
Comi-fleld of Da- 
moodah. 


♦ Raneegunge, PriDcesa Town ; from Kanee, " princess/' and Gunge, 
"market.” "The popular name* of Raneegunge is derived from the 
proprietary rights of one of the collieries having been vested in tbe lalsLiddr.COm 
ranee of Burdwan.” 

200 


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tbe depth of seventy-five feet, and ten feet thick) Ik bard 
micaceous schist, four inches thick; 6. coal, eight inches.thick, 
not worked ; 7. schist, marked with vegetable productions, and 
four inches thick ; 8. coal, a foot thick, loaded with pyrites, 
and not worked ; 9. argillaceous ironstone ; 10. gneiss, alter- 
nating with mica-schist. Ten years later, the state of the coal- 
measures is thus described by an operative miner “ These 
collieries have their pits sunk down to the main vein of.coal, 
generally to a depth of ninety feet, the vein, varying from 
seven and a half to eight and a half feet in thickness..” This 
vein of coal is perceptible for seven or eight miles up this 
nullah.” That the district is rich in coal and iron mines, is 
universally admitted. Some difference of opinion exists on 
the point whether the latter could be worked at a profit ; but 
the construction of a branch from the Calcutta Railway, 
diverging in the vicinity of Burdwan, and extending to this 
town, has been sanctioned ; and upon its completion, the con- 
ditions under which the manufacture of iron could now be 
undertaken must be materially altered.'* Distant N. from the 
civil station at Bancoora 25 miles ; from Calcutta, N.W., by 
line of railroad, 120. Lat. 28® 85', long. 87® 10'. 

RANEEPOOR, in the British district of Azimgurh, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Azimgurh to Ghazeepoor, 17 miles E.S.E. of 
the former. Lat. 25® 53', long. 8.3® 29'. 

RANEE SERAE,^ in the British district of Azimgurh, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the town of Azimgurh to that of Jounpore, 
eight* miles S.W. of the former, 34 N.E. of the latter, 50 N. 
of Benares. Lat. 26®, long. 83® 7'. 

RANEESUNKER. — A town in the British district of 
Dinajepore, presidency of Bengal, 30 miles N.W. of Dinaje- 
pore. Lat. 25® 50', long. 88® 17'. 

RANEBUU,^ in tbe British district of Bhuttiana, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
the route from Hansee to Bhutnair, and 36 miles E. of the 
latter. It is situate in a country of great natural fertility, but 
generally unproductive, from want of water, the river Gagur or 
Cuggur, which formerly inundated it, being so much exhausted 
by embankments and channels for irrigation higher up, in the 

297 


* Homfraj. of 
•upra, 7SS. 


* Journ. At. Soe. 
Bcnf . 1853. p. 480. 


ELI.C. Mt. Doc. 


> B.I.C. Mt.Doc. 


* Otrdtn, Tablet 
of Routet. 37. 


F..1.C. Mt. Doc. 


* Otrden. Tablet 
of RouU*t, 103. 
Frtncklln, Mem. 
of Tbomat, 104. 


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BAN. 


poBsessionB of the protected Sikhs, that the stream is, in ordi- 
narj seasons, lost before reaching Haneeuh. When those 
embankments have been cut, and the stream allowed to flow 
• journ. At. Soc. to Banecuh, luxuriant crops of rery fine wheat ^ hare been 
— coitta!*oo**ib^ produced in great abundance. The town has a tolerably well- 
AacitDt Canals suppUed bazsT and sufficiency of water. The road to the 
ritoiT. eastward is very good, though, lying for some distance m the 

bed of the Gagur, it is liable to be overflowed in the event of 
extraordinary inundations, when the stream reaches this part 
of the country. To the west, the road is generally good, though 
sandy in some places. Lat. 29^ 82', long. 74^ 53'. 

S.I.C. Mi. Doo. RANEH BEDNOBE. — A town in the British district of 
Dharwar, presidency of Bombay, 72 miles 8.E. by S. of 
Dharwar. Lat. 14® 87', long. 75® 41'. 

BANGAMUTTEE. — A town in the British district of 


B I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Allan's Indian 
Mall, a. 129; aL 
1M. 


* CaleotU Re- 
view, avUl. 929. 


Chittagong, presidency of Bengal. It is situate on the right 
bank of the Kurrumfoolee river, 44 miles E.N.E. from Chitta- 
gong. Lat. 22® 40', long. 92® 30'. 

BANGNA. — A town in the native state of Sawuntwarree, 
presidency of Bombay, situate 12 miles N.W. from Sawunt- 
warree, and 49 miles W.N.W. from Belgaum. Lat. 16® 8', 
long. 73® 53'. 

RANGOON.^ — A town in the recently acquired British 
province of Pegu, situate on the g^reat eastern branch of the 
Irrawaddy known as the Rangoon river. The town was 
originally built in 1758, by Alompra, the founder of the 
Burmese monarchy, who named it Rangoon, or the ** City of 
Victory,” in reference to his conquest of Pegu. When occu- 
pied by the British during the first Burmese war, in 1824, it 
was built in the form of a parallelogram, extending along the 
river’s bank, about twenty-five miles from the sea, the houses, 
with the exception of some public buildings, being of wood and 
bamboo, raised on piles, and thatched. It was entirely destroyed 
by fire in 1850, when upwards of 2,000 houses were reduced to 
ashes. The site of the new town by which it was succeeded 
was thrown back^ from the original position on the river bank 
to a distance of about a mile ; its ground-plan was that of a 
square of about three-quarters of a mile, having at its northern 
side a pagoda as a citadel, which was an artificial mound, tidar.com 
ascending in ledges, with terraces, and tapering towards the 

398 


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top. This stronghold was stormed bj Qoneral Gk>dwin during 
the second Burmese war, in April, 1852 ; and the capture of the 
psgoda was the fall of Bangoon : the town sufifered severelj by 
fire from the shipping. In 1853 it was visited by another 
feuful conflagration ; many of the public buildings were de- 
strojed, and the houses, being constructed of hollow bamboo 
and thatched, offered little resistance to the progress of the Are. 
In the arrangements for rebuilding the town, conditions have 
been prescribed by the British government not only for insur- 
ing its protection against conflagration, but also for securing its 
cktnliness, by proper drainage and other sanitary precautions.* 
Distant from Pegu, S., 62 miles. L»at. 16° 46', long. 96° 17'. 

BANGOU'TTRE. — A town of Bengal, situate in the native 
state of Tipperah, 40 miles S. by £. from Silhet, and 80 miles 
N.E by N. from Tipperah. Lat. 24° 20^, long. 92°. 

BANIGAT, in the Peshawar division of the Punjab, a town 
situated 15 miles from the right bank of the Indus, 53 miles 
N.E. by E. of the town of Peshawar. Lat. 34° 20', long. 72° 30'. 

BAXIGHAT, in the British district of N uddea, presidency 
of Bengal, a town 44 miles N. by £. from Calcutta. It is said 
to be the abode of many rich zemindars.^ Lat. 23° 11', long. 
88^33'. 

BANIWALA, in the British district of Moradabad, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Allyghur to Moradabad, and 50 miles N.£. of 
the former. Water is abundant, but supplies must be col- 
lected from the neighbouring villages. The road in this part 
of the route is bad ; the country low, level, and partially cul- 
tiTited. Lat. 28° 30', long. 78° 29'. 

BANJITPUBA,* in the district of Bainswara, territory of 
Ottde, a town 22 miles £. of Cawnpore, 30 S.W. of Lucknow. 
It Boay be considered the capital of the district, and formerly 
was scarcely inferior* to Lucknow. Here is a mud-built fort, 
mounting twelve pieces of artUlery, and held by a foujdar or 
commandant of police. There are many old market-places of 
masonry, and substantial new houses : cutlery is the only 
manufacture. Lat. 26° 80', long. 80° 40'. 

BANJUNGAUM. — A town in the British district of 
Ahmednugg^, presidency of Bombay, 17 miles S.W. by S. of 
Ahmednuggur. Lat. 18° 53', long. 74° 37'. 

299 


* Friend of India, 
ISAS, p.370. 

E.I.C. M*. Doo. 


B.Z.C. Me. Doe. 


* CnleutU Rot. 
tI. 414. 

Garden. Tables of 
Routes, 48. 


I £.1.0. Ua. Doe. 


* Butter. Topoa. 
of Oudh. ISA. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 

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RAN— RAP. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


* E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


* Garden, Tablet 
of Route*, lia. 

* Reniral and 
Aara Guide, 1843, 
vol. II. part I. 409. 


* India Pub. DItp. 
7 Nov. 1840. 
E.I.C. Mt Doc. 
E.I.C. Trifon. 
8urv. 


E.I.C. M*. Doe. 


B.I.C. Me. Doe. 


E.I.C. lit. Doc. 


I R.I.C. Mt. Doe. 
* At. Re*. III. 409 
— Wllford, on 
Efrypt and tba 
Nile. 

Buchanan, Sur- 
vey of Eastern 
India, II. 900. 


RANK A. — A town in the British district of Palamow, pre- 
sidency of Bengal, 26 miles N.W. by W. of Palamow. Lat. 

2', long. 83^ 42'. 

RANMUTSII. — A town in the native state of Nepal, 
situate on the right bank of a branch of the Kumalli river, 
and 16 miles E.N.E. from Jemlah. Lat. 29^ 22', long. 81^ 66'. 

RANNEE CHOKEE. — See Buitkeb Chokse. 

RANOD,* in the territory of Gwalior, or possessions of 
Scindia’s family, a town three miles to the right or N. of the 
route from Calpee to Qoona cantonment, 155 miles^ S.W. of 
former, 60 N.E. of latter. It is represented® to be “ a large 
town, with a great trade in grain.” Measures were taken by 
the British government in 1847 for exploring the antiquities 
of the town.^ Lat. 25°, long. 77° 53'. 

RANSEE, in the British district of Kumaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a secluded village 
two or three miles to the right of the route from Sireenuggur 
to the Temple of Kedamath, and 15 miles S. of the latter. It 
is situate about a mile from the right bank of the river Mud- 
mesur. Lat. 30° 34', long. 79° 10'. 

RANSKANDY. — A town of Eastern India, in the British 
district of Southern Cachar, presidency of Bengal, 10 miles E. 
of Silchar. Lat. 24° 47', long. 93°. 

RAOLDEE. — A village in the jaghire of Jujhur, district of 
Dadree, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces. 

Lat. 28° 36', long. 76° 21'. 

RAOMAKA BAZAR. — A town in the British district of 
Hydrabad, province of Scinde, presidency of Bombay, 88 miles 
S.E. by S. of Hydrabad. Lat. 24° 20', long. 69° 14'. 

RAOTSIR — A town in the Rajpoot state of Beekaneer, 

115 miles N.E. from Beekaneer, and 81 miles W. by N. from 
Hissar. Lat. 29° 18', long. 74° 30'. 

RAPTEE,^ called also AIRAWATI,® after the white 
elephant of the god Indra, a considerable river, rising in 
Nepaul. It does not issue from the main range of the Hima- 
laya, covered with perpetual snow, but takes its rise in the 
Sub-Himalayas, in lat. 29° 10', long. 82° 45' ; whence flowing 
first in a southerly direction for forty miles, and then north- 
westerly for fifty-five miles, it enters the plains of Oude, inilp3ticlar.com 
lat. 28° 3', long. 81° 55', which it traverses in a south-easterly 

900 


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RAPl'EE. 


direction for ninety miles, and in lat. 27® 17', long. 82® 82', 
forms for about twenty miles the western boundary of the 
British district of Qoruckpoor, which it then enters, and con- 
tinuing a south-easterly and tortuous course for seventy miles, 
it receives, on the left side, the Dhuraela or Burba Bapti, 
draining an extensive tract extending southwards from the Sub- 
Himalaya. Below this junction, the Bapti turns southward 
for the distance of thirty miles, communicating in this part of 
its course with the Moti jhil, called also the Lake of Bakhira, 
and thence turns westward for ten miles, to the town of 
Ooruckpoor. From this place it continues its course, in a 
circuitous but generally south-easterly direction, for eighty-five 
miles, to its junction with the Qhoghra, on the left side of the 
latter, in lat. 26® 13', long. 88® 46' ; its total length of course 
being, from its remotest source, 400 miles, for eighty-five of 
which downward from the town of Qoruckpoor it is navigable® 
for large boats, and for those of smaller size a considerable 
distance higher. In its course through the district of Goruck- 
poor, it receives numerous streams right and left, and by lateral 
channels communicates with several of the numerous water- 
courses^ and lakes or marshes found in this level, alluvial 
country. At the town of Gk>ruckpoor it is crossed by the 
route® from that place to Lucknow, the passage being made by ' 
ferry. The channel is there 200 yards® wide, and at all seasons 
contains deep water. About ten miles below the town, it is 
crossed, at the Bhowapoor ghat, by the route from Ghazeepoor 
to Qoruckpoor cantonment, the passage being made by ferry ^ 
during the dry season, but the route being scarcely practicable 
during the rains, in consequence of the extent to which the 
country is overflowed. 

BAPTEB^ (BUBHA).^ — A considerable feeder of the Bap- 
tee. Its sources are in the Sub-Himalaya, in the territory of 
Oude, and about lat. 27® 84', long. 82® Ky. Flowing for forty-five 
miles through the territory of Oude, it touches the frontier of 
the British district of Qoruckpoor in lat. 27® 22', long. 82® 38', 
and holding an easterly direction for nineteen miles, forms 
the boundary® between the two territories. At the point of 

* Burha, **old** — Old Haptee. The tradition among the natives asserts 
that this was once a channel of the gfreat Raptee, though having now 
no oommonication with it, except at the confluence. 

•Ml 


* Buchanan, ut 
Bupra. II. S00,SI9. 
Prln<«ep. Steam 
NaTlimtion in 
BritUh India, 48. 


* Buchanan, 

II. 391. 

* Garden, Tablea 
of Routea, 187. 

* niiclianNii, ui 
aupra, 319. 


“f Garden, 178. 


« E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* Buchanan, Sur- 
vey of Eastern 
India, II. 800. 

Trigonometrical 

"''atidar.com 


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* BuchanAB, 
11. 911. 


* Id. 310. 


> Gerard. Koona* 
Wiir, 234. 

* Jacquemoni, 

It. 237. 

Joiim Aa. Soc. 
iSrnr. 1830. p. 926 

— Hutton, Trip 
throiiffh Kunawur. 
Aa. Rea. it. 308 

— Herbert, I.^Telf 
of the SetleJ. 

E.I.C. Ma.Doe. 


E l C. M4. Doc. 


E.I.e. Ma. Doc. 


its entrance into the British territory, it receives on the left 

side the Arra, a stream descending from the Sub-Himalayas. | 

Eighteen miles below this confluence, at the ruined town of 

Sanauli, the Burha Raptee becomes navigable in the rainy 

season, and a good deal of timber* is then sent down it. 

Eifteen miles below this place, and in lat. 27° 13', long. 83° 1', 
it receives on the left side the Bangunga ; and from the con- 
fluence downwards is often known by the name of that stream, 
which is considered to have the larger volume of water. 
Twenty-two miles farther, the Burha Raptee receives on the 
left side the Dhumela, which thenceforward gives its name to 
the united stream. Buchanan observes, “The channel im- 
mediately below the junction is about 100 yards wide, and in 
January (dry season) contains a pretty considerable stream, 
although it is fordable ; but oxen cannot pass with loads, and a 
ferry is therefore employed to transport the goods. Timber 
comes down both the Burha Raptee and Bangunga.’*^ Twelve 
miles below the last-named junction, the united stream is joined, 
on the left side by the Ghoongee, and three miles lower down is 
discharged into the Raptee, on its left side, in lat. 26° 58*, 
long. 83° 17'. The length of course to this point is about 134 
miles, in a direction generally from north-west to south-east. 

RAlRUNG, in Bussahir, a village of the district of Koona- 
war, is situate near the right bank of the Sutluj, on the 
southern side of a mountain of mica-slate,’ characterized by j 

dreary barrenness,* and producing little but a few stunted 
pines. It contains about twenty families, votaries of a mongrel 
belief, between Buddhism and Hindooism, but more inclined 
to the former. Elevation above the sea 9,619 feet. Lat. 

31° 36', long. 78° 24'. 

RA8EEN. — A town in the British district of Ahmednuggur, 
presidency of Bombay, 46 miles 8.S.E. of Ahmednuggur. 

Lat. 18° 29', long. 74° 68'. 

RASHMEE. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Oodeypoor, 

52. mfles N.E. from Oodeypoor, and 103 miles 8. by W. from 
Ajmeer. Lat. 26° 2', long. 74° 27'. 

RASOORY. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or 
territory of the Nizam, situate eight miles from the left bank 
of the Payne Gunga river, and 108 miles 8.E. by 8. from 
Ellichpoor. Lat. 19° 59', long. 78° 36'. 

SOi 


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BASTJLPOOB,* in tbe British district of Cawnpore, lieu- 
tenant-goyernorship of the North-West Proyinoes, a yillage 
on the route from the cantonment of Futtehgurh to that of 
Cawnpore, and 80 miles^ N.W. of the latter. The road in this 
part of the route is indifferent. Liat. 28° 47', long. 80° O'. 

BASUNWAS. — A yillage in the jagheer of Jujhur, district 
of Dadree, lieutenant-goyemorship of the North-West Pro- 
vinces. L»at. 28° 86', long. 76° 13'. 

BATGUBH, in the British district of Saugur, territory of 
Saugor and Nerbudda, lieutenant-goyemorship of the North- 
West Proyiuces, a town on the route from Saugur to Bhopal, 
21 miles W. by S. of the former. Lat. 23° 47', long. 78° 29'. 

BATTEE,* in the district of Bainswara, territory of Oude, a 
village on the route from Allahabad to Lucknow, 99 miles^ 
N.E. of the former, 29 S.W. of the latter. It has a small 
baxar, and water and supplies may be obtained. Tbe road to 
the south-east, or towards Allahabad, is indifferent; to the 
north-west, or towards Lucknow, good. Lat. 26° 82', long. 
80° 63'. 

BAUCHEBLA. — ^A town of Madras, in the native state of 
Mysore, 138 miles N.N.E. from Seringapatam, and 72 miles S.E. 
by S. from Ballary. Lat. 14° 15', long. 77° 30'. 

BAUJGXJBH. — A town in tbe Bajpoot state of Kotah, 
situate on the right bank of the Neewuj river, and 30 miles E. 
by S. from Kotah. Lat. 26° 6', long. 76° 20'. 

BAUNPOOB. — A town in the British district of Ahmed- 
abad, presidency of Bombay, 78 miles S.W. of Ahmedabad. 
Lat. 22° 20', long. 71° 40'. 

BAUNPOOB. — A town in the native state of Guzerat, or 
dominions of tbe Guicowar, 75 miles W.S.W. from Bajkote, 
and 16 miles N. by E. from Poorbunder. Lat. 21° 50', 
long. 69° 49'. 

BAUBAH. — A town in the native state of Nepal, situate 
on the left bank of a branch of the Kumalli river, and 13 miles 
N.N.E. from Jemlah. Lat. 29° 80', long. 81° 46'. 

BAUS, or BASS, in the Bajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a town on 
the north-west declivity of the Aravulli range, on the'route from 
Nusseerabad to Dcesa, and 38 miles W. of the former. It 
contains 600 bouses, supplied with water from twenty wells. 
Lat. 26^ 17', long. 74° 16'. 

903 


I B.TX;. Mt. Doe. 

* Garden, Tablet 
of Routea, 190. 

E.I.a Ma. Doc. 

E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 


> E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 

* Garden. Tablet 
of Routea, 97. 


B.l.C. Ma. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


Garden, Tablet of 
Rnutet, 900. 

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KAU— RAV. 


B.I.C. M*. Doe. RAU8HPOORAM. — A town in the British district of 

Salem, presidency of Madras, 15 miles S. of Salem. Lat. 11® 28', 
long. 78® 16'. 

« joum. A*, soc. RAVEE,' or RAVI, a river of the Punjab, rises in Kulu, on 
— i*oomc and thc declivitj of a mountain called Bungall, and a short distance 

Rotang Pass. The source is situate about lat. 
nivcm. 32® 26', long. 77®. At the distance of about forty miles from 

the source, in a south-westerly direction, the Ravee is joined by 
two feeders, the Nye and the Boodhill, the latter taking its 
rise in a lake called Munee Muhees, regarded as sacred by the 
superstitious Hindoos.* Where surv’cyed by Cunningham, 
four or five miles from Burmawur, at an elevation of about 
7,000 feet, it was found 116 feet wide. At Chamba, about 
twenty miles below, and south-west of this place, or 100 miles 
from its source, according to the statement of Vigne, the 

• Jour. Bens. Fnf. Ravee is crossed by a bridge. Forster^ states that it is there 

“ forty or fifty yards broad, and fordable at most seasons of the 
year.” At Bisuli, to which the downward course is about 
twenty-five miles due west, Forster found it, early in April, 
about 120 yards wide, very rapid, and unfordable. The state- 

• Kashmir, 1 . 171. ment of Vigne® is less explicit: — “I have been twice ferried 

over the Ravi at Bisuli, once during the rainy season, when it 
was swelled to a roaring torrent, and once again in winter, 
when its stream was far more tranquil. On both occasions the 
natives made the passage upon bufialo-hides. Its width is 
about eighty yards.** From Bisuli, in lat. 32® 84', long. 76® 48', 
the Ravee takes a south-westerly direction, which it generally 
4 In Eipb. ACC. of holds for the rest of its course. Macartney® found it, at 
cnubui, 081 . Meance ferry, on the route from Amritsir to Vazeerabad, and 
about 185 miles from its source, to have, at the beginning of 
August and at the time of fullest water, a breadth of 518 
yards, and a depth of twelve feet, where greatest. The deep 
channel was between thirty and forty feet in breadth, the rest 
of the waterway having a depth of from three to five feet. 
In the cold season, when lowest, the water is in no part more 

• Puro. Dokh. than four feet deep. Moorcroft® describes it at Lahore, about 

I. 106. . * 

tw'enty miles lower dowrn, as divided into three different streams 


> KMhroir, I. IM. • Vicnie* oonnders the Boodhill river, flowioff from the Munee Muhees^ . 

® ^ ^ ifiPir 

or Muni Mys, as the real Ravee ; but the evidence of Canningbam, who 
approached nearer the locality, merits more credit. 

004 


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realpatidar.com BAV. 

or branches. These, he states, are ** separated, in the dry 
weather, by intervals of half a mile, but in the rainy season 
the two most easterly branches* are united, and form an ex- 
pansive and rapid stream.’* **The two first branches are 
fordable, but the third, which is the principal one, has a ferr}'.” 
He remarks, that the boats on the Bavee were the largest and 
best-built that he has seen in India. Burnes,^ who navigated 
the Bavee from its confluence with the Chenaub to Lahore, 
says it ** is very small, and resembles a canal, rarely exceeding 
150 yards in breadth in any part of its course. Its banks are 
precipitous, so that it deepens before it expands. Nothing 
can exceed the crookedness of its course, which is a great im- 
pediment to navigation, for we often found ourselves, at'ter half 
a day’s sail, within two miles of the spot from which we started. 
The water of the Bavee is redder than that of the Chenaub. 
It is fordable in most places for eight months in the year.” 
From Lahore, its course south-west, measured according to the 
main direction of the stream, to its confluence with the 
Chenaub, is about 200 miles, but along all the sinuosities, 380.^ 
This point is in lat. 80^ 36', long. 71^ flO'. The Bavee joins 
the Chenaub by three mouths close to each other. Its total 
length, measured along the main direction of its course, is 
about 460 miles.t It is considered to be the Hydrootes 
mentioned by Arrian,^ and the Iravati of Sanscrit authorities : 
it is still known by the name of the Iraotee,^ which might 
easily be corrupted by the Greeks into that which they appear 
to have given it. 

BAV KB. — A town in the British district of Candeish, 
presidency of Bombay, 121 miles E.N.E. of Malligaum. Lat. 
21® 14', long. 76® 11'. 

BAVOOB. — A town in the British district of Nellore, 
presidency of Madras, 33 miles W.N.W. of Nellore. Lat. 
14® 36', long. 79® 84'. 

* Moorcrofi appears in error in stating the eastern branches of the 
Ravee to be the principal, as all other accounts represent the western as 
the main stream. There can be no doubt that he is in error in stating that 
Sbabdehra, the burial-place of Jehanjir, is on the left bank of the Ravee, 
as Masson,' Bumes,* and Jacquemont,’ agree that it is on the right or 
west bank. 

+ The estimate of Macartney' is less, being only 415 miles; but be did 
not know the exact locality of its source. 

6 X 


• Bokb. Ul. ISO. 


Y Id. III. 80A. 


• vl. *l». 

Rsnncll. 8S. 
Wilton, Arlsns 
Antique, 195, 900. 
Ritter, Erdkuods 
▼on Aden, ▼. 459, 
455. 

* Bumee. Bokh. 
111. 194, 907. 
B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


E.I.C. Me. Doe. 


' Bnl. Afg. PenJ. 
I. 415. 

* Bokh. I. 90. 

’ Jucqiiemoiil, 


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RAV— RAY. 


E.I.C. lf».Doc. 


E.I.C. Mft. Doc. 


Onrd^n, Tnhle* 
of HouUrt, 137. 


E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


Elph Arc. of 
Ciiubiil, 73. 
lloiisli, Nnrr. Esp. 
In A rc. 330. 
Mo(»rcr. FunJ. 
lb>kii. 1. SIS. 
Ilurne*, Dokli. 

I 08. 

F. Von lingri. 
ill luS. 


lloilrHii. Tniir In 
Raj warn, 100. 


E.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


* E.I.C. Mi. Doc. 


RAVYPAUD. — A in the British district of Cuddapah, 

presidency of Madras, 80 miles N.N.E. of Cuddapah. Lat. 

15° 34', long. 79° 15'. 

RAW Alt. — A town in the native state of Gwalior, or 
territory of Scindia’s family, 24 miles S.3.E. from N^emuch, 
and 83 miles N.W. from Oojein. Lat. 24° 8', long. 75° 1'. 

RAWALHEIR, in the British district of Bijnour, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Moradabad to Hurd war, and 40 miles S.B. of 
the latter. The road in this part of the route is good, and 
passes over an open cultivated country. Lat. 29° 80^, long* 

78° 28'. 

RAWDUCOONDA. — A town in one of the recently 
sequestrated districts of the native state of Hyderabad, 81 miles 
S.E. from Moodgul. Lat. 15° 41', long. 76° 50'. 

RAWUL, in the British district of Goorgaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Rewaree to Alwar, and eight miles S. of the former. 

Lat. 28° 4/, long. 76° 38'. 

RAWUL PINDE, in the Punjab, between the Indus and 
the Jhelum. It is a large populous town, consisting of mud 
houses with flat roofs. It contains what is called a palace, a 
wretched building of brick, constructed by Shah Socjah, on his 
expulsion from Kabool. There is a large bazar, and a con- 
siderable business in the transit trade between Hindostan and 
Afghanistan. The town is surrounded by a wall with bastions, 
and has an old fort, on which a few cannon are mounted. 

Lat. 83° 37', long. 73° 6'. 

RAWUNHEREB, in the Rajpoot state of Beekaneer, a 
village on the southern frontier, and on the route from the 
town of Beekaneer to that of Jesulmeer, being 45 miles S.W. 
of the former. It is situate in an open country, scantily 
cultivated. The road in this part of the route is hard and 
good. Lat. 27° 40', long. 72° 49'. 

RAWUTSIR. — A town in the British district of Hydrabad, 
province of Scinde, presidency of Bombay, 147 miles E. by S. 
of Hydrabad. Lat. 25° 2', long. 70° 46'. 

RAYUH,* or RAI, in the British district of Muttra, a town, 
the principal place of the porgunnah of the same name, iaitidar.com 
situate on the route from the cantonment of Allygurh to that 

SOS 


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realpatidar.com RED— BEG. 

of Muttra, and nine’ miles N.E. of the latter. It is supplied 
with water from wells, and has a small bazar with market. The 
road in this part of the route is bad and heavy for carriages, 
the country well cultivated, and studded with small villages. 
i;at. rr 33', long, it 62'. 

REDANOH. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Jodhpoor, 
135 miles W. by S. from Jodhpoor, and 74 miles S. from 
Jessulmeer. Lat. 26° 61', long. 71° 3'. 

REE AN,* in the Rajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a town on the 
route from the city of Jodhpoor to that of Ajmeer, and 27 
miles N.W. of the latter. It is surrounded by a ruinous 
mud wall, and has a fort, the stronghold of the thakoor or 
chief of the Merteea tribe of Rah tor Rajpoots. The fort, 
commanding the whole town, is built of stone, and situate on 
the top of an insulated rocky hill about 200 feet above the 
plain, and is fifty yards long from north to south, and thirty 
yards broad. The gateway is at a comer pointing westward, 
and is defended by a screen of masonry. The town is situate 
at the western base of the rocky hill : it contains 700 houses, 
abundantly supplied with water from numerous wells of the 
depth of twenty feet. There is besides a fine baoli, or large 
well, forty feet deep, pleasantly shaded by large trees, and 
having abundance of fine water, to which access is obtained by 
flights of steps. The population, according to Boileau,’ is 
5,650. The road in this part of the route is bad. Lat. 26° 82', 
long. 74° 20'. 

REECHNA DOOAB. — A natural division of the Punjab, 
situated between the rivers Chenaub and Ravee, and extending 
from lat. 80° 83' to 32° 36', and from long. 71° 49' to 75° 36'. 

REEGA. — A town in the territory occupied by the Abor 
tribe, on the northern boundary of Upper Assam. It is 
situate on the right bank of the Dihong river, 51 miles N.W. 
from Sudiya. Lat. 28° 20', long. 95° 7'. 

REERWBE, in the Rajpoot state of Beekaneer, a village on 
the route from Rutungurh to the town of Beekaneer, and 
50 miles E. of the latter. It is of considerable size, and is 
supplied with water from three wells. Lat. 27° 65', long. 
74° 11'. 

REGOWLEE, in the British district of Goruckpoor, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 

X 2 


• Oanlen. Tmh\m 
of Routas, 48L 


* Bulleno, Riij- 
148 , 810 . 


* p. 25*. 


B 4 )ne«u, n^Jwara, 
1H9. 


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EEG— llEl. 




lilAp of 

llin 

Bc^hreitiunff rein 
HbiditiUa, J, Id?* 

E.LC. 111. Due. 


* E.I-C. ill. I>or, 


» Tfiblei of 
Rou(l«» 19 a, 

> Mmlvni lndl4, 
il. 1^. 

* A«, Ah. iiTkjL43 
— PrAnkln, Oe*4. 
of ^ndolltharHl. 

* B.I.e. Mk. Due. 

* Qinlcn, Tobksi 
of Aout^ir 189. 


* 1^1 pL Dlip, to 
Indii, ?Dec ledd. 


I E.I.e. Ml. Doe, 

* Oirden,^ TbIiIh 
uf RouLh, 14tl. 


> £.I,C. Ml. Doc. 

* Table! of 
RnultP. [94. 

* Modaru 
li. im 

* AHcrIprhpit of 
Hiipdoittiin, y. 15. 


the route from Goruckpoor to Kbachi^ 21 miles N.NpWnof the 
former. Lat. 26^ 59^, long. 83° 17^ 

REGOWLI. — 3 ee Adjyoitbh. 

BEGITL AVAL ASA. — A town in the British diatrict of 
Vizftgapatam, presidency of Madras, 23 miles N. by W. of 
Vulanagrum. Lat. 18° 27 \ long, 83° 27 \ 

BEH, in the British district of Futtehporo, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
left bank of the Jumna, at the mouth of the amaUi river Rind. 
Lat. 25° 52', long. 80° 37'. 

REHELU, in the Baree Dooab division of the Punjab, a 
town situated on the left bank of one of the branches of the 
Beaa, 11 miles N. of the town of Kangra. Lat. 32° 14', long. 
76° 18'. 

REHLI,'* in the British district of Saugor and Nerbudda, 
lieutenant^governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
on the route fri>m Gurrawarra to Saugor, 60* miles N.W, of 
former, 26 S.E. of latter. It has a basar, and water and supplies 
ajre abundant. Here is a prison^ capable of containing irom 
forty to dfty persons. Elevation above the sea 1,350 feet^ 
Lat. 23° 44', long. 79° 6', 

REMLY,^ in the territory of Oude, a town on the route 
from the cantonment of Gornckpore to that of Sekrora, 73* 
miles N-W. of the former, 39 S.E, of the latter, Lat. 26^ 62', 
long. 82° 4'. 

REHUNB.t— A river rising in lat. 22° 46', long. 83° 17', 
in the British^ district of Odeipoor, on the south-west frontier 
of Bengal. It Erst takes the name of the Rhem, and flowing 
in a northerly direction through Odeipoor, Sirgoojah, Rew% 
and the British district of Mirsapoor, it falls into the Sone on 
the right side, near the town of Agoree Kbas, in lat. 24° 32', 
long. 83° 3', 

REINWAL,^ in the Rajpoot state of Jeypoor, a town on 
the route from Delhi to Mow, 181* mUes S.W. of former, 326 
N.E. of latter. It has a bazar, and is supplied with water 
from wells. Lat. 26° 41', long. 75° 45'. 

REITAL/ in native Gurwhal, a village close to the right 

* Haili of Tarain ; Hbylee or Klley of Garden Beyloe of Sprj.* 

+ Rhem of BamUtoD^ who etatee it to be remarkable for th# purity 
and depth of ita etream/* 



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bonk of the Bhageerettee, as the Ganges is called in the upper 
part of its course. Its situation is very pleasant, on the eastern 
side of a mountain, the river flowing at the base below it. The 
village containa about thirty-flve houses, which are large and 
three stories high, built of stones and long cedar beams in 
alternate courses, the ends of the beams meeting at the 
comers, where they are bolted together by wooden pins. The 
under story serves to shelter the cattle at night, the middle is 
a granary, and the upper is occupied by the family. Bound 
the upper story is a strong balcony or gallery, constriictad of 
wood, and supported on beams projecting from the wall, and 
over all the roof projects, with eaves shelving nearly horizontally, 
somewhat in the style of those of a Chinese psgoda. Those 
houses have a handsome appearance, are substaiitially built, 
and as the deodar or Himalaya cedar which is used in their 
construction is nearly indestructible, they last a long time. 
They are, however, veiy filthy inside, and fuU of vermin. 
Beital was a secoBdary station in the trigonometrical survey of 
the Himalaya. Elevation above the sea 7,082^ feet. Eat. 
30^ 40^, long. 78^ 39^. 

!RELLI.~A town in the British district of Yizagapatam, 
presidency of Madras, 14 miles N* by W. of Tizagapatam. 
Eat. 17 ^ 68', long. 83^ IS'. 

EEMXtAH. — A town in the native state of Phooljer, on the 
south-west frontier of Bengal, 76 miles W. by S. from 8um^ 
bulpooT, and 82 miles S.E. by S. from Huttunpoor. Eat. 
2r 18', long. 82° 52'. 

BENEE,' in the Bajpoot state of Beekaneer, a walled town 
near the north-eastern frontier, towards Shekawuttee. The 
surrounding country is leas barren than most other parts of 
Beekaneer, in consequence of the moisture produced by the 
Katuri, a small stream which flows from Shekawuttee, and is 
lost in the sands of Beekaneer. Tod® states the number of 
houses at 1,600. Renee is in lat. 28° 41', long. 76° O'. 

- RENTICHOTA . — A town in the British district of Ganjam, 
presidency of Madras, 61 miles S.W, of Ghanjam. Eat. 18° iS', 
long. 84° 27'. 

REOTEE,^ in the British district of Ghazeepoor, lieutenant* 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town situate on 
the stream which discharges the water of the Lake Booraha 

SOS 


E.I G. Trifoit. 
Surv. 

Ai. ilv. 04— 

Hodcflon, 

nf the OiDfn knd 

Jumna. 


* A*. Sm. a|r. 
S34* — Hod jTKMi 
and 

Trliiott. 8«f f, of 
Hlmaitaja. 

S.I.G. Urn, ]K». 


^ UolJcflD, HaJ.. 
wmrm, ISS, IS7. 


* Annals Rnjs 
llittti, U. 1B7. 

E.I.C. Ka. Tkx. 


E.I.C. Ma- Hoc, , 

reaipatidar.com 



^[p 


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REO— REW. 


* Brniral and 
A^ra Ouidp» 1841. 
Tol. li. part 1. 800. 


* E.I.C. .M*. Doc. 
Bcn^l and A^rm 
Guide. 1841. vol. 
II. part 1. 300. 


* SUtiUir* of 
N.W. Prov. 140. 
£.l.a Ma. Doc. 


• Garden. Tablet 
of Routca. 47. 


' Llojd and 
Gera^ Toura in 
Himalaya. 11. 8. 

I E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* Renipil and 
A|tra Guide. 1841. 
vol. 11. part 1. 800. 


( E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


• Tranaaclt. Roy. 
Aa. 8oc. I. 844— 
Colebrooke, on 
Lavola of Scllej. 


into the river Ghag^ and four miles S.W. of the right bank 
of the latter. It is represented as a place of some trade.^ 
Distant N.E. of Ghaaeepoor cantonment 55 miles. L»at. 
25*=* Siy, long. 84° 25'. 

REOTEEPOOR,'* in the British district of Ghaaeepoor, 
lieutenant'governorsbip of the North-West Provinces, a town 
two miles S.W. of the right bank of the Ganges, 10 S.E. of 
Ghazeepoor cantonment. Rcoteepoor contains a population of 
17,355 inhabitants.^ Lat. 25° 30', long. 83° 48'. 

REPALLE. — A town in the British district of Guntoor, 
presidency of Madras, 82 miles S.E. by E. of Guntoor. Lat. 
16° 3', long. 80° 53'. 

RERIG HAT. — A town in the native state of Nepal, situate 
on the right bank of the Gunduck or Salagra river, and 116 
miles W. by N. from Khatmandoo. Lat. 27° 58', long. 
83° 27'. 

RESSOOLPOOR NARAINPOOR, in the Britbh district 
of Bolundshuhur, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West 
Provinces, a village on the route from AUygurh cantonment to 
that of Moradabad, and 20^ miles N. of the former. The road 
in this part of the route is good ; the country open, level, and 
partially cultivated. Lat. 28° KX, long. 78° 15'. 

REUNl, in Bussahir, a halting-place on the route from 
Rampoor to the Shatul Pass, from which last it is three miles 
S.W. The road in this part of the route is exceedingly difficult 
and dangerous, proceeding among loose piles of stones, which 
seem to have lately descended from the cliffs. Elevation above 
the sea 11,800 feet. Lat. 81° 22', long. 77° 58'. 

REVELGUNJE,^ in the British district of Sarun, pre* 
sidency of Bengal, a town on the left bank of the Ganges, five 
miles below the confluence of the Gogra. Here is annually 
held a fair,^ much frequented, especially by Hindoos, who 
throng in great numbers for ritual ablution at the neighbouring 
confluence. Distance N.E. from Benares, by land, 118 miles, 
by the course of the river 165 ; N.W. from Dinapoor 24. Lat. 
26° 44', long. 84° 50'. 

REWA CAUNTA.* — A division of Guzerat, under the 
political superintendence of the government of Bombay. It 

• Roati|>oor of the surveyor-genersl's map ; Rowtoeporo of 

f Aocording to Colebrooke,' 11,760. 

310 


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realpatidar.com BEWAH- 

ifl bounded on tbe north the My bee Oaunta ; on the south 
by the Britieh oollectorate of Candeish, from wbieh it is eapa- 
rated by tbe river Taptee^ and by the Bheel territory of Wua* 
rnvee ; on the east by the petty states of Banewarray Dohud, 
Jabooah, AUee, and Ahraana ; and on the west by the poasea- 
aione of the Gulcowar, and the Britiah coUectorates of K aim 
and Surat. It lies between lat. 21^ 23' and 23° 33', and long. 
73° S' and 74° IS\ 'The Bewa Caunta eompiisee tbe states of 
Bajpeepla and Oodepoor, tiibutaiy to the Guicowar ; Soautb, 
tributary to Semdia ; Loonawarm, tributary both to Scindia 
and the Guicowar; and Deogbur Barreeah, tributary to the 
British. An account of each of these tributary states will be 
found in its proper place. A court of justice, styled the Bewa 
Caunta Criminal Court, exists in this province. It was esta^ 
blished in 1839, Mid the reault has fully realised all the advan^ 
tages anticipated from its institution. Originally, the British 
Besident presided in this court, and three or four chiefs sat as 
assessors. A slight alteration has recently been made in its 
constitutioQ, the first assistant political commissi oner, instead 
of the Besident, now presiding ; but his proceedings ore for- 
warded to government through the latter, an arrangement by 
which tbe supervision of that officer is increased. Though 
not intended to supersede the authority of the chiefs in the 
internal administration of their terri tones, yet when they are 
too weak to punish their subjects, as sometimes happens, 
criminals are tried before this court, a representative from the 
state being invited to assist at the trial. On the other hand, 
when the head of a village is competent to take cognisance of 
the case, he is allowed to dispose of it ; so that no undue inters 
ference takes place with their authority- Some account of the 
chiefs residing on the banks of the Nerbudda, styled the 
Mehwaseee chiefs, who are subject to the jurisdiction of the 
Bewa Caunta agency, will be found under the head “ Meh- 
wassee," and under that of tbe “ Naikras,” some particulars of 
that wild tribe. The practice of suttee has been interdicted^ 
within the Bewa Oaunta. 

BEWAH, called also BAGilELCUND,^^ or country of 
the Baghels, an independent raj or principality, bounded on the 

* From Bbagel/ » RAjpooi trilM, And Khand, ** country.” Etlict ob- 
•erv«% thml tbe word Bhftgol taean» literally tiger whelps.” 

. 311 


* BombAf PaU 
0t«p. 3 Auff. ISi4. 

> E 4 .C. Ml. Uw. 


1 1^11. . B 1 )atidar.com 

• Elliot, Supple* 
ment to OloMix, 

](». 




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RE WAIT. 


• Smtlftic* of 
Native Stale*. 


> At. Ret. sviil. 24 
— Qcol of Riin- 
delcund. 

* Franklin. Map 
in At Ret. ut 
euprn. 

• Jacquemnnt 
Vojaget, ill. 377. 


* Franklin, Map, 
ut tupra. 
Jacqiieni'int, 

111. 879. 


’ Franklin. In 
Trantactt. Roy. 
At. Soc. ut tupra, 
278. 


• At. Ret. svili. 
28*27 — Franklin, 
Oeol. of BundeN 
cund. 

Pogton, Hint, of 
Doondelat, 172- 
174. 


north by the British districts Allahabad and Mirzapore; on 
the east by the British district Mirzapore ; on the south-east by 
the native state of Korea ; on the south by the British district 
Saugor and Nerbudda ; and on the west by Saugor and Ner« 
budda, and by Bundelcund. It lies between lat. 23^ 2(y — 

25® ICf, long. 80® 40^ — 82® 52' ; is about 140 miles in length 
from east to west, and 120 in breadth. The area is 9,827 
square miles.^ The western and north-western parts, com- 
prising a considerable proportion of the whole raj, are covered 
by mountains, rising in tliree successive plateaus, or vast 
terraces, from the valley of the Ganges. Of these, that most 
to the north-east, and styled by Franklin*'^ the Bindachal, or 
First Range, is the lowest, having nn average elevation of from 
500^ to 530 feet above the sea : it is formed of horizontal 
strata of sandstone the upper surface presents an expanse 
of very great sterility. Little of this plateau, however, is 
included within the limits of Rewah, the boundary of which on 
this side lies nearly along the base of the mountain styled by 
F'ranklin “ the Pannah Hills, or Second Range.** The eleva- 
tion of these averages from 900® to 1,200 feet above the sea. 

Their formation is sandstone, intermixed with schist and quartz, 
and to the west overlaid with limestone. Above this plateau, 
nearly parallel to the brow, but more to the south-east, rises 
the Kaimur^ range, of which nothing appears to have been 
ascertained either as to elevation or formation. The brows of 
those ranges, especially of the second, are steep, in some parts 
nearly mural, and the Tons (South-eastern), and its tributaries, 
which drain the second plateau, descend to the lower grounds 
in cascades® of various degrees of fall, from that of Bilohi, of 
400 feet, to that of Chachai, of 200. About a third of the 
country lying south-east of the Kaimur hills is part of the 
valley of the Sou, a tract as yet nearly unexplored. That 
great river, flowing north from the British district of Saugor 
and Nerbudda, crosses the south boundary of this raj in lat. 

23® 21', long. 81® 30', and, flowing through it circuitously, but 
generally in a direction north and north-easterly, for 180 miles, 
crosses, in lat. 24® 37', long. 82® 60', over the north-eastern 
frontier, into the British district Mirzapore. Its principal 
tributary is the Mahanuddee, flowing into it on the left side, itidar.com 
in lat. 24® 5', long. 81® 6' ; and it, besides, receives numerous 

, 312 


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tbri^nts and small streams right and left. The Tons, flowing 
north-east from Bundelcund, first touches the raj in lat. 24 ° 25', 
long. 80° 55', and, draining the highlands, receives the Beher, 
the Bilund, and several minor torrents, and, holding a course 
general] j north-easterly, passes, in lat. 25° 1', long. 81° 51', 
into the British district of Allahabad, its course through 
Bewah being eighty miles.^ None of the rivers, are navigable 
in this raj. According to Hamilton,® “ there are few parts of 
the British provinces more highly cultivated than the higher 
regions of Bewah ;** and Ironside,^ describing the country sixty 
years ago, states, that it is ** well cultivated, and produces 
tolerably good crops of grain/' The villa^s are in good order, 
full of inhabitants, who appear to be indnstrious. The produce 
of this country is wheat, barley, and difiTerent kinds of peas ; 
and they have also large herds of cattle, and flocks of sheep.” 
Jacquemont's® report, however, rather tends to discredit these 
statements, though he mentions that he saw considerable 
cultivation on the second plateau, north of the town of Bewah. 
Much of the surface being rock, is unfit for culture, and pro- 
duces a scanty g^wth of stunted wood.® This is now in many 
places yielding to the axe, to supply the demand for timber in 
the British districts in the valley of the Ganges. 

The principal places — Bewah, Simerea, Mowganj, Bandoogurh 
— are noticed in their places in the alphabetical arrangement. 

The military routes are, 1. From north-east to south-west, 
from Mirzapoor to Saugor, through the town of Bewah ; 2. from 
north-east to south-west, from Allahabad by the Rutra Pass, 
to Jubbulpore, through the town of Bewah; 3. from north- 
east to south-west, from Allahabad by the Sohagi Pass, through 
the town of Bewah to Jubbulpore; 4. from north-east to 
south-west, from Allahabad to Saugor ; 5. from north-west to 
south-east, from Banda to Bewah. 

The revenues of Bewah have been estimated at twenty^ lacs 
(200,000/.). There formerly existed numerous jaghires, of the 
value of four or five lacs per annum, held by younger de- 
scendants of former sovereigns. About twenty years since, 
resumption to some extent took place, yielding to the state a 
considerable accession of revenue. 

As the rajah and his subjects are Rajpoots, their religion is 

Brahminism ; and the horrible Rajpoot atrocity of female infan- 

818 


• Oairltwr, H. 
400. 


I In MI*c«llaneoti« 
TmcU In A*. Ann. 
Reg. V. 1008. 


* Vt tapin. III. 
.nso. 8S4. 


» Id. 87«. 


* Sutherland. 
Skctrhi » of Pol. 
Reint. 149. 


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BEWAH. 


• India Pol. niap. 
90 D«c. 184‘i. 


« Id. 1 Aug. 1940. 


^ 8upp1cm«nt to 
OlOMary, 109. 


• Malcolm, Pol. 
Hitt, of India* 

L 408. 

FItielarenca* 
Journ. 9. 
Sutherland. 
Sketch of PoliL 
RelMtiont. 140. 

0 Treatlet with 
Native Powert, 
ziviL 


• Id. IL 


ticida prevails, or did prevail, to a great extent. The rajah, 
however, it is stated, on his own authority some time since 
issued a proclamation,^ in which he not only forbede the 
practice, but promised pecuniary aid, when necessary, for the 
marriage expenses of daughters ; and this proclamation was 
subsequently repeated.^ Suttee does not appear to be men- 
tioned by any writer as practised in this territory.® The 
population is stated to be 1,200,000. The military force 
amounts to upwards of 8,000 men. 

The earliest mention of the Bhagels is probably that adverted 
to by Elliot,^ who says, ^ The Baghel <^ief of Bewa is the 
descendant of the famous Sid Baee Jye Singh, the ruler of 
Anhui wara Puttun from 1094 to 1145. His court was visited 
by the Nubian geographer Edrisi, who distinctly states, that 
at the time of his visit the chief adhered to the tenets of 
Buddha.** The existence of the raj of Bewah seems scarcely 
ascertainable in the general history of India, until the early 
part of the present century, when the Pindarries, in 1812, 
passing through the territory of Bewah, made an inroad^ into 
the British district of Mirzapore. The njah of Bewah was 
considered to have abetted this enterprise, and he was required 
to accede to a treaty,® by which the British government 
acknowledged his sovereign title, and bound itself to amity and 
protection towards him, on condition that all differences 
between him and foreign powers should be referred to the 
arbitration of the British authorities ; that British troops might 
be marched through, or cantoned within bis raj, for the purpose 
of guarding against the advance, or intercepting the retreat of 
an enemy ; and that on such occasions the rfyah should dispose 
his troops in the manner which might be pointed out by the 
British commanding officer. As the rajah ill followed out his 
engagements, the British government in 1818 had recourse to 
military operations, which enforced the conclusion of a second^ 


* Rambles omf 

RceoUeetiono, 

1.93. 


* Sleemsn, however, siAtes' a circumstance which, if his oonclurion in 
regard io it be correct, would seem to show that the practice is not hero 
regarded with horror : — The sister of the rajah of Rewah was one of four 
or five wives who burned themselves with the remains of the rajah of 
Oodeepore ; and nothing in the course of his life will be reooUacted bj her 
brother with so much of pride and pleasure, since the Oodeepore n^h ia.jddr.C0rn 
the head of the Rajpoot tribes.*' 

814 


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treaty, confirmatory of the former, and binding the rajah 
further to reeeire a permanent agent, and to maintain a Takeel, 
on hia own part, with the British agent in Bundelcund, and 
with the commanding officer of any British detachment 
stationed in the Bewah territory. He likewise bound himself 
to concur in the chastisement of certain ofienders, and to pay 
the expenses of the armament sent against him, to the amoiint 
of 45,173* rupees. In 1814, a third treaty was concluded, 
confirmatory of the two preceding ones. In the English 
oopies of the treaties, the chief is styled rajah of Bewah and 
Mookundpore, the latt^ appellation being probably from 
Muckunpoor, a place of some note eight miles S. of the town 
of Bewah. 

BEWAH.* t — The principal 'place of the raj or territory of 
the same name, a town on the route by the Kutra Pass, from 
Allahabad to Saugor, 181 miles^ S.W. of the former, and 182 
N.E. of the latter. It is situate on the banks of the small 
river Beher,^ & tributary of the Tons (South-eastern), on a 
Ibnnation* of dark-coloured limestone. Around it riuas a high 
and thick rampart,^ still nearly entire and continuous, fianked 
by towers, and which, in a state of repair, must have been a 
strong defence. Within this, a similar rampart immediately 
environs the town, and still further inward, a third surrounds 
the residence of the rajah, consisting of a few habitable buildings 
amidst the ruins of a great decayed structure. The town has 
an aspect of poverty and barbarism, yet the population is 
estimated by Jaoquemont at about 7,000, principally sup- 
ported by the expenditure of the rajah, who maintains some 
degree of barbaric state. § Elevation above the sea about 
1,200 feet. Lat. 24° 31', long. 81° 21'. 

* Hamilton' states that on this occasion the British government mulcted 
the rajah in a portion of his territory. *' The annual rent of the tract 
annexed on this occasion to the British dominions amounted to 40,000 
rupees but this cession is not mentioned either by Sutherland or D'Orux, 
or in the subsequent or third treaty concluded in 1814. 

f Riwan of Tassin ; Reeva of Briggs’s Index; Rewah of Rennell,' 
Sutherland,* and D'Orux.* 

^ Called by Hamilton' Richanuddy. 

§ The elevation above the sea, of Chachei on the Beher, is, according to 
the barometrical measurement' of Franklin, 090 feet ; and it is twenty-five 
miles lower down the stream than Rewah. If a &11 of ten feet per mile be 

315 


> E.I.C. Ma Doc. 


* Garden, Table* 
of Routes, 80. 


* Joann. Aa. Soe. 
Bens. 1888, p. 477 
— Bvercst, Oeol. 
Remarks. 

* Jacquemont, 
Vojagas, ill. 884. 


> Qautteer, IL 
485. 


* Index to Map, 

In Mem. on Map 
of Hindnostan. 

* Sketches of 
Relations, 140. 

* Pol. Rel. 100. 

I Oaxetteer, 11.484. 

. A,. R... /.^glpatidar.com 

43— On Ocol. of 
Bundelcund. 


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REW— RHO. 


* K.T.C. Ht. Doe. 


* Statbtlcii of 
N.W.ProT.41. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc 


• Osrd^. Tftbles 
of Rout«r«, 4. 


I E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

* Oaitlcn, Tables 
of Routes, ltd. 


* Heber, Jonrn. 
In India, 1. S71. 

* E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


> Buchanan, 8ur- 
TOJ, 1.434. 


REWAREE,* in the British district of Goorgaon, lieutenant- 
goyernorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Delhi to Jejpoor, 50 miles S.W. of the former. 
Rewaree contains a population of 26,936 inhabitants.^ Lat. 
28° ir, long. 76° 41'. 

REWASUN, in the British district of Gitwrgaon, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route by Ferozpoor from Alwar to Delbi^ 60 miles N.E. of 
former, 44 miles S.W. of the latter. Lat. 28° 10', long. 77° 8'. 

REWDUNDA. — A fort in the British district of Tannah, 
presidency of Bombay, situate on the coast, 29 miles S. of 
Bombay. Lat. 18° 33', long. 73°. 

REYJWA, in the British district of Muttra, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the city of Agra to Bareilly, and 84 miles* N.E. of 
the former. The road in this port of the route is good, the 
country well wooded and cultivated. Lat. 27° 30', long. 78° 26'. 

RHAMUTGANJ,* in the territory of Oude, a village on 
the route from Cawnpore to Lucknow, 22 miles* N.E. of the 
former, 31 S.W. of the latter. It is well provided with water, 
but supplies must bo collected from the surrounding country, 
which is but partially cultivated, low, flat, and liable in many 
places to be laid under water* during the rains. Lat. 26° 40', 
long. 80° 41'. 

RHOTASGURH,** in the British district of Shahabad, pre- 
sidency of Bengal, a celebrated hill-fort on the left or north- 
west bank of the river Sone. It is situate in the hilly tract 
in the south of the district, on a table-land five miles* in length 
from north to south, and four in breadth. The outline is 
much indented and irregular, and the circuit, including all its 
sinuosities, is computed at twenty-eight miles.t The surface of 
the table-land is very uneven, and much of it consists of bare 
rock ; but there is likewise a considerable extent of fertile red 
soil, on which grow many fine trees. It is very difficult of 
access on every side except the south, in which direction a 


> II 3?. 


allowed for ibis moantain'torrent, the elevation of Rewah may be aeanmed 
at 1.240. 

* Robidasgarh of Taasin ; Robtae of Brigg8*8 Index ; Rotas of Rennell. . , 

+ The estimate of fourteen kot in the Ayeen Akbery ' nearly correspoudj^^*^'^^*^ 
with this. 

SIS 


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realpatidar.com RHOTASGURH. 

rocky neck or ridge once connected it with the contiguour 
table-land ; but it has been traversed by a deep trench quarried 
in the rock with great cost and toil. East of the spot where 
this ditch is excavated in the rock, are some most stupendous 
works ; and access into the fortress is gained through two fine 
gateways, one thirty yards within the other ; and these, as well 
as the ditch, are protected by a great number of complicated 
works. These are pierced with embrasures for archery and 
matchlocks, but there are none suited for regular artillery;* 
and all the defences in this quarter are completely commanded 
from a height 200 yards distant, so that a passage could 
readily be laid open for a storming force to occupy the works, 
and there is no citadel within. On the verge of the mountain 
all round is a massive battlement, formed of great stones laid 
together without cement.^ When Tieffenthaler’s account was 
written, eighty years ago, there were fourteen gateways, but 
ten of them had been walled up. Notwithstanding the general 
steepness and elevation of the sides of the mountain, there are, 
besides the principal passage traversed by the trench, eighty- 
three^ others in various places ; much difiiculty would conse- 
quently be experienced in guarding so many points against 
surprises. Within the inclosure are several small pieces of 
water and perennial^ springs. Sher Shah,* on obtaining 
possession of this place in 1539, set about strengthening it ; 
but the works which he commenced were abandoned, owing to 
his having discovered a situation which he considered more 
favourable, and where he erected Shergar. 

The most ancient structures herein were built by the 
Hindoos : the place, according to their tradition, was founded^ 
by Cush, the son of Rama, king of Ayodba, long previously to 
the Christian era. Ferishta,* however, attributes the founda- 
tion to Rohut, viceroy of Afra-Siab, the legendary king of 
Turkestan. Sher Shah^ took the place from the Hindoo rajah, 
by a stratagem frequently recurring in Indian history. Having 
asked the rajah to give refuge to the females of his family, 
taking with them a large amount of treasure, a great number 
of dolas or covered litters arrived, the foremost of which being 
examined and found to contain only women, all were admitted 

* Tieffenthaier, however, states ' that there were 360 caDnon oo different 
parte of the ramparts. 

ai7 


* TUfiDmlhsUr, 
Be«chr«lbunf ?on 
BlndiuUn, 1. 90Q. 


* Buchanan, 
f. 4S5. 


• Ticlffnlhaler, 
Ik'^rhrvibiiiiB von 
HInduatsn. 1. 900. 

* Buchanan, 
ut supra, 432. 


^ Tod. Annala of 
Ri^aathan, 11. 940. 

• 1. IzsL 


* FarlahU, II. 1 19. 


* Bcachraibunflfjalpatidar.com 

von HInduaUn, 

1 . aie. 


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* Buchanan, 

I. 492. 

Tod, Annala of 


, . RHO— RIA. 

realpatidar.com 

^ ithout suspicion. The greater number of the dolas, however, 
were filled with armed men and weapons for the bearers, also 
soldiers ; and the force thus introduced forthwith attacked and 
slaughtered the garrison and seised the fort. When the 
Rajpoot Maun Singh^ was appointed viceroy of Bebar and 
Bengal, a trust for which he was probably indebted to the 
RAlMihan. II. alliance of his house with that of Akbar, his cousin being 
married to Prince Selim, son of that monarch, he selected 
Khotasgurh as a place of security for his family and treasure. 
After his death, the fortress was annexed to the office of vizier 
of the empire, and at a later period it came into the hands of 
Cossim All, nawaub or soubahdar of Bengal, who, after his 
defeat at Oondwa Nulla, imitated the example of Maun Singh, 
by selecting this place for the residence of his family and 
the depositary of his treasure. It was surrendered a short time 
after the battle of Buxar, in 1764, to the British army under 
Goddard. 

The air of Rhotasgurh, as of many of the hill forts of India, 
is dreadfully unwholesome,^ especially for European constitu- 
tions. Ltimestone has been discovered in the vicinity, which 
will be of great service in bridging the Sone.^ The elevation 
above the sea is probably about 700 feet,^ and above the plain 
200. Distance S. from Sasseram 22 miles, S.£. from Benares 
76, N.W. from Calcutta 378. Lat. 24° 38', long. 84°. 
RHOTUK. — See Rohtuk. 


^ Duchaoao, 
iL 926. 

* Beni^l Public 
DUp. II Oct. 

1848. 

* BuchancD, 1. 883. 


> B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


* Ourden, Tiibict 
of Route*, 208. 


Vlgnc, Kaiilirair, 
II. 210. 


RHUNOO,^ in the British district of Jounpore, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Jounpore cantonment to that of Sultanpoor, in 
Oude, 12 miles* N.W. of the former, 46 S.B. of the latter. 
Water is plentiful, but not very good, and supplies are scarce, 
and must be collected from the surrounding country, which is 
productive and cultivated. The road in this part of the route 
is excellent. Eat. 26° fify, long. 82° 86'. 

RIASI, within the dominions of Gholab Singh, the ruler of 
Cashmere, a town situate near the left or east bank of the 
Chenaub, and on the southern slope of the most southern of 
the Ilimalaya ranges. Hero is a fort considered by Vigne 
“ one of the strongest, perhaps the strongest, and best con- 
structed in the country." It is situated on a conical,^ and^^ 
rocky eminence south of the town, and is nearly square. The 

aid 


lar.com 


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realpatidar.com MC — BIL. 

walla are built of atone : they are very lofty, and are rendered 
atill more difBcult to be scaled by their rising immediately 
from the precipitona aides of the hill, which are steeply scarped. 
There is a tower at each angle, and no pains hsTe been spared 
to render these, as well as most of the buildings of the interior, 
bomb*proof. The galTisol^ is supplied with water by means of 
two large tanks within the walls. The fort is separated, by a 
deep ravine, from an eminence of sandstone of the same height, 
about a mile distant. The town itself is an inconsiderable 
place, having about 1,000 inhabitants. Isit. 83^ long. 74^ 52'. 

itICHAH, in the British district of Pilleebheet, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Pilleebheet to Bampoor, 18 miles W.N.W. of the 
former. Lat. 28° 43', long. 79° 37'. 

BICHEL BIVEB.— The name of one of the mouths of the 
Indus river. Bowing into the sea in lat. 24° 3', long. 67° 26'. 

BICHOLA, in the British district of Bareilly, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the town -of Bareilly to Pilleebheet, and 20 miles 
N.£. of the former. The road in this part of the route is 
frequently laid under water during the rainsi in consequence of 
the Bhagul river being dammed up for the purposes of irriga- 
tion. The country is level, open, and cultivated. Lat. 28° 32', 
long. 79° 41'. 

BICNAB. — A river rising amidst the mountains of the 
British district of Jansar, in lat. 80° 63', long. 77° 69'. It 
holds a south-easterly course of about twenty miles, and falls 
into the Jumna on the right side, in lat. 30° 44', long. 78° 8'. 

BIKHESUB, in the British district of Kumaou, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a halting- place 
and small military station on the left bonk of the Lohughat 
river, on the route from Champawut to Petoragurh, and 16 
miles S.W. of the latter. Lat. 29° 24', long. 80° S'. 

BIKKBE KASEE,^ in the Dhera Doon, a Hindoo temple 
at the north-east angle, where the Ganges, leaving the moun- 
tains, enters the plains of Bengal. The temple is 1,427 feet^ 
above the level of the sea ; the bed of the river below it, 1,377 
feet.* Lat. 30° O', long. 78° 22'. 

BILAKOT, in the British district of Kumoon, lieutenant- 

governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village iu the 
. . sio 


B.I.C. U*. Doc. 


E.I.a Ms. Doe. 
Garden, TnbiM 
of Route*, 8S. 


E.rC. Mt. Dor. 
B.I.C. Trlgon. 
Burr. 

Af Ree. ilv. 1S4 
— Hodgeoo. Sure, 
of Gengee. 

B.I.C. Me. Doc. 


> B.I.C. Me. Doe. 

MooreroA, PurO> 

Bokb I. < 9 . 

* A«. Rc*. Bitr. 

•97V — Hodfvon 
nnd Herbert, 

Trigon. Sunrey of 
HimalBjB. 

E.I.C. M.. Dwjalpatidar.com 

E.I.C. Trifoo- 

Sure. 


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dubdivittion of Juwahir, on the route to Hiundee or Chineee 
Tartary, by the Juwahir Pass, from which it ia 20 miles south. 
It is situate on the left bank of the river Goree, which runs 
250 feet below. The roofs of the houses have a slight pitch, 
and are firmly coated with compact clay, as a protection 
against the inclemency of the clftnate. From the end of 
October to the beginning of June, the inhabitants totally 
desert the vicinity, residing in the more southern and lower 
part of Kumaon. During the summer months they return to 
this barren and dreary tract, less with a view to the scanty 
crops and pasturage obtainable here, than to the management 
of the active and lucrative traffic with Hiundes. Elevation 
10,680 feet above the sea.* Lat. 30° 19', long. 80° 16'. 

KING NOD. — A town of Malwa, in the native state of 
Jowra, situate on the left bank of a branch of the Chumbul 
river, and eight miles N.N.E. from Jovrra. Lat. 23° 43', 
long. 76° 10'. 


■ B.l.C. M». Doe. 
Rennell. Mem. ot 
Map of Hindu- 
•tan. 89V. 

* Tleffenthaler. 
Deachrelbung eon 
HIndufttan. 1. 888. 


KINJAKHAK. — A town in the recently escheated territory 
of Nagpoor, 153 miles E.N.E. from Nagpoor, and 53 miles 
S.S.E. from Ramgurh. Lat. 22° 6', long. 81° 20'. 

KINTIMBOKE, or KANT AM BOOR, in the Kajpoot 
state of Jeypore, a fortress of great strength, near the southern 
frontier, tow'ards Boondee. It is situate^ on a rock, on all 
sides isolated by deep and nearly impassable ravines, and 
access to the summit is bad only by a narrow pathway, inclosed 
on each side by high and overhanging cliffs ; and in the upper 
part the steepness so increases, that the ascent is made by 
flights of stairs passing through four gateways in succession. 
The summit of the rock, a mile in length, and of nearly equal 
breadth, is surrounded by a massive stone rampart, conforming 
to the irregular verge, and strengthened by towers and bastions. 
Within the inclosure are an antique palace, the residence of 
the governor ; a mosque, the tomb of a reputed Mahomedan 


» Mem. 814. 888. 
887. 

■ TimnMicte. Roy. 
AS. Soe. 1. 148 — 
Tod, Comment* 
on S«ti»crlt ln> 
•criptlone. 


* According to W«bb*8 Field Book. 10.653 above Calcutta, which ie 
twentj-Bve f»et above the level of the eea. according to Jonm. Am. Soc. 

Beng. 1837, p. 937. 

*f Ranarthambor of Taaein ; Runthunbore of Brigge’e Index ; Rantambor 
of the tranalatora of Baber.' According to Colebrooke.* '' ■ometimes writ* 
ten Ran-thamb-bbawer. which is nearer to the Sanscrit Rana-sihamba- 
bhraxnara — the bee of the pillar of war.** From Bbramara, “ bee.** Stambhajdar.COrn 
“ pillar,** and Rana, ** war.** 

820 


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_ realpatidar.com BINTIMBOllE. 

saint, and buildings for tbe accommodation of the garrison. 
Water is supplied from a perennial spring and tanks within 
the walls. To the east of the fort is a town communicating 
with it hj means of a long flight of narrow stone steps. The 
fort, regarded as impregnable before the introduction of 
artillery, is indefensible against the attacks of modern warfare, 
being completely commanded by the rocky summits on all 
sides. According to Tieffenthaler, it was at a remote period 
founded by Eauhamir, a Eajpoot chief. In a.d. 1291 it was 
in vain besieged* by Julal-ood-deen, the Patau king of Delhi, 
and in the reign of his successor AUa-ood-deen, it is men- 
tioned^ as being held by Rajah Bhim^ Deo, who, a.d. 1297, 
gave refuge to one of the nobles flying from the wrath of his 
sovereign. In 1299, Noosrut Khan, the vizier of Alla-ood- 
deen, besieged the fort, but being killed by a stone* thrown 
from an engine, the rajah marched out and defeated the Patan 
array with great slaughter. Alla-ood-deen shortly after in 
person renewed the siege, and having formed a mound from a 
neighbouring height to the top of the rampart, stormed* the 
place, and put to the sword the rajah, his family, and garrison. 
It was subsequently wrested from the sovereign of Delhi, pro- 
bably during the distractions consequent on the invasion of 
Tamerlane at the close of the fourteenth century, and in 1510 
it is mentioned as belonging to the king of Malwa.^ In 1528, 
it was surrendered* by Bikermajet, its Rajpoot possessor, to 
Baber, who assigned him Shamsabad and its territory as a 
remuneration. After the expulsion, in 1553, of Muhammad 
Shah Sur Adili, the Patan king of Delhi, by Humaion, the 
governor of Rintimbore surrendered* it to the rajah of Boondeo, 
who shortly after transferred it to Akbar, receiving in return 
extensive districts and high immunities. It probably fell into 
the hands of the rajah of Jeypore on the dissolution of the 
empire, consequent on the invasion of Ahmed Shah Dooranee 
in 1761. It is at present held,‘ partly* by the rajah of Jeypore, 
partly by the thakoors or feudal nobility of the state, each 
having the honour of defending a particular gate, or portion of 
the work. Distant S.E. from Jeypore 75 miles, S. from 
Delhi 195, S.E. from Ajmere 115. Lat. 25° 56', long. 76° 26'. 

* Called eUewhere bj Ferishta, * Humbur Dew. 

6 Y 


* PerUhiA, I. aoi. 

* Id. i. MS. 


* Id. 1. »7. 


• Id. I. MS. 


f Id. I. 585. 

• Bmh*r, M«in. 
885. 887. 


• Tod, Annalt of 
RtOuthan. 11. 471, 
478. 478. 


* SMlheriand. 
8kctchc« of 
tlont, 70. 


realpatidar.com 

* 1.887. 


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BIS. 


* Llojd and 
fjrmni, Tom'« In 
Himalaya. 11 139. 


• lU »upni. 199. 


* Llojrd and 
0«>ranl. Toura In 
Jliinalaja, il. IW. 


• CJ«»rard, Koona- 
wur, Map. 


BISni IBPU, in Bussahir, a halting-place in Koonawar, 
on the route from Dabling to Bekhur, and nine miles S.£. of 
the former place. It is situate on the right bank of the Hocho, 
in a dreary valley, by which access from the west is gained to 
the Gantung Pass over the mountain dividing the valley of the 
Sutluj from that of the Taglakhar river. The road from the 
Gantung Pass westward to Rishi Irpu lies “ for* a short way 
upon continuous snow, and afterwards on loose rock and snow 
for a mile, where the head of the deli is formed on each side of 
IIS. In this plain of wrecks and horrid scenery, the detached 
summits of the chain rose in various misshapen forms, dark 
and naked on their sides, but terminating in spires and domes 
of perpetual whiteness. Around their bases, which here rest 
at an elevation of 17,000 feet, are enormous accumulationB of 
snow, containing basins of still water, the dread of travellers 
who approach them. The scene surpasses description. The 
dell, nearly half a mile wide, is covered by layers of broken 
stones, exhibiting extraordinary variety, beautiful to the eye, 
but severe to the feet.*’ This halting-place owes its importance 
solely to a scanty growth of juniper, yielding the only fuel to 
be found in this frozen region for a great distance on the route 
to Chinese Tartary. Elevation above the sea 14,800^ feet. 
Lat. 31® 41', long. 78° 40'. 

lirSIII TALAM,* in Bussahir, a halting-place in Koonawar, 
on the route from Dabling to Bekhur, and 18 miles £. of the 
former place. It is situate on the right bank of the Taglakhar, 
and in the upper part of a dell, by which the elevated Kiobrung 
Pass is ascended from the west. Here, at an elevation of 
14,977^ feet above the sea, the thermometer was found at sun- 
rise, in the end of June, to stand at 35°. Lat. 31° 37', long. 
78° 50'. 


* jonm. A*, soc. BISPE,* in Koonaw'ar, a district of the hill state of Bussahir, 

— is a village situate on the left bank of the Sutluj, a short dis- 
to siiipka. tance below the confluence of the river Tidung. Here Lamaic 

Buddhism is found to be the general religion, the traveUer pro- 
ceeding northwards perceiving here for the first time the lamas 
or priests of that belief. The vicinity abounds with manes or 
tumuli, formed of stones, and from ten to forty feet in length, 
four in height, and two in breadth, and covered at top withtidar.com 
large slates, inscribed with various holy texts in the Tibetan 

822 


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language. Elevation above the aea 8,046’ feet. Lat. 81^ 84', 
long. 78° 28'. 

BITHOUBA, in the British district of Bareillj, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the town of Bareillj to Petoragurh, and 11 miles 
N.E. of the former place. It is situate in an open and culti- 
vated country, and supplies and water are abundant. 'Tlie 
road in this part of the route is level, but in some places heavy. 
Eat. 28° 28', long. 79° 84'. 

BIXI. — A town in the British district of Palamow, pre- 
sidency of Bengal, 24 miles S.S.E. of Palamow. Lat. 28° 80', 
long. 84° 11'. 

BOBKBIE, in the Sinde Sagur Dooab division of the Punjab, 
a town situated 10 miles from the left bank of the Indus, 95 
miles S. of the town of Peshawar. Lat. 82° 40', long. 71° 38'. 

BOGI, in Bussahir, a village of the district of Koonawar, 
situate about a mile from the right bank of the Sutluj, which 
rolls 8,000* feet below it. The fine orchards surrounding it 
produce peaches, apricots, and apples,’ of which the last are 
remarkable for siee and excellent taste, though grafting’ is 
never practised to improve the stock. The road from this 
place to Pangi, lying north of it, proceeds along the precipitous 
side of a mountain overhanging the Sutluj. The description of 
Gerard, who travelled by it, is appalling : — “ The last one and 
half mile is of an extraordinary nature, along the brink of a 
tremendous precipice, and often upon unsteady scafiblding, 
that has been constructed with very great labour : this con- 
tinues for several hundred yards together, and is formed of 
spars driven into the crevices of perpendicular faces of rock, 
with their other ends resting upon trees or posts, and boards 
across. Now and then you meet with a rude stair of wood or 
stone, which must have required much trouble to erect. The 
rocks project above the path, and the traveller is obliged fre- 
quently to stoop, in order to avoid them, whilst at the same 
time he must pay equal attention to his footing.** Bogi is 
9,100^ feet above the level of the sea. Lat. 31° 30', long. 
78° 17'. 

BOGONATHPOBE,* in the British district of Pachete, a 
small town or village on the route from Bankoora to Hazarce- 
bagh, 35’ miles N.W. of former, 103 S.E. of latter. .Tacque- 

T 2 


• 0«rmrd, Koona- 
wur, Tabl«» III. No. 
07, at end of toI. 

Oard«n, Tablmi 
of Routa*, SO. 


B.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


E.I.C. Mm. Doe. 


* LInjd and 
Oertird. Toon In 
HImalaja, 979. 

* Joom. Aa. Soc. 
Deng. 1B4«. p. SS4 
— Qprard, Journ. 
to Shipke. 

* Jacqueniont, 

Iv. 909. 


* O^rard. Koona- 
wiir. Table 111. 

No. 190. 

* E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 

reaipatidar.com 

* Garden. Tables 
of Roulaa, 10S. 


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KOH. 


* vojsffM, ui. 280 . mont^ describes it as a small place, situate at the foot of a 
group of small wooded hills of granite, about 800 feet high. 
Lat. 23° 31', long. 86° 44'. 

E.i.e. Doc. KOII. — A town in the British district of Behar, presidency 

of Bengal, GO miles E.N.E. of Sherghotty. Lat. 24° 63', long. 
85° 45'. 


E.I.C. M*. Doc. 


■ B.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


* Garden, Tables 
of Routes, 40.* 


* Garden, Tablaa 
of Routes, 4. 


I E.I.e. Ms. Doe. 


ROHA. — A town in the native state of Cutch, presidency of 
Bombay, 30 miles W. from Bhooj, and 60 miles S.El. from 
Luckput. Lat. 23° 15', long. 69° 17'. 

ROIIANA, in the British district of Suharunpore, lieu- 
tenaut-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Meerut to Suharunpoor, and 42 miles N. of the 
former. Lat. 29° 36', long. 77° 46'. 

ROHENO,* in the British district of AUygurh, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the cantonment of AUygurh to that of Mynpooree, 
and 12^ miles S.E. of the former. The road in this part of the 
route is good, the country open and rather weU cultivated. 

Lat. 27° 49', long. 78° 17'. 

ROHERA. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Oodeypoor, 

42 miles W. by N. from Oodeypoor, and 76 miles N.E. by E. 
from Deesa. Lat. 24° 42', long. 73° KX. 

ROHEYREE, in the British district of AUyghur, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a viUage on the 
route from the city of Agra to AUygurh cantonment, and 20* 
miles S. of the latter. The road in this part of the route is 
good, the country well cultivated. Lat. 27 ^ 39', long. 78° 7'. 

ROHILCUND, an extensive tract so called, lying to the 
east of the Ganges, and bounded on the north-east by British 
Gurwhal and Kumaon ; on the east by the territory of Oude ; 
and on the south-west and west by the Ganges, separating it 
from the Dooab. It comprises the British districts of Bijnour, 
Moradabad, Bareilly, including the subdivision of Pilleebheet, 

Budaon, Shahjehanpoor, and the native jaghire of Ramnpoor. 

Its limits are from lat. 27° 16' — 29° 61', and from long. 78° 3' 

—80° 30'. 

ROHTUK,* one of the districts of the great British terri- 
torial division of Delhi, under the lieutenant-governorship of 
the North-West Provinces, derives its name from its principal tidar.com 
town. It is bounded on the north-east by the British district 


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of Paneeput ; on the east bj the Delhi district and the native 
state of Bahadoorgurh ; on the south by Jhujhur ; on the 
south-west by Dadree ; and on the west by the British district 
Hurrianah, and by Sirhind. It lies between lot. 28^ 38' — 

29° IG', long. 76° l(y — 77° 4'; is fifty miles in length in a 
direction from east to west, and forty-four in breadth, and 
comprises an area of 1,340 square miles. 

The Bohtuk branch of Feroze’s canal traverses this district 
from north to south. The line of the old Delhi Canal lay also 
through this district to Gohana, where it diverged south-east 
to Jatola, and thenceforward took a course identical, or nearly 
so, with the line of the present canal. At Gohana, there is an 
extensive depression, the scene of a great calamity which 
occurred in the course of the original construction of the 
Delhi Canal by Ali Murdan Khan, when the water, escaping 
from the channel intended to confine it, overspread the country, 
and destroyed the town of Lalpur.^ Bohtuk is divided into * coivin. los. 
seven pergunnahs, named severally Bohtuk, Beree, Gohana, 
Kerthowda, Mundowthee, Mehim, and Bewhanee. By the 
latest returns (1846—47), the amount of population is stated 
as follows : — Hindoos, agricultural, 150,572 ; Hindoos, non- 
agricultural, 81,541 ; Mabomedans and others, not being 
Hindoos, agricultural, 16,720 ; of the like classes, non- 
agricultural, 45,286 ; making a total of 294,119. A classifi- 
cation of the towns and villages, drawn from official records 
of the same date, shows the following results : — 

Number containing less than 1,000 inhabitants 204 


Ditto more than 1,000, less than 5,000 70 

Ditto more than 5,000, less than 10,000 4® 

Ditto more than 10,000 2t 


280 

The land revenue has been fixed* for a term of thirty years, » Aeuof ooTt.or 
which will expire on the 1st of July, 1870. rndu. wo. viii.uf 

BOHTUK.^ — The chief place in the British district of the » e.i.c. ms. doc. 
same name. It lies on the route from the city of Delhi to 
Hansee, and 42 miles N.W. of the former place : it is situate 
on a watercourse forty-five miles long, formed by order of the 

realpatidar.com 

• Beree, 9,397; Gohana, 6,668; Mehim, 5,660; Kulanwnr, 6,112. 
f Rohtuk, 10,360 ; Bhewanee, 29,442. 

825 


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ROH— ROL. 


* Joarn. At. Soe. 

18SA, p.114 
Colvin, oo 
Ancient Canals In 
Delhi Terrilorj. 

» 8ur. N.W.P. M. 

♦ Oardan, Tables 
of Routes, 143. 
B.r.C. M«. Doe. 
Oanlen. Tables of 
Routes, 143. 


R.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


Oardsn, Tables of 
Routes, 383. 


B.I.C. Me. Doe. 


B.I.a Ma. Doc. 


E.I.C. If a. Doe. 
Garden, Tables 
Routes. 3. 


British goyemment in 1825, to convey a supply from the canal ^ 
of Ferozshah. The population^ amounts to 10,850, and there 
is a good bazar.^ The road in this part of the route is 
generally good, though in some places sandy and heavy. Lat. 

28® 54', long. 76® 38'. 

BOIIUD, in the British district of Rohtuk, division of 
Delhi, lieutenant-governorship of Agra, presidency of Bengal, 
a village on the route from Delhi to Hansee, and 27 miles 
N.W. of the former. The road in this part of the route is 
good in dry weather. Lat. 28® 44', long. 76® 62'. 

BOH UN PORE, in the British district of Bajeshaye, pre* 
sideucy of Bengal, a town on the western frontier, towards the 
British district of Malda, on the left side of the river Maha- 
nunda, a short distance below the confluence of the Pumabada. 

Distant S.E. from town of Maldah 20 miles, N. from Calcutta, 
by Burhampoor, 168. Lat. 24® 48', long. 88® 20'. 

BO HUT, in the Rajpoot state of Jodhpoor, a village on the 
route from Neemuch, vid Palee, to the city of Jodhpoor, and 
24 miles S. of the latter. Supplies can be procured, but good 
water is scarce. The road to the south ts sandy, over undulating 
ground ; to the north, hard and good in some places, in others 
very sandy, over an open plain. Lat. 25® 69', long. 73® 14'. 

BOLE BAZAAR. — A town in the British district of Pooree, 
presidency of Bengal, 23 miles N.N.E. of Juggumaut. Lat. 

20® 7', long. 86®. 

BO JAN. — A town in the British district of Shikarpoor, 
province of Scinde, presidency of Bombay, 29 miles N.W. of 
Shikarpoor. Lat. 28® 18', long. 68® 18'. 

BOLAGAON. — A town of Malwa, in the native state of 
Bhopal, 49 miles S.W. by W. from Bhopal, and 61 miles E. by 
N. from Indoor. Lat. 22® 61', long. 76® 48'. 

BOLEE, in the British district of Budaon, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Agra to Bareilly, and 41 miles S.W. of the latter. 

The road in this part of the route is good, the country partiaUy 
cultivated, but in some places overrun with jungle. Lat. 

28® 2', long. 79® 6'. 

BOLPAH. — A town in the native state of Nepal, 40 miles 
8. from Jemlah, and 121 miles E. from Pilleebheet. Lat. 28® 46'|ti dar.com 
long. 81® 61'. 

320 


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rea I pati d a r. com BON — BO O. 

BONCHl/ in the BritiBb dialrict of Muttra, lieutenant- 
gOTomorahip of the North-West Provmces, a village on the 
route fjpom the city of Agra to that of Muttni, and five miles 
S, of the latter. It is situate near the right bank of the 
Jumns^ in a country cut up by ravines, and partially cultivated. 
The road is sandy, heavy, and bad for wheeled carriages. Lat. 
27 ^ 25 \ long. 77° 47\ 

BrONTAN,^ a oomiderable village in Baeen, a small liill 
dietrict occupied by the East- India Company, among the tnoun- 
tains between the Himalayas and the plains, is situate near the 
lejft bank of the Pabur. It was a secondary station in the 
trigonometrical survey of the Himalayas. Mevation above the 
sea 7,898 feet. Bat. 81° long. 77° 6(/. 

BOODHAJVfOW. — A town in the native state of Oude, 
situate 10 mOes Iram the left bank of the Ganges, and 51 
miles W. by N, from Lucknow. Lat. 27° 7', long. 80° 13\ 

BOODBAB. — A town in the British district of Cuddapah, 
presidency of Madras, 68 miles N.N.W. of Cuddapah. Lat, 
15° le^, long, 78° 40'. 

BOODUBPOOB, — A town in the Britieli district of Chota 
Nagpoor, presidency of Bengal, 61 miles S.W. by 3. of Loha- 
dugga. Lat. 22° 46', long. 84° 9'. 

BOODUBPOOB,* • in the British district of Ooruckpore, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small 
town, containing 800^ mud^built dwellings, with a population 
of 5,535 inhabitants,^ is situate on the Mujbane, a small stream, 
a feeder of the river Eaptee. Adjoining the town is a building* 
of considerable sis&e, formerly a mandtr (temple), of pyramidal 
sliape, with a small chamber in its lower part, and surrounded 
on all sides by a number of lower buildings. The chamber 
coniams an image of Yasudeo or Krishna, vrhich has lost its 
legs and part of its arms ; and on each side is the lion rampant 
of Gautama. On part of the ruins adjoining this ancient 
temple a petty rajah of the place has built a small temple, and 
placed in it another image taken from the ruins, and which 
resembles that called Jagannath, but which has received the 
name of Cbatrabboj. Boodurpoor is distant S.B. from Goruck- 
poor cantonment 26 miles. Lat. 26° 24', long. 83° 4Cy. 

BOODUBPOOB^* in the British district of Bareilly, the 
* From Rudr, a title of Siv*, end Pur, *'towa." 

337 


B-I.C. Hi. Doe. 
0>n]«n, TmiilM of 
lUMltH, 14. 


I &.r.C. Ml. Doe. 
E.l.C. Trifoo. 
Suit. 


■ A*. Rh, sIt. 
33a* — HoSgtoa 

Trtftim. Survey of 
HlniKlaju. 


S.I.O. Ml. Doe. 


E.l.a Ml. Doc. 


■ E.1.0. Mi. Doe. 


* Buehunin, Sur- 
r*f of Ewtom 
Indtu. ]l. SSH. 

* SUiUiUei of 
a.W. ProT. 1401. 

* Buchftnfto, 

U.371. 


* E.I.O. Mr Do.iatidar.com 


G'- 0<;iC 


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ROO. 


* Journ. in tndla« 
L 4dA. 


9 Onrden, Tiiblct 
of Route*, fiO. 


* Oorden, Tnblea 
of Route*, 44. 


I E.I.C. M*. Doe. 


* Joum. Roj. At. 
8oc. I. S49— Colo- 
brooke, on the 
Valley of iho 
BeCleJ. 

Lloyd end Oerard, 
Tourt In Hima- 
laya. II. 8. 


* Colebrooke, ut 
■upra, 843. 


principal place of the pergunnah of the same name, on the 
route from Bareilly to Almora, and 53 miles N. of the former. 

It is situate on the bank of a bright rippling stream, a feeder of 
the Ramgunga, amongst some very fine mango-groves, from 
which the tops of temples and other buildings appearing, give 
the place, when viewed at some distance, an appearance of 
beauty and importance, that quickly vanish on a nearer 
approach. Heber^ found ** all the usual marks of a diminished 
and sickly population, a pestilential climate, and an over- 
luxuriant soil. The tombs and temples were all ruins; the 
houses of the present inhabitants, some two or three score of 
wretched huts, such as even the gipsies of the open country 
would hardly shelter in. The people sat huddled together at 
their doors, wrapped in tlieir black blankets, and cowering 
round little fires, with pale faces and emaciated limbs ; while 
the groves, wdiich looked so beautiful at a distance, instead 
of oflering, as mango-groves do in well-peopled and cultivated 
spots, a fine open shade, with a dry turf and fresh breeze 
beneath it, were all choked up with jungle and nightshade.*' 

The road is good ^ on the north, or Almora side, but bad on the 
south, towards Bareilly. Elevation above the sea 629 feet. 

Lat. 28° 58', long. 79° 28'. 

ROOKUNPUR, in the British district of Boolundshuhur, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from Allygurh cantonment to that of Delhi, and 
23 miles ‘ N.W. of the former. The road in this part of the 
route is good ; the country open, with a sandy soil, and scantily 
cultivated. Lat. 28° 9', long. 77° 58'. 

ROOL,* in Bussahir, a village near the southern base of the 
Shatul Pass, gives name to a small district in the pergunnah 
of Chooara. The district of Rool contains five villages, varying 
in elevation above the sea from 9,000 to 9,400 feet, at which 
last altitude it is the highest inhabited^ ground on the south- 
western face of the Snowy range. The crops are wheat, barley, 
buckwheat, and pulse : wheat, however, seldom comes to com- 
plete maturity, and is cut sometimes nearly green. The road 
rises rapidly to the Buchkal Ghat, through a beautiful wood of 
oak, yew, pine, rhododendron, horse-chestnut, and juniper. 

Rool village is 9,350 feet® above the sea. Lat. 31° 19', com 

77° 57'. 


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realpatidar.com ituu. 

BOOM AH,* in the British district of Cawnpore, lieutenant- 
go^emorship of the North-West Proyinces, a viUage on the 
route from the cantonment of Cawnpore to Futtehpoor, and 
10 miles^ S.E. of the former. The road in this part of the 
route is good, the country level and partially cultivated. Lat. 
26° 21', long. 80° SO'. 

BOONUNQ,* in Bussahir, a pass in the district of Koona- 
war, over a range dividing the valley of Buskulung from that 
of Pejur. The ridge consists of slate, and the crest of the pass 
is below the limits of perpetual congelation, as the juniper 
grows there, and even on the heights above. The pass is closed 
for four of the coldest months of the year, and the communica- 
tion is then effected by a circuitous and very dangerous route 
along the bank of the Sutluj. Elevation of Bunung Pass 
above the level of the sea 14,500 feet.^ Lat. 81° 48', long. 
78° 28'. 

BOOPQUNGE. — A town in the British district of Dacca, 
presidency of Bengal, eight miles N.E. of Dacca. Lat. 28° 47', 
long. 90° 81'. 

BOOPGUBH. — A town in the Bajpoot state of Jeypoor, 
45 miles N.W. from Jeypoor, and 76 miles N.E. by N. from 
Ajmeer. Lat. 27° 21', long. 75° 22'. 

BOOPNABAIN. — A large estuary extending twelve miles, 
between the British districts Hoogly and Hedjelee, from 
Tumlook, in lat. 22° 18', long. 88°, to Fort Momington, in lat. 
22° 18', long. 88° 6'. This expanse is formed by the Dalkisore 
meeting the tide at its entrance into the estuary of the 
Hoogbly. 

BOOPNUGUB. — A town -in the Bajpoot state of Kishen- 
gurh, 26 miles N.E. by N. from Ajmeer, and 61 miles W. by 
B. from Jeypoor. Lat. 26° 47', long. 74° 55'. 

BOOPOHEE BIVEB. — A considerable watercourse formed 
by the Brahmapootra river : it leaves that stream in lat. 26° 84', 
long. 92° 51', and rejoins it again in lat. 26° 17', long. 92° 1', 
after a course of seventy miles, through the district of Now- 
g^ng, in Lower Assam. 

BOO PS EE, in the Bajpoot state of Jesulmeer, a small town 
and fort 10 miles N.W. of the city of Jesulmeer. Lat. 26° 58', 
long. 70P 50'. 

BOOPYN. — A river of Guzerat, rising in lat. 28° 81', long. 

S29 


■ E.I.C. Mt. Doe. 


• 0«rden, TublM 
of Routes, 189. 


' Lloyd end 
Gerard, Toura In 
Hlmalajn, II. 806. 
Juum. As. Soc. 
Ben«. IS.*IU. p 090 
— Hutton, Trip 
tlirough Kune- 
wur. 

Id. 1048, p. 368— 
Gerard, Joum to 
Shipke. 

Oenml, Koons- 
wur, 63. 

* Gerard. Koons- 
wur, Teble 111. 110. 

B.I.C. Ml. Doe. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


Boilesv, Tour In 
Rsjwara, 187. 

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BOO— EOR 


I E.I.C. Ml. Doc. 


* Garden. Tablea 
of Routea, 9d. 


I E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* Report on 
Oanfea Canal* 7, 
and App. B. 


* CaleutU Re- 
view* zli. lAO. 


* India Pub. Dbp. 
B Peb. IBM. 

« E.I.C. Ma. Doe. 
R.I.C. Tfifon. 
Surr. 


* Joam. Aa. 8oe. 
Bang. 1849* p. 804 
— Gerard (Air.)* 
Journey to8blpke. 

B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 
Garden* Tablea 
of Roulea* 187. 


Joum. Aa. Soc. 
l<enf.lB40.pp.574- 
877 — Hutton* Trip 
through ICunawur. 


72^ 2 ^, and, flowing west for fortj-two miles, falls into the 
Bunn of Cutch, in lat. 23® 28', long. 71° 28'. 

BOOBQAON,* in the British district of Cawnpore, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Allahabad to Etawa, and 63 miles ^ S.£. of the 
latter. The road in this part of the route is good, the country 
fertile. Lat. 26° 14', long. 79° 49'. 

BOOBKEE,^ in the British district of Suharunpore, lien- 
tenant-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on 
one of the most elevated sites ^ in the doab between the Jumna 
and the Ganges. It is on this account that the great Ganges 
Canal has been made to pass by this place, whence channels of 
irrigation can he directed to most parts of the Doab. With the 
view of eflectiiig this project, the river Solani has been traversed 
by an aqueduct of 920 feet in length. The clear waterway will 
be 750 feet, by fifteen arches of fifty feet span each : the esti- 
mated cost of the aqueduct is 158,000/.* The selection of this 
place as the head-quarters of the canal operations, and the 
establishment of the necessary workshops, model-rooms, and 
offices, hove tended to convert a small village into a consider- 
able European station. A college has been established here, 
for the purpose of afibrding instruction in civil engineering to 
Europeans and natives, and which, as a mark of respect to the 
memory of its founder, has been designated the ** Thomason 
College.”^ Lat. 29° 53', long. 77° 57'. 

BOOBOO,^ in Bussahir, a village on the right bank of the 
Pabur, near the confluence of a small feeder called the Supil. 

The neighbouring tract is described by Hutton as the most 
populous and best cultivated which he had seen in the hills. 

It is peculiarly well suited for the culture of rice, being watered 
by many canals, cut from the river which winds through itv 
Elevation of the village above the sea 5,100 feet.* Lat. 31° 12', 
long. 77° 48'. 

BOOSHKATONG. — See Dabbuko. 

BOOSTUMPOOB, in the British district of Moradahad, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from Hurdwar to the town of Moradahad, and 
13 miles N.W. of the latter. The road in this part of the 
route is good. Lat. 29° 1', long. 78° 45'. realpatidar.com 

BO PA, in Bussahir, a village of the district of Koonawur, is 

S90 


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realpatidar.com BOPUB. 

sitoaie in the vallej of Buakulung, and near the left hank of 
the river Darbung. Three or four miles from this village are 
numerous extensive and rich veins of copperK>re, situate 13,000 
feet above the level of the sea. Access to this locality is 
obtained with excessive difficulty by climbing up the precipitous 
aide of a lofty mountain, near the summit of which the prin- 
cipal veins have been discovered. These lie in white quartz, 
running between grauwacke and red sandstone, which are here 
the chief formations. Elevation of Bopa above the sea 0,800 
feet. Lat. 81® 47', long. 78® 28'. 

BOPUB,* in Sirhind, a town situate a mile from the left 
bank of the Sutlej, a short distance below its efflux^ from the 
Himalaya. The river is here crossed by a ferry, affording an 
important communication between the Punjab and Sirhind. 
It is described to be ** a noble stream, thirty feet deep, and 
more than 500* yards in breadth.*’^ Its bed consists of large 
smooth pebbles, mixed with mud. The low range of the Sub- 
Himalaya, bounding Sirhind on the north-east, does not reach 
to the Sutlej, along the left bank of which a narrow plain 
extends for several miles, and in this the town is situate, on a 
slight eminence.^ It was the residence of the rajah of the 
adjacent territory, which yielded an annual revenue of 6,000/. ; 
but he, being one of the protected Sikh chiefs who failed in 
fidelity to the British government on the breaking out of the 
war with Lahore subsequently to the death of Bunjeet Singh, 
was compelled to retire on a pensionary provision, and his 
territory escheated^ to the British authority. Here, in 1831, 
an interview took place between Lord William Bentinck, 
Governor- General of India, and Bunjeet Singh ; the Sikh ruler 
first crossing on a bridge of boats, and subsequently receiving 
in turn the visit of the Governor-General, on the right bank of 
the Sutlej. On ** the Ist of November, 1831, both camps 
broke ground, and commenced their march in opposite direc- 
tions, after a week of magnificence and mutual display, reminding 
one of the days of the field of cloth ^ of gold.” On this occa- 
sion, Bunjeet requested and received from the British aut\^o- 
rities a paper, containing a promise of perpetual friendship. 
Boopur is about 1,100 feet above the level of theses. Distant 
N.W. from Calcutta 1,120 miles. Lat. 30® 68', long. 76® 37'. 

^ Uojd' states the breadth to be 560 yards. 


I Baber. SOI. 
R.I.C. Trifon. 
Sure. 

* Joum. As. Soc. 
Beog. 1S37. p. 170 
— Mackf^n. Are. 
of Wad«*s Vnyaga 
down the Sutlej. 

* Vlgne, Keahmir. 

i.as. 


* Llojd. Joum. to 
Hlmalajas, 1. M. 


• India Pol. Diep. 
S8 March, IS40. 


* Prinaep, Life of 
RuixJeet Singh. 

too. 


realpatidar.com 

• Jotimrj to 
Hlmalajn. I. 04. 


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ROKEE. 


w«»tmarott. ROREE, OF LOHUREE (the ancient Lohurkot), in Sinde, 

^ town situate on the eastern bank of the Indus, on a rocky 

Macrourd.i. Jour, emtoenco of limestooe, interspersed with flint. This rocky 

Roy. A». Soc. •• 

1834 , p. <90. Site 18 terminated abruptly on the western side by a precipice 
of forty feet high, rising from the beach of the Indus, which, 
in inundation, attains a height of about sixteen feet above its 
lowest level. Westmacott is of opinion that it formerly must 
have risen to fifty feet, washing the brow of the eminence on 
which Roree stands, and that then the neighbouring rocky 
islets in the Indus were sunken rocks. According to the 
unanimous testimony of the natives, the level of the river 
during inundation continually decreases, and this is probably 
owing more to the wearing down of the rocky bed, than to any 
diminution of the supply of water in the upper part of the 
river’s course. 

Roree, when seen from without, has a striking and pleasing 
appearance, as the houses are four or five stories high, and of 
corresponding extent ; but when surveyed more closely, they 
are found to be ruinous, in many instances rudely constructed 
with a slight timber frame, filled up with wicker-work, and 
plastered with mud : and as whitewash, though very easily 
obtainable, is not used, they have a dingy and neglected 
appearance. The few more costly houses of burned brick were 
erected by wealthy merchants before the establishment of the 
dynasty of the late ameers. The streets are so narrow that a 
camel in passing occupies the entire breadth from side to side. 

The air, in consequence, is very close and unwholesome. There 
are forty mosques in which prayers are still recited, and twice 
that number in a state of ruin and desertion. The great 
mosque stands on an elevated site in the north-east part of the 
town, and was built at the commencement of the seventeenth 
century, by the lieutenant of the Emperor Acbar. It is a 
massive, gloomy pile of red brick, covered with three domes, 
and coated with glazed porcelain tiles. In an adjacent shrine 
is kept a hair in amber, in a gold case set with rubies and 
emeralds, and inclosed in another of wood enriched with silver. 

This the pious Mahometan undoubtingly believes to be a hair 
of the beard of his prophet ; and a number of guardians of this 
precious relic are supported at the public expense. realpatidar.com 

993 



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realpatidar.com ROE — EOT. 

Eoree has a apncious and well-built serai, or lodging-place 
for travellers, but it has been allowed to fall into great decay. 
There are two bazars, one for grain, the other for miscellaneous 
articles, and both are tolerably well supplied ; but they are ill- 
built and ruinous. Manufactures are few and unimportant. 
They embrace the fabrication of paper of indifferent quality, 
leather, silks, and cottons, and the dyeing and printing of the 
last-named article. The population is mixed, consisting of 
Hindoos, indigenous Sindians, Belooches, Afghans, and Moguls. 
All trades and handicrafts, with the exception of works in gold, 
silver, and jewellery, are in the hands exclusively of Mahome- 
tans ; the Hindoos devote themselves chiefly to banking, 
money-broking, and similar trafiBc. The population is esti- 
mated at about 8,000. Lat. 27^ 38', long. 68^ 55'. 

EOEEE MEEE SHAH, in the Daman division of the 
Punjab, a town situated on the right bank of the Indus, 
75 miles N.W. by N. of the town of Mooltan. Lat. 81°, long. 
70° 46'. 

EOSHUXABAD, in the British district of Furruckabad, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
near the right bank of the Hanges, 10 miles N.W. of the city 
of Furruckabad. Lat. 27° 30', long. 79° 82'. 

EOSS ISLAND. — A considerable island, forming one of the 
group known as the Mergpii Archipelago. Its centre is about 
lat. 12° 14', long. 98° 12'. 

EOTANGA PASS, leading through the mountains that 
separate the British district of Lahoul from KuUu, 82 miles 
N. of Sultanpoor. Lat. 32° 25', long. 77° 12'. 

EOTAS, in the Punjab, an extensive fort six miles west of 
the right or western bank of the river Jhelum.^ The interior 
is two miles and half long, and is of an oblong, narrow form, 
having its two sides and eastern end resting upon the edge of 
ravines, which divide it from a table-land of elevation equal to 
that of the hill on which the fort stands. The western face of 
the plateau is washed by the small river Gham running at its 
base. Its works are of immense strength, consisting of massive 
walls of stone thirty feet thick, cemented with mortar, and 
strengthened with bastions, all crenated throughout, and pro- 
vided with a double row of loopholes. Connected With the 

333 


B.I.C. U*. Dor. 


E.I.C. Ml. Doc. 


* Moorcr. PunJ. 
Bokh. II. 90Q. 
BIph. Arc of 
Couhul. 80. 
Ferbhto, Ul. 110. 


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ROT— ROU. 


* P. Von Huk« 1 . 
KMChfoIr, 111. 

• Prieo, Mahomo- 
dan Hitt. 111.781. 
Bumaa, Bokh. 

L 0 2. 


* Hough, S 44 . 


I Llnyd and 
Oerard, Toiim In 
HUnalaya, II. 104. 


t B.l.C. Ma. l>ue. 


* Gnrdan, Tablet 
of Routot, 110. 


■ E.I.C. 5ft. Doc. 


* Garden. Tablet 
of Routea, 50. 


fortress is an immense well, lined with masonry, and having 
passages down to the water so numerous that from fifty to a 
hundred persons may draw water at once.’ 

The present fortress was built about the year 1540, by Shir 
Shah,* the Patan emperor of Delhi, who had driven Huraaioon 
into exile ; and he is said to have expended a million and a half 
sterling in its construction. When Huraaioon returned, at 
the head of an army, to reclaim his empire, the fortress was 
given up to him without resistance. He demolished the palace 
raised within the fort by his rival and enemy, but found the 
massive defences too strong for the limited time and means 
which he could allow for their destruction. The fortress is at 
present in a ruinous state, and in one place a huge mass of the 
wall has tumbled down the precipice, and rendered the interior 
accessible. It is considered by military men indefensible 
against modem modes of attack.* Dat. 82^ 59 ^, long. 73^ SS'. 

ROTAS. — See Rhotasourh. 

ROTIIINGI, in Bussahir, a pass in the district of Koonawar, 
over a ridge rising abruptly from the left or south-eastern bank 
of the Taglakhar torrent. The ascent of the pass from the 
south-west is a mile in length, at an angle from top to bottom 
of 43°. The elevation of the crest of the pass is 14,688^ feet 
above the sea, yet the rays of the sun, reverberated from the 
bare rocks, produced a heat quite oppressive. Above **rise 
hoary summits^ of incredible height and grandeur, with extensive 
valleys between them, loaded by prodigious bodies of un- 
dissolving snow.” Lat. 81° 36', long. 78° 42'. 

ROTUK. — See Rohtuk. 

ROTUNDA GHAUT. — See Rurtowda. 

ROUDPUR,' in the British district of Cawnpore, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Calpee to the cantonment of Cawnpore, and seven’ 
miles S.W. of the latter. The road in this part of the route 
is generally bad, being much cut up by incessant travelling ; 
the country is well cultivated. Lat. 26° 29', long. 80° 20'. 

ROUNAPOOR,' in the British district of Azimgurh, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the town of Azimgurh to that of Qt)ruckpoor, 
and 18’ miles N. of the former, 43 S. of the latter. It has atidar.com 
few shops ; water is plentiful, and supplies may be had from 


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the BUiTOunding oountiy, which is low, level, and partially 
cultivated. Distant N. from Benares 70 miles. Lat. 20^ 16', 
long. 88° 20^. 

ROWDI GBLA.T, in the British district of Bijnour, lieu- R.i.c.Trigon. 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a ferry over Tia»i«* 

the Ganges, on the route from Moradabad to Mosuffumuggur, of Routes, asi. 
and 26 miles £. of the latter town. The village of Bowli is 
situate on the left bank of the Ganges. The road on the 
south-eastern side, towards Bijnour, is good, but on the right 
side of the river is bad, lying over khadir or marsh-laud. Dis- 
tant N.W. from Calcutta 970 miles. Let. 29° 26', long. 78° 8'. 

HOWHAH. — A town in the British district of Ahmed- b.i.c. ms. doc. ^ 
nuggur, presidency of Bombay, 118 miles N.W. by N. of 
Ahmednuggur. Lat. 20° 29', long. 78° 42'. 

HOWSUHA. — A town in the British district of Tirhoot, b.i.c. Ms. Doe. 
presidency of Bengal, 81 miles S.S.E. of Durbunga. Lat. 

25° 43', long. 86° 7'. 

HOXAKANDEE. — A town in the British district of Jessore, s.t.c. m«. Doc. 
presidency of Bengal, 60 miles N.E. of Jessore. Lat. 28° 40', 
long. 89° 26'. 

HOYACOTTAH. — A town in the British district of Salem, e.x.o. Uu Ooo. 
presidency of Madras, 61 miles N* by W. of Salem. Lat. 

12° 31', long. 78° 6'. 

HOY BAHEILLY,* in the district of Banswara, in the ■ E.i.a m«. doc. 
territory of Oude, a town on the route from Allahabad to 
Lucknow, and 73^ miles N.W. of the former, 55 S.E. of * Garden, Tabioa 
the latter. It is situate* on the river Sai, which is crossed by ? 
a brick-built bridge, and is navigable so far up, and can bear 
craft of twelve^ tons, though there are none except a few ferry- « Suuer, is.* 
boats at the place, in consequence of the intolerable exactions 
of the proprietors of lands along the lower course of the river. 

It is mentioned in the Ayeen Akbery,* in the sirkar or sub- « ii. so. 
division Manikpoor, soobah or province Allahabad. '^Hoy- 
bereyli has a brick fort, and is assessed at 91,274 rupees.” 

Lat. 26° 14', long. 81° 19'. 

ROYBUGGA. — A town on the S.W. frontier of Bengal, 
in the native state of Ghmgpoor, situate on the left bank of the 
Slink river, and 81 miles N.E. by N. from Sumbulpoor. Lat. 

22° 17', long. 84° 42'. realpatidar.com 

ROYCHANGA. — A town in the British district of Coosh b.i.c. n*. doc. 

836 


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BOY— EUD. 


E.l.C. Mt. Dor. 


> S.I.C. .M«. Dor. 

• TirflWnlliikter, 
BrschrvllMing vnn 
HlndusUn. I. Ittl. 


I B.I.C. 51ft. Due. 

• Gnrden, Table! 
of Route*, 8. 


B.I.C.'Mft. Doe. 


■ E.l.C. lift. Doe. 


* Surrej of 
EamUtii ludia, 
U. S»i. 


* E.l.C. Mft. Doc. 
E I.C. Trifon. 
Sure. 

• Tours In Hima- 
laja, 470. 

A*. Reft. sill. — 
Journey to tlia 
Sources of the 
Jumna and Bha- 
^ratlil, 'JTA. 

* Aft. Re«. sir. 
W4*. 

• E.l.C. Mft. Doc. 
E.I.C. Trifcon. 
Sure. 


Behar, presidency of Bengal, 18 miles N.W. of Behar. Lat. 

20^ 27', long. 89^" 16'. 

BOYMUNGUL HIVER.— One of the mouths of the 
Ganges, falling into the sea in lat. 21^ 42', long. 89^ 5'. 

RUBOOPOORA, in the British district of Bolundshuhur, 
licutenant'governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
on the route from Muttra to Delhi, by the left bank of the 
Jumna, 35 miles S.E. of Delhi. Lat. 28^ 15', long. 77^ 4(y. 

RUDAULI,^ in the kingdom of Oude, a town 40 miles £. 
of Lucknow. It is surrounded by swamp,* except on the west 
side, and is superior to many other places of this country, in 
having brick-built houses ; and there is also a Mussulman 
mausoleum of the same material. Lat. 26^ 54', long. 81^ 27'. 

RUDAWAL,^ in the territory of Bhurtpore, a village on the 
route from Agra to Mow, 41* miles S.W. of the former, 374 
N.E. of the latter. Close to it is encamping-ground, and 
supplies and water are obtainable. Lat. 26^ 59', long. 77^ 29'. 

RUDLEGUNJ. — A town in the British district of Rung- 
pore, presidency of Bengal, 14 miles W. by S. of ‘Rungpore. 

Lat. 25° 37', long. 89° 2'. 

RUDOWLEE,* in the British district of Goruckpoor, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small 
town on the river Ami, 40 miles N.W. of Goruckpoor canton- 
ment. Buchanan,* describing it forty years ago, states the 
number of houses to be 100 ; and, assigning six to each house, 
the population consequently may be estimated at 600. Lat. 

27° 3', long. 82° 48'. 

RUDRA HIMALEH,^ a lofty summit of the Himalaya, 
rises on the eastern frontier of Gurhwal, towards Chinese 
Tartary. Fraser,* who viewed it from Gangotri, at a distance 
of eight or ten miles, describes it under that aspect as Having 
five huge, lofty snowy peaks, rising behind a mass of bare 
rocky spires. The highest summit, as ascertained in the 
trigonometrical survey,* has an elevation of 22,390 feet above 
the sea. Lat. 30° 58', long. 79° 9'. 

RUDRAPRAYAG,^ in the British district of Kumaon, 
lieutenant-governorship of Agra, presidency of Bengal, a village 
at the confluence of the rivers Alocananda and Mandakini. At 
an inconsiderable height above the water is a small math or iar.com 
temple, and adjacent a few houses of Brahmins. There is also 

3M 


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a rock thirtj feet high and fifteen in diameter, called Bhim ka 
Chulha, or the “ Kitchen of Bhim,” a giant famous in Hindoo 
lore. It is completely excavated, somewhat in the form of a 
dome, with apertures at top, in which Bhim is supposed to 
have placed his cooking utensils. It is one of the five principal 
prajags^ or confluences mentioned as holy in the sacred books 
of the Hindoos. Its elevation above the sea is about 2,200 
feet. Distance N.W. from Calcutta, by Lucknow, Bareilly, 
Almora, and Srinagar, 1,020^ miles. Lat. 80° 17', long. 
79° 2'. 

BUGONATHGTJBH. — A town in the Rajpoot state of Jey- 
poor, 67 miles N.N.W. from Jeypoor, and 104 miles S. by W. 
from Hissar. Lat. 27° 40', long. 76° 31'. 

RUGOWLEE,* in the British district of Banda, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a lofty rocky 
eminence, very steep and difficult of ascent, 10 miles N. of the 
hill-fort of Ajegurh. In 1809, when the British government 
commenced^ military operations against Luchman Singh, rajah 
of Ajegurh, his uncle, Pursaud Singh, took post with about 
600 picked men on the hill of Rugowlee, the fortified summit 
of which was accessible only by narrow zigzag pathways, com- 
manded every twenty yards by strong posts behind large rocks, 
and manned with matchlockmen. All the lower defences w^ere, 
however, successively stormed by the British forces, who, for 
want of scaling-ladders, being unable to make good an 
entrance within the upper inclosure, were withdrawn. In the 
course of the night the inclosure was, however, evacuated by 
the enemy, leaving their chief and between sixty and seventy 
of their number killed, 160 or 160 being wounded. The 
British loss amounted to twenty-eight killed and 116 wounded. 
The summit of the hill is probably about 800 feet above the 
base, or 1,300 above the sea. Lat. 26° 1', long. 80° 22'. 

RUHEEMPOOR, in the British district of Gt>orgaon, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
on the right bank of the Jumna. Distant S.E. from Delhi 42 
miles. Lat. 28° 6', long. 77° 81'. 

RUHOLEE, in the British district of Moradabad, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from Bareilly to Delhi, 40 miles W. of the former. The 
road in this part of the route is good ; the country is open, 

6 ^5 *837 


* A*. Re«. irl. 16B 
— Tr«ni, 

licQt Sketch of 
Kemiioa. 

* Gerdan, Tablet 
of Route*. 


1 B.l.C. Mt. Doc. 


* At. Ann. Ref. 
1800. Chronicle, 
pp. 87*30. 


E.I.a Mt. Doc. 


Garden, Ttbht 
of Route*, 89. 

realpatidar.com 


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RUJ— RUN. 


1 E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


* Onrdon. ThMm 
of Routv«, 2d. 


E.I.C. M>. Doe. 


K.I.C. »ls. IV>c. 
Oardfn. Tubhii 
of ltuutt;», 94. 


» E.I.C. Mr. Doc. 


• StHtiHtiCt of 
N.W. Prov. 55. 


K.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


1 E.l.r. M«. Doo. 


* Garden, Table* 
of Route*, 110. 


E.I.C. M*. Doe. 


E.I.C. Mi. Doc, 


with considerable cultivation, and in a few placet overrun with 
jungle. Lat. 28^ 2r, long. 78^ 54'. 

KUJGAWA,' in the British district of Allahabad, lieute- 
nant-govemorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route hy tho Hajapur ferry, from the cantonment of 
Allahabad to Bauda, and 41 miles^ W. of the former. Tho 
road in this part of the route is bad and winding, the country 
well cultivated. Lat. 25° 25', long. 81° 21'. 

RUJ LA. — A tow’n of Malwa, in the native state of Jabboah, 

10 miles S. by E. from Jabboah, and 96 miles E.N.E. from 
Baroda. Lat. 22° 39', long. 74° 39'. 

RUJORA, iu the territory of Dholpoor, a town on the route 
from Agra to Baree, 30 miles S.W. of former, 14 N.W. of the 
town of Dholpoor. Lat. 26° 50', long. 77° 45'. 

RUJOU, in the British district of Bareilly, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the town of Bareilly to Shahjehanpoor, and seven 
miles S.E. of the former. The road in this part of the route ia 
good ; the country open, level, and well cultivated. Lat. 

28° 17', long. 79° 33'. 

RUMALUH,^ in the British district of Meerut, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Delhi to Suharunpore, 88 miles N. of the former. 
Rumaluh has a population of 5,284 inhabitants.^ Lat. 29° 13', 
long. 77° 20'. 

RUMYEEPOOR, in the British district of Cawnpore, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
10 miles W. of the right bank of the Ganges. Lat. 26° 21', 
long. 80° 21'. 

RUNDALA. — See Khukdalu. 

RUNEEA,^ in the British district of Cawnpore, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small town on 
the route from the cantonment of Cawnpore to that of Calpee, 
and 31 miles^ N.E. of the latter. The road in this part of the 
route is bad, the country partially cultivated. Lat. 26° 24', 
long. 80° 8'. 

RUNGAGOORA. — A town in the British district of 
Muttuck, presidency of Bengal, 55 miles N.R of Seebpoor. 

Lat. 27° 32', long. 95° 20'. realpatidar.com 

RUNGAMUTTEE. — A town in the British district of 

S5S 


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realpatidar.com BUN- 

GoalparOf prefiidency of Beogal, 40 miles W- of Goalpara. 

I.at. 26=^ loag. G<r 1'. 

BUNGAPOOB. — A town lo the native etata of Hyderabad, 
or territory of the Niiarn, 102 miles N,E. from Hyderabad, 
and 148 miles N,N.W, from Guntoor. Uat* 18"^ 17% long. 

79° 44'. 

BUNQASAMOOiDBA* — A town in the British district of E.i.c, M«-Doe. 

Cuddapah, presidency of Madras, 06 miles S.W, by S. of 
Cuddapah. Bat. 18° 42', long, 78° 19'- 

RUNGELPOOB, in the Baree Dooab division of the Pim- e.i.c. k*. 
jab, a town situated on the left bank of the Bavee river, 25 
miles S. W* of the town of Lahore, Lafc, 31° 20', long, 74°* 

BUNGPOOB.“See BEnASPOoa. 

BTJNGPOOR.^ — A British district under the presidency of * e.i.o, m«, ooc, 

Hengal, named from its principal place. It is bounded on the 
north-east by Coocb Behar; on the east by the Brahmapootra, 
dividing it from the British districts Goal para and Mymensing ; 

OB the south by the British district Bograh ; and on the south- 
west by the British district Dinajepore, It lies between lat. 

25° Itf — 26° 21', long. 88° 26'— 89° 5(y ; is 106 miles in length 

from south-east to north-west, and sixty in breadth : the area 

is 4,130 square miles,® A great part of the district is low ; * parMrinH-ntai'f 

and it is estimated that in a considerable portion thirty-six 

parts out of 100 are inundated during the rains. The general 

elope of the surface is from north-west to south-east, as 

indicated by the flow of the rivers in that direction, the 

principal of which are the Kuruttea, Teesta, Uhorla, and 

Brahmapootra. In addition to these, there are many other 

streams of less note ; the whole country being permeated by 

watercourses, forming communications between the great 

rivers. During the rains, the surface baving everywhere great 

equality of elevation, an accidental depression in the waterway 

of either the Brahmapootra or the Glangea will immediately 

cause the general drainage^ of the country to set towards the > Printep, st^m 

lower of these great rivers. From some unexplained cause, Br*Vuh7nailC4«. 

more permanent alterations have taken place in the direction 

of the drainage ; the great volume of the water of the Teesta, 

which formerly was, by the Attree, or sonth-westem channel of i unjd. in App. ■ . 

that stream, thrown into the Ganges, is now/ by the south- u,, rjatidar.com 

east channel, stul denominated the Teesta, thrown into the c^kutu, le-'ta. 

K 2 ^ 



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realpatidar.com RUNGPOOR. 


» ill. 400. 

Brahmapootra. Though there is no lake of anj considerable 
extent, there are numerous jhils or small stagnant sheets of 
water, formed either in the deserted channels of streams or 
by the overflowing of springs. Their numbers and positions 
vary very much ; the old ones becoming obliterated either by 
silt or the accumulation of decayed vegetation, and new ones 
being formed by the alterations in the courses of rivers and 
other causes. Buchanan^ was of opinion, that between the 
time of Major llennell and that at which be wrote, these 
minute lakes bad diminished both in number and in size. 

• Burhannii, 
lii. 4U1. 

The climate of Kungpore differs considerably from that of 
places in India farther south and west. The hot winds of 
spring are but little felt anywhere within it ; in the eastern 
part they are unknown,* and even in the western they blow for 
not more than eight or ten days in the whole year. During 

May the temperature is rather high ; but its effects are modi- 
fied by the easterly winds, which are comparatively cool. 

From the beginning of June to the end of October the heat is 
more felt ; but this, in the judgment of Buchanan, is owing to 
the calmness of the weather, as he never found the temperature 
exceed 84^. In the northern* part hoar-frosts are said occa- 

^ III. «», 300. 

sionally to occur in midwinter. 

On the zoology of this district Buchanan^ is almost the sole 
guide. Apes and monkeys of various kinds are numerous; 
lemurs are sometimes, though rarely, to be met with ; tigers 
and leopards are neither very numerous nor very mischievous, 
as they seldom destroy human beings, and the number of cattle 
falling a prey to them is not great. There are black bears in 
the district, but not in large numbers ; of otters, foxes, and 
jackals, there are many. Two other animals, seemingly of the 
canine tribe, — the hungra and the kuhok, are spoken of, but 
Buchanan was unable to procure a sight of either. Wild 
elephants infest the eastern part, and also portions^ of the • 
north-west: they are very destructive to grain-crops, espe- 
cially rice. The woods harbour the rhinoceros, which is 

killed for its horn, to which imaginary virtues are attributed, 
and for its skin, out of which excellent targets are made : the 

hunters use the flesh as an article of food. The wild hog exists 

reaipatidar.com 

* Buchanan gives this not improbable statement on native testimony, 
bnt intimates a doubt whether he rightly understood it. 

S40 


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in different parts, in greater or less numbers ; the flesh Is eaten, 
and is considered pure. There are wild buffaloes, as well as 
▼arious kinds of deer and of antelopes. The porcupine is less 
numerous than in some other parts, and is less sought after for 
food. The pangolin is found, though a rare animal, and its 
flesh is greatlj yalued. Hares are very abundant. Porpoises 
are numerous in the Brahmapootra, and are killed for the sake 
of their oil. River turtles are numerous, and attain great size ; 
some, Buchanan was informed, measuring between seven and 
eight feet in length. These animals furnish an abundance of 
food to the inhabitants, though Buchanan found it distasteful. 

The principal crops are rice, wheat, barley, pulse, oil-seeds, 
garden vegetables, sugarcane, tobacco, and indigo ; the mul- 
berry-tree thrives. Cotton® indeed seems unquestionably to be 
a failure in the district. There are about fifty® large indigo- 
factories. These are either managed by Europeans, or after 
the European method. Much of that made by natives is of 
inferior quality, but some is said to equal that of the Euro- 
peans. The number of factories of all sizes and descriptions is 
about 400. 

Commerce appears in the time of Buchanan^ to have been 
by no means active. He gives a list of exports, which, how- 
ever, may be regarded as superseded by a more recent one® in 
another publication, and which comprises both exports and 
imports. From this, indigo appears to be by far the largest 
among the exports ; silk, gunny-bags, tobacco, sugar, carpets, 
and paddy are next in order: the remainder are less con- 
siderable. Among the imports, piece-goods occupy the first 
place ; cotton, salt, woollens, manufactured silks, and metals, 
are next in importance ; and a number of miscellaneous articles 
are imported to a small extent. 

The population of the district has been returned at 
2,659,000.® 

The tract comprised within the British district Rungpoor 
was formerly the western part of the ancient Hindoo country 
called Camroop.^ The realm appears to have attained its 
greatest power and prosperity under Rajah Nilambor, who was 
conquered about the close of the fifteenth century, by Husain 
Shah,® • of Bengal. On the overthrow® of the kingdom of 
* DeoomijDatad by Feriabta,' Ala-ad-din Purbi 11. 

S41 


* BrtMral Rerono# 
DUp. 9S M«rcb. 
1837. 

* Benirftl and 
Afra Oulda. 1841. 
▼ol. 11. part 1. V70. 


I ill. App. 710. 


* Bengal and 
Agra Oulda, 1841. 
rol. 11. part U SOO. 


* Siatiiiilc* of 
Susar Cultivation, 

CalcutU, 1H4S. 

* Hurhnnan, 

111 408. 

« An. Ra*. II. 180 
— Di*«crlptk>o of 
A»hani. by Ua- 
Immed Cailm. 

• Slowart, 180. 

peruhta, jatidar.com 

• iv. 340; alM> 

Rtawart, HUL 
Bciig 110. 


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BUN— EUP. 


7 TrMtiM with 
Native Prlncea, 
Calcutta, 1845. 

I E.I.C. yt. I)oe. 


• Oarrien, Tablet 
of Roufet, 


* niielianan, Sur> 
vey of Kafttrrfi 
Ifidla, III. 4)». 


* R.r.C. Mu. Doc. 
Jacquemont, 
Voyage, ill. 480. 

* Garden, Tablet 
of Roulet, 14. 


E.I.C. Mt. Doc. 


> E.I.C. Ml. Doc. 


Bengal, about 1542, by Shir Shah, the renowned Afghan, sub- 
sequently padshah of Delhi, the district appears to have become 
part of that great empire. During the turbulent period sub- 
sequent to the death of Shir Shah, it was severed from the 
empire, to which it was again annexed by Akbar, about 1584. 

It passed to the East-India Company in 1765, under the 
firman^ of Shah Alum. 

BUNGPORE.^ — The capital of the British district of the 
same name, under the presidency of Bengal, a town situate on 
the route from Pumeah to Goalpara, 128 miles^ £. of the 
former, 105 S.W. of the latter. Though the locality of the 
civil establishment of the district and the head station of the 
police, it is represented as a wretched^ place, consisting of 
scattered huts with a few brick-built houses. A mosque of 
considerable size, and two monuments much revered by Mus- 
sulmans, having been erected in honour of reputed saints, 
constitute its principal attractions. The Hindoo places of 
worship are quite unworthy of notice. 

Rungpore is 150 miles N.E. of Berhampur by Dinajpur, and 
268 N.E. of Calcutta by the same route. Lat. 25^ long. 

89° 16'. 

RUNKUTTA,* in the British district of Agra, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village a mile 
from the right bank of the Jumna, on the route from' the 
city of Agra to that of Muttra, and 12 miles* N.W. of the 
former. It has a few shops, and is supplied with water from 
five pucka (brick-lined) wells, from forty to forty-five feet deep. 

The road in this part of the route is wide and generally good, 
though in some places sandy and heavy ; the country is level 
and well cultivated. Lmt. 27° 14', long. 77° 56'. 

RUNN OF CUTCH.— See Cutch. 

RUNPOOR. — A tract of Orissa, inhabited by one of the 
independent hill tribes, situate on the western boundary of the 
British district of Pooree. Its centre is about lat. 20°, long. 

85° 20'. 

RUOJAN. — A town in the British district of Chittagong, 
presidency of Bengal, 19 miles N.E. of Chittagong. Lat. 

22° 33', long. 92° 5'. 

RUPBAS,* in the territory of Bhurtpore, a small towoiitidar.com 
16 miles S.E. of the city of Bhurtpore. The hills here consist, 

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in inexhaustible quantities, of rock of compact durable sand- 
stone,^ of Tarious hues, much in request for fine building pui^ 
poses, and hence quarried to great extent. The tasteful and 
highly- finished bnildings of Deeg, in the northern part of the 
territory, are constructed^ of this stone. Lat. 2r, long. 
7r 89'. 

BUPIN, in Bussahir, a pass over the range of the Himalaya 
bounding Koonawar on the south. The formation of the 
rocks is partly gneiss, partly granite ; but the former is most 
abundant. Elevation above the sea 15,480^ feet. Lat. 81^21', 
long. 78® 12'. 

BUPSHU, in Ladakh, among the Western Himalayas, is a 
Tery elevated and barren plain, or extensive valley, bearing a 
scanty vegetation of grass and stunted furze, subjected, even 
in the height of summer, to frost and snow, and being swept 
over by the most impetuous whirlwinds. Its mean elevation is 
16,000 feet. The climate is characterized by great aridity ; and 
from this cause, and the intense cold, is peculiarly suited to 
the constitution of the yak and shawl-goat, which thrive here, 
notwithstanding the scantiness of pasture. Its centre is about 
lat. 83®, long. 78® 16'. 

BUBTONDA GHAT. — A pass by which the road from 
Hagotna to Sattara is carried over the Western Ghats. Dis- 
tant 34 miles W.N.W. of Sattara. Lat. 17® 64', long. 73® 38'. 

BUSABEH, or BUSBA,' in the British district of Ghazee- 
pore, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a 
town on the route from Bullish to Azimgurh, 20 miles N.W. 
of the former. Busareh contains a population of 10,683 
inhabitants.^ Lat. 26® 60', long. 83® 66'. 

BUSHDUN,^ in the British district of Cawnpore, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from Calpee to the cantonment of Futtehgurh, and 
20^ miles N. of the former. It contains a population of 6,000 
inhabitants,^ has a large bazar, and is well supplied with water. 
The road in this part of the route is good, the country well 
cultivated. Lat. 26® 22', long. 79® 44'. 

BUSKOOND. — A town in the British district of Mid- 
napoor, presidency of Bengal, 26 miles N. of Midnapoor. 
Lat. 22® 47', long. 87® 28'. 

BUSKULUNG. — See Dabbuno. 

84S 


* Calcafta OImii- 
lnf« In Silence, 

II. 14A. 

* Id. II. 150— 
Boil«>«u. Obcerv. 
on Sondtlonip. 
SIceinan, Ramble* 
and Recollec. I 82. 
' Gi*nird, Koona> 
wur. Table III. at 
end of vol. 

Llojd and Oerard, 
Tour In Hima- 
laya. II. 45. 
Trancarta. tloy. 
Aa Soc. I. 548 — 
Colebrooke, Re- 
mark* on the 
SeiliU. 

Trebeck, In 
Moorcr. II. 48. 
Gemrd (J. O.), 
on Si>ill Valley, 
A«. Rtt. aviii. 244, 
2.53 


.* B.I.C. Ma. Doe. 


* StatUtIcs of 
N.W. Prov. 105. 

I B.I.a Mt. Doc. 


• Oarden, Tabic* 
of Route*, 111. 

’ StalUlIca of 
N.W. ProT. 120. 


E.I.e. M*. Doe. 

realpatidar.com 


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BUS. 


Oarden, Tables of 
Route*, 0. 


E.I.C. Us.Doo. 


* E.I.C. .M*. I>oc. 


• Garden, Table* 
of Route*, 9117. 


> E.I.C. bf*. Doc. 


* Bentnil and 
Agra Gukle, 1841, 
vol. II. part I. SAO. 

> E.I.C. Ml. Doe. 


* Report on Ifed. 
Topograpbj and 
Sutliilc* of 
Northorn Division 
of Madras Arinj, 
64. 


RUSOOLA, in the Britieh district of Bareilly, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the 
route from the city of Agra to Bareilly, and 25 miles S.W. of 
the latter. It is situate in a well-watered, level, fertile, and 
highly-cultivated country. Lat. 28° 14', long. 79° 12'. 

RUSOOLABAD, in the British district of Fumickabad, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
near the left bank of the £eun, 25 miles S. of the city of Fur- 
ruckabad. Lat. 27° 2', long. 79° 42'. 

RUSOOLPOOR,^ in the British district of Muttra, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route from Muttra cantonment to Bhurtpore, and 13* 
miles S.W. of the former. Water is abundant, and supplies 
are procurable. The country is open and flat, with a sandy 
soil, partially cultivated. The road is good in this part of the 
route. Lat. 27° 20', long. 77° 38'. 

RUSSAREH,^ in the British district of Ohazeepoor, lieu- 
tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town near 
the northern frontier, towards GK>ruckpoor, and 25 miles N.E, 
of Ohazeepoor cantonment. It is represented* as a place of 
some trade. Lat. 25° 51', long. 83° 55'. 

RUSSELKONDAH,^ in the British district of Oanjam. 
presidency of Madras, a town with military cantonment on the 
north-western frontier, towards the British territory of Orissa. 
Its name is compounded* of the surname of a British com- 
missioner, who accompanied the army in its operations in this 
part of India, and kondab, signifying **hill;** the cantonment 
being situate at the foot of an eminence of moderate height. 
The surrounding country is very rugged, with hills varying 
in height from 500 to 2,000 feet, thickly covered with jungle, 
in the lower parts consisting of bamboo, in the upper of 
various stunted trees and bushes. The soil of the level parts 
is fertile, though sandy, being peculiarly favourable to the 
growth of the mango-tree, which produces its fruit in great 
abundance and excellence. It forms a considerable portion of 
the diet of the inhabitants, whose health does not suffer in 
consequence. Two small rivers flow through the cantonment, 
in a direction south-east, and subsequently uniting, pass by 
Ganjam, a short distance below which the united stream 
into the Bay of Bengal. They overflow their banka during 

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BUS— RUT. 


the rains, but are dry at other times, and then the cantonment 
is supplied with water from wells. In the cantonment are 
barracks, and a spacious, well-built, commodious hospital. The 
climate is very hot and oppressive during March, April, and 
May, but for the rest of the year pleasant and salubrious. 
Elevation above the sea 150 feet. Distauce from Madras, 
N.E., 560 miles ; Calcutta, 8.W., 300; Qanjam, N.E., 50. 
Lat. 20°, long. 84° 40^. 

BUSSELL AW ALA, in the Baree Dooab division of the 
Punjab, a town situated 15 m)iles from the leB bank of the 
Chenaub, 18 miles E.K.E. of the . town of Mooltan. Lat. 
80^ 12^, long. 71° 47'. i 

BUSSOOLABAD, in the British district of Cawnpoor, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town 
on the route from Cawnpoos to Etawah, 38 miles W.N.W. 
of the former. Lat. 26° 40', long. 79° 56'. 

BUSSOOLABAD,* in the territory of Oude, a town on the 
route from Cawupore to Pertabgurh, 40* miles N.y7. of the 
latter. Supplies and water may be had in abundance there, 
and the road in that part of the route is good. Lat. 26°, 
long. 81° 30'. 

BUSSOOLPOOB. — A town in the British district of 
Behar, presidency of Bengal, 25 miles N.E. by N. of Sher- 
ghotty. Lat. 24° 52', long. 85° 4'. 

BUTBHANPOOB,* in the British district of Mynpooree, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a small 
town on the route from the cantonment of Etawa to that of 
Mynpooree, and 10* miles S. of the latter. Supplies may be 
obtained here after due notice, and water is obtainable from 
wells. The road in this part of the route is good. Lat. 27° 6', 
long. 79° 4'. 

BUTHOWBUH,^ or BHUTOBAH, in the British district 
of Meerut, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Pro- 
vinces, a town on the route from Delhi to Suharunpoor, 
37 miles N. of the former. Buthowruh contains a population 
of 5,784* inhabitants. Lat. 29° 12', long. 77° 17'. 

BUTLAM,^ in Malwa, the principal place of a district of 
the same name. It is a large^ and well-built town, with good 
bazars. The district contains eighty-eight villages, and yields 
an annual revenue of 4,50,000 rupees, or 45,000/. The rajah 


E.I.C. M«. Doc. 


* F..I.C. Mt. Doe. 

• OnrdcTip Table* 
of Route*, 123. 


P..I.C. Mt. Doe. 


* E.I.e. Me. Doe. 


* Oardeii. Tablet 
of Route*, IbO. 


1 B.I.e. Me. Doe. 


* Stetiitlce of 
N.W. Pror. as. 

I R.I.e. Me. Doe. 

* Malcolm, IinJes 

tu Map of Matw*,patidar.com 


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RUT. 


* Malcolm, Ccn> 
tral India, I. 48. 


* Id. I. fi07; li. 

414. 

• StatUtir* of 
Nnthe Stalca. 


« Malcolm, ut 
atipra, II. 540. 


» K.I.C. Mt Doc, 
K.I.C. TrIgun. 
8iirr. 


* Calcutta Re- 
view, all. 10(1. 


• Parllamrninry 
Rodim, April, 
18AI. 


who holds it as tributary to Scindia, is descended from Buttun 
Singh, a scion of the Bajpoot family of Joudpore, who, about 
the middle of the seventeenth century, received a grant* of the 
place from Shah Jehan, the emperor of Delhi. Though now 
much humiliated, he retains influence over a considerable Baj- 
poot population, and in 1819 succeeded, on a few days* notice, 
in assembling 1,200 mounted combatants to resist Scindia*s 
claim of tribute. On that occasion, the British government 
interfered, and enforced an arrangement, by which it guaranteed 
the annual payment of 84,000 Salim Shabee rupees (about 
GG,000 Company's rupees) to Scindia, and freedom from 
molestation or interference to the Butlam rajah.^ The popu- 
lation of the town is about 10,000; that of the district, 
inclusive of Sillana, is computed at 91,728.* The ai^ of the 
territory, as above, is stated to be 936 square miles. The 
military force of the state amounts to about 800 men. Eleva- 
tion of the town above the sea 1,577* feet. Distant 50 miles 
W. of Oojein, 288 S.W. of Gwalior fort. Eat. 23° 19', long. 

75° 1'. 

BUTMOO.^ — A river, or rather a great torrent, of the 
British district of Saharunpoor, has its origin on the south- 
western declivity of the Sewalik range, about lat. 80° 10', 
long. 78° 2'. It holds a course of about thirty-five miles in a 
southerly direction, to its confluence with tlie Solani, in lat. 

29° 50', long. 78°. The body of water in the Butmoo in time 
of flood must be very considerable, as where the passage of the 
stream crosses the Ganges Canal, a dam has been constructed, 
with forty central openings of ten feet each, and two side 
openings of 100 feet each, with flank overfalls, while a regu- 
lating bridge is built across the canal, to exclude the waters of 
the river during the floods.^ 

BUTNAGHEiBBY, a coUectorate of the presidency of 
Bombay, is bounded on the north by the Hubsies’ territory 
and the coUectorate of Tannah ; on the south by Sawunt 
Warree and the Portuguese territory of Goa; on the east by 
Sattara and Kolapore ; and on the west by the Arabian Sea. It 
extends from north lat. 15° 44' to 18° 6', and from east long. 

78° 6' to 73° 58'. Its greatest length from north to south is 

167 miles ; its greatest breadth firom east to west forty miles, 'tidar.com 

Its area is 8,964 square miles. ^ 

84S 


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realpatidar.com BUTNAGHEKBY. 

The quAntity of arable land in the collectorate is small ; 
and from this cause, as well as from the advantage of water- 
carriage afforded by the numerous creeks which intersect the 
country, and enable the lyot to find a ready market for his 
produce, the comparative breadth of cultivation is consider- 
able. On this account, the extreme of want is seldom expe- 
rienced in this district : while, however, many facilities exist 
for internal communication, the Concan labours under the dis- 
advantage of being shut out from the Deccan by the Syadree 
range, which is a vast obstacle to trafBc. Down various ports 
of this range, the different ghauts or passes communicate with 
the seacoast, and these, under the native government, were 
kept by the farmers of the transit-duties in sufficient repair 
for the passage of bullocks. The transit-duties being now 
abolished, thf re is no person directly interested in the repair, 
and for the most part these avenues of communication between 
the upper and lower country from the harbour of Bombay, as 
far south as Malwan, are in a wretched state. There are two 
exceptions : the ** Hotunda* Ghaut,” leading from Mhar to 
Sattara, over the Mahabulishwar range, and the ** Koombarlee 
Ghaut,” leading from Chiploon to the Deccan, south of 
Sattara, which was converted into a good bridle-road in 1824, 
and has been since kept in tolerable repair. The passes of most 
importance to the well-being of the Concan, independently of 
the two above specified, are the Anus Koora Ghaut,” which 
leads to Bajapoor, the town of greatest trade [Trobably in the 
collectorate, and the principal ghaut leading to Malwan, that 
of “ Bbowda.” The former of these is a very important one, 
probably the most important of any south of the Bhore Ghaut. 
Were it passable for carts, it would open to the coast a large 
district, extending along both banks of the Elrishna, as far 
east as Bagulkote and Beejapoor, a rich district, a large portion 
of the trade of which still passes by this ghaut. Great as 
has been the relief to the trade of the country from the abolition 
of transit-duties in 1837, and of sayer-taxes in 1844, greater 
relief, and a greater impetus to trade, would, in the judgment 
of competent authority, have been afforded, as regards this 
district, had those taxes been retained, and their proceeds 

* This para is stated erroneouslj to be on the Bombay and Agra 
road.* 

S47 


I Bomh«T PaMiJlpatidar.com 

DIap. 91 Mhj, 

1844. 


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rea I pati d a r. com BXJTN A GH EEE Y* 

expended on roads and bridges between the countries separated 
bjr the Ghauts. At present^ trade stagnates for want of 
adequate means of intercourse ; the cost of carriage is greatly 
increased by the necessity of resorting to the use of pack« 
bullocks. In unfavoorable seasons^ when forage is scarce, 
large droves of cattle can scarcely penetrate into the interior, 
except at a ruinous coat. The employment of buUocka In 
draught, did the road permit it^ would e0ect an extraordinazy 
savings as two bullocks harnessed to a cart on a fair road would 
draw an amount of goods which it would require five or six to 
carry on their backs. The district has suffered much from the 
' Bom 1*7 Public ravages of tigers.^ 

r^. 51 warcri, character of the people ia marked by ignorance and 

apathy ; and though, as already mentioned, the extreme of 
destitution is seldom known, poverty may be /loted as the 
general condition of the district. Near the seacK>ast, the 
people are somewhat better off than tbeir neighbours inlands 
The Mussulman fishermen are a weU-fed, strong race of men ; 
the people in the interior are a more weakly race, except the 
Bamooses, above the Ghauts, and the Mhars. The Xoolwarreee, 
who are tenants at will of the Khotes, are represented as being 
in a deplorable state of poverty. The population of Kuina* 
gherry is 665,288, and the area being 3,964 square miles, the 
proportion is about 170 to the square mile. 

The chief products of the country are rice and grain. 
Attempts have* been made to introduce superior descriptions of 
produce, but they have been attended by very little success. 

* indin Sflp. rst. Xhe Mauritius sugarcane* has been tried, but to a very small 
IfS, ^ extent j its cultivation is languid, and nearly stationary, the 

advance being too slight to merit notice. One of the ex<^ 
per [mental cotton farms was established in Butnagherry ; but 
the failure was complete, and in 1845 the establishment was 
abolished. Some advance seems to have been recently made 
in the culture of hemp. To the growth of flax, the soil and 
climate appear to be uncontrollably opposed. The plant is a 
miserable dwarf, and the fibres of the stalk too short and too 
Tveak to be of any value to the manufacturer. 

With a view to further improvement, it has been resolved 
rct. \yj the government, with the concurrence of the home autho-^^i dar.com 
1845 ^ * rities, that a new survey^ shall be undertaken at the period 

54S 



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realpatidar.com RUT. 

that the ayocations of the collector will permit of hia superin- 
tendiog the duty. Rutnagherry, the chief town of the district, 
ia in lat. 17°, long. 73° 2(y. 

RUTSER, in the British district of Ghazeepoor, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town near the 
northern frontier, towards Azimghor, and 35 miles N.E. of 
Ghazeepoor cantonment. I#at. 25° 5<y, long. 84° &. 

RU'CTEEA, in the British district of Hurriana, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Hissar to Ferozepore, 37 miles N. by W. of the 
former. Lat. 29° 4<y, long. 75° 41'. 

RUTTOLE,^ in Sirhind, a village on the route from Hansee 
to Lodiana, and 30 miles S. of the latter place. It ia situate 
in a country with a surface slightly undulated, moderately 
fertile, and partially cultivated. The road in this part of the 
route is frequently miry during heavy rains. Distant N.W. 
from Calcutta 1,082* miles. Lat. 30° 29', long. 70°. 

RUTTUNGUNJE. — A town in the British district of 
“Bhagulpore, presidency of Bengal, 23 miles W.S.W. of 
Bhag^lpore. Lat. 25° 4', long. 86° 56'. 

RUTTUNGHUR,^ in Kuhloor, a fort on the crest of the 
steep ridge of Maloi^m, and a mile and half N.W. of that 
stronghold. During the brief but obstinately-contested war 
with the Goorkhas, it was occupied by the British troops,* and 
though of inconsiderable size, being substantially built, and 
very strong by its site, formed a very important" position in the 
operations against Malown. Distant N.W. from Calcutta 
1,098» miles. Lat. 31° 14', long. 76° 51'. 

RU'Tl'UNGURH KHEREE,» in the territory of Gwalior, 
or possessions of Sindhia’s family, on the route from Neemuch 
to Boondee, 36* miles N.E. of former, 73 S.W. of the latter. 
It is of considerable size, has a bazar, and is abundantly sup- 
plied with water from wells and a small stream. The sur* 
rounding country is elevated, and has many rocky hills. 
Lat. 24° 49', long. 75° 13'. 

RUTTUNPOOR. — A town in the native state of Oude, 
11 miles from the right bank of the Gogra river, and 13 miles 
8. from Oude. Lat. 26° 35', long. 82° ICV. 

RUTTUNPOOR,^ in the territory of Nagpoor, a town, or 
rather coDection of huts, on the route from Hazaribagh to the 

A49 


E.l.C M». Doe. 


B.I.C. Us. Doe. 


t B.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


• Osrden, Tubics 
of Routes. 14V, 
173, 100. 

£.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


• I-: I.C. Ms. Doc. 
F.I C. TriBon. 
Surr. 


* Froser, Journ. 
t«» IlimsInxN, 37. 


* Oardrn. Tnblos 
of Routes, 173, 
2V0. 

• R.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


* Garden, Tables 
of Routes, 370. 


» E.I.C. Ms.Docjatidar.com 


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BUT. 


* Garden, Tablet 
of Routea, 2U0. 

• Ai. Ret. ell. 07 
— Narrallre of 

a Rome from 
Cloinarvarh to 
Yertiiu};ou<lijni. 


* lllunt, 107. 


* Id. 106. 

•id. 101. 

7 DuflT. Hitt, of 
Mabratut, li. 36. 

* Thornton. Hitt, 
of Hritith fe^tnplre 
ill India, 1. 416. 

* At. Ann. Ref. 

11. 70. Miteel- 
laneout Traett. 

At. Mitccllaniet 
(Gladwin). II. 40 
— Motie, Narrnt. 
of a JiHirnejr to 
Diaiiioiid-Minet 
of SuinbhuttHMir. 
£1.0. Mt. iy»c. 


* Roileait. RuJ- 
waru, II. 


• Annalt of Rajat- 
than. II. too. 

E.I.C. Mt. l>oc. 


city of Nagpoor, 330 miles^ S.W. of the former, 244 N.E. of 
the latter. Though the (capital of the district of Choteeagurh, 

Blunt describes it,^ at the time of his visit fifty years ago, as 
consisting of about 1,000 huts, a great many of which were 
desolate. It is, however, a place of great antiquity, and 
formerly exhibited much more prosperity and civilization than 
nt present, as is proved by the numerous ruins and tanks in its 
vicinity. Of the tanks, the largest has been formed by collecting 
the water by means of an embankment nearly two milee in 
length. The town is situate in ** a champaign^ country, 
abundantly watered with little rivers, full of villages, and 
beautifully ornamented with groves and tanks.” It was 
originally called Bajepour but was named Ruttunpoor, in 
honour of Kuttun Singh, once rajah^ of the place. In a.d. 1744, 

Bhonsla Haghojee, rajah of Berar, having dispossessed^ the 
Qond rajah of Deogarh, gave him ajaghire in Ruttunpoor. In 
A.D. 1761, after Law and his French followers, supporters of 
Shah Alum, were discomfited^ by the British at Patna, a 
remnant of 120 men, attempting to retreat across the country 
to the Deccan, were entertained ® here for a few days by the 
Mahratta commander of the town, and afterwards treacherously 
massacred by him. Ruttunpoor is distant S. from Allahabad 
220 miles. Lat. 22^ 14, long. 82^ 8'. 

RUTTURSAW. — A town in the British district of Purneah, 
presidency of Bengal, 34 miles N. W. of Purneah. Lat. 26° 5', 
long. 87° 9'. 

RUTUNGURH,^ in the Rajpoot state of Beekaneer, a town 
near the eastern frontier towards Shekhawutee, on the route 
from Odeypore to the town of Beekaneer, and 86 miles R. of 
the latter place. It is surrounded by a low stone wall, and has 
a small citadel on the top of a sandhill at its south-east 
angle. The bazars are neatly laid out, and look well. Every- 
thing about the place indicates it to have been built at a 
recent period. It is the private property of the rajah of 
Beekaneer, or is khalsa, a term in some measure corresponding 
to our ** crown land.” According to Tod,^ the number of 
houses U 1,000. Lat. 28° 3', long. 74° 48'. 

RUTUNJUN. — A town in the British district of Sholapoor, 
presidency of Bombay, 29 miles N. of Sholapoor. Lat. 18° 4^|tidar.com 
long. 75° 57'. 

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BUT— BYQ. 


BUTUNPOOBEB, in the Britiah district of Pillibheet, 
lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village 
on the route bj Nanakmatb and Kuderpoor, fix>m the town of 
Pillibheet to that of Kashipoor, 25 miles S.E. of the latter. 
Lat. 29°, long. 79° 21'. 

BUT W AH, in the territory of Gwalior, a village on the 
route from Calj^e to the fort of Gwalior, 84 miles W. of 
former, 40 E. of latter. Lat. 26° 11', long. 78° 40'. 

BUTWUL. — A town in the British district of Sarun, 
presidency of Bengal, 24 miles N.W. of Bettiah. Lat. 27°, 
long. 84° 17'. 

BUXAM. — A town in the British district of Goalpara, 
presidency of Bengal, 20 miles S.S.W. of Goalpara. Lat. 
25° 63', long. 90P 80'. 

BYAGUDDAH. — A town in the hill semindarry of Jeypoor, 
situate on the right bank of the Lalglah river, and 72 miles N. 
from Vizianagrum. Lat. 19° 10', long. 88° 29'. 

BYALPETTAH. — A town in the British district of Cudda- 
pah, presidency of Madras, 80 miles S. of Cuddapah. Lat. 
18° 19', long. 78° 48'. 

BYEPOOB,* in the territory of Nagpoor, a town on the 
route from Cuttack to the city of Nagpoor, 348 miles W. of 
former, 180 E. of latter.^ It has a large bazar and good en- 
camping-ground, and provisions and water are abundant and 
good. Though remote from the sea, bulky and heavy articles 
can be conveyed* to its vicinity during the rains by the con- 
tinuous courses of the Mahanuddee and Sew riVers. Distant 
from Calcutta, S.W., 465 miles. Lat. 21° 11', long. 81° 40'. 

BYEPOOB, in the territory of Gwalior, or possessions of 
Scindia’s family, a town six miles S.W. of the fort of Gwalior. 
Lat. 26° 8', long. 78° 4'. 

BYGUBH.' — A raj within the jurisdiction of the political 
agent for the south-west frontier of Bengal. The area is 1,421 
square miles : the centre is in lat. 22° Kf, long. 88° 80'. The 
country, a plain, is wild ; but the native government being a 
tolerable one, it is improving, and the people are orderly. The 
town of Bygurh, which is neat and surrounded by agreeable 
groves, is in lat. 21° 48', long. 83° 12'. The country is computed 
to be worth 20,000 rupees annually ; the tribute is only 170 
rupees. The population is retiimed at nearly 64,000.^ 


E.I.C. Ma. Doc. 

£.1 C. M». Doe. 

E.I.C. Ma. D«»c. 

B.I.e. Ml. Doo 

E.l.C. Ma. Doo. 

I E.l.C. Ma. Doo. 

• Garden, Table* 
of Route*, !;!&. 

* Jenkina, Report 
on Nagpore, 10. 

E.l.C. Ma. Due. 

* E.I.C. M*. Doc. 

realpatidar.com 

• ParlUmenUrj 
Return, ISSl. 


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KYK— SAB. 


* B.l.C. Mt. I>oc. 


* Oarden, Tabl«« 
of R4>utc«. S4. 

* A*. Joum. Int 
■erlr«. vnl. svH. 
JaDuarj'Julj, 21 


4 I. SS4. 


• At. Rft svill. 
— Franklin, Grol, 
Map of Bundel- 
khaod, 42, 40. 


B.YKWARA. — A town in tlie native state of Oochejra, 41 
roiles W. from Bewah, and 95 miles N.W. by N. fW>m Sobag- 
poor. Lat. 24® 3(y, long. 80° 44'. 

BrYPOOR,^ in the tract of Baghelcund, in the territory of 
Bewah, a small town on the route by the Kutra Pass, from 
Allahabad to Jubbulpore, and 05 miles ^ S.W. of the former. 
An anonymous British traveller* describe^ it as a large 
place ; but the houses are little paltry huts,” and the surround- 
ing ** country a verdant green as far as the eye could reach.’* 
This description refers to its appearance at the beginning of 
December. Jacquemont^ styles it a populous village, the in- 
habitants of which are in a state of deplorable indigence, and 
expresses his doubts as to the reported fertility of the sur- 
rounding country, which is described by Garden as “undu- 
lating, well wooded, highly cultivated, and exceedingly beauti- 
ful.” There is a baaar, and abundance of water from wells and 
tanks. Elevation* above the soa about 1,100 feet. Lat. 24° 84', 
long. 81° SO'. 

BYPOBA. — A town of Punnah, in the province of Bundel- 
kund, 61 miles S. by W. from Punnah, and eight miles E. from 
Saugur. Lat. 23° 53', long. 80°. 


s. 


< B.l.C. M«. Doe. 


* Ourd^n, Tablet 
of Route*, 283. 

* Malrolni, Index 
to kfalwa, 9U8. 


B.l.C. Ma. Doc. 


SAAlB BIVEB, in Burmah, an offset of the Yennan, one of 
the branches of the Irawaddy. It runs in a south-easterly 
direction, and falls into the Sitang, near the town of Tongo, in 
lat. 19° S', long. 96° 20'. 

SAAWAN,^ in the territory of Gwalior, or possessions of 
Scindia’s family, a town on the route by Bhaupoora and the 
Muckundura Pass, from Neemuch to Kotah, 18 miles* E. of 
former, 109 S.W. of latter. It has a baxar, and supplies and 
water are plentiful. Population* about 1,800. Lat. 24° 26', 
long. 75° 10'. 

SABALGUBH, in the territory of Gwalior, or possesaionirf dar.com 
of Scindia, a town with a fort of great natural strength, on a 

86J 


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realpatidar.com SAB — SAD. 

hill on the right or south bank of the river Cburabul, 45 miles 
W. of Gwalior fort. Lat. 26° 16', long. 77° 24'. 

SABAR. — A town in the British district of Dacca, presi- 
dency of Bengal, 18 miles N.W. of Dacca. Lat. 23° 52', 
long. 90° 13'. 

SABBAYEA. — A town of Burroah, situate on the right 
bank of the Irawady river, and 144 miles S.W. by S. from Ava. 
Lat. 20° 10', long. 94° 43'. 

SABHAWALA,^ in the British district of Dehra Doon, a 
village on the left bank of the Asun. Here was a station of the 
series of small triangles in the trigonometrical survey of the 
Himalayas. Elevation above the sea 1,792 feet.^ Lat. 30° 22', 
long. 77° 61'. 

SABURMUTTEE, a river of Guzerat, rises in lat. 24° 44', 
long. 73° 30', near the town of Mairpoor, in the Rajpoot state 
of Oodeypoor, and after a course in a southerly direction of 
about 200 miles, it falls into the Gulf of Cambay, in lat. 22° 20', 
long. 72° 21'. 

8ACB1EKAMENG. — A town of Eastern India, in the 
native state of Muneepoor, situate on the left bank of the 
Nankatha Khyoung river, and eight miles N.E. from Munee- 
poor. Lat. 24° 52', long. 94° 9'. 

SACRA PATAM. — A town in the native state of Mysore, 
88 miles N.W. from Seringapatam, and 84 miles N.E. by E. 
from Mangalore. Lat. 13° 26', long. 76° 69'. 

SACUN. — A town in the British district of Sumbulpoor, on 
the south-west frontier of Bengal, eight miles N. by E. of 
Sumbulpoor. Lat. 21° 34', long. 84° 2'. 

SADEEPOOR, in the British district of Banda, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
right bank of the Jumna, 26 miles N.E. of the town of Banda, 
20 miles S.W. of the town of Futtehpore. Lat. 25° 46', 
long. 80° 37'. 

SADOOLAPOOR. — A town in the British district of 
Rungpore, presidency of Bengal, 26 miles S.E. by S. of Rung- 
pore. Lat. 26° 22', long. 89° 29'. 

SADRAS,^ in the British district of Chingleput, presidency 
of Madras, a town on the Coromandel coast, in this part low^ 
and wooded, though inland three or four miles is a range of 
rugged hills of no great height, called the Sadras Hills. The 
6 2 a 


B.I.C. Mt.Ooc. 


E.I.C. Ms. Do«. 


I R.I.C. Ms. Doc. 
E.I.C. Tfigoo. 
Burr. 

* As. R«*. siv. 

— Hodfson 
and Herbert* 
Trigon. Sure, of 
Himalayas. 


E I.C. Ms. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doc. 


E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


I B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 
* Horsburfth* 


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SAE. 


> Heber, N«rr«t. 
of Journ. li. 2S2. 


• E.I.C. Mr I>ce. 
Buttfr, Tui-ok. 
of Oudh, 13. 


* Butter, ut 
■uprm. 


* Garden, Tablaa 
of Ruutea, 191, 
138. 

* Id. ul tupni, 87. 


* Id. 300. 

* Id. 83. 

^ At. Ret. liv. 410, 
411. 


B.l.C. Mt. Doe. 


estuary of the river Palar, three miles to the south, is so ob- 
structed by a bar as to admit only insignificant coasting-craft ; 
and at Sadras there is no haven, so that ships must anchor iu 
the open sea. ** Sadras is a large^ but poor-looking town, 
once a Dutch settlement, aud still containing many families of 
decayed burghers, the melancholy relics of a ruined factory. 

Some of them have little pensions from the charity of the 
British goveruinent.*' Here are still the ruins of a fort, a 
place of some strength during the possession of the town by 
the Dutch. Distance from Cuddalore, N., 62 miles; Arcot, 

S.E., 62 ; Madras, S., 42. Lat. 12° 31', long. 80° 13'. 

SAEE,^ in the territory of Oude, a river rising in lat. 

27° 10', long. 80° 32', about mid- distance between the Goomtee 
and the Ganges. It holds a very serpentine course, in a 
direction generally south-east, and falls into the Goomtee, on 
the right side, ten miles below the town of Jounpore, its total 
length of course being about 230 miles. It is navigable^ 
during the rains for craft carrying from ten to twelve tons as 
far as Bae Bareilly, 130 miles from its mouth. At Mohaun, 
about forty miles from its source, it is crossed by a stone^ 
bridge. Close to Kae Bareilly is a bridge of brick, over which 
passes the route from Allahabad to Lucknow.^ At Pertabghur, 
sixty miles lower down, it is crossed by the route from Allaha- 
bad to Sooltanpore, the passage^ being made during low water 
by ford, at other times by ferry. Still lower, and about twenty 
miles from its mouth, it is crossed^ on the route from Allaha- 
bad to Jounpore, by means of a fine brick-built bridge. Wilford^ 
observes that this river ‘‘ is called Sambu and Sucti, and in the 
spoken dialects Sye, because it abounds with small shells. 

This,*’ he continues, ** is really the case, as 1 have repeatedly 
observed whilst surveying or travelling along its banks. They 
are all fossile, small, and embedded in its banks, and appear 
here and there, when laid bare by the encroachments of the 
river: they consist chiefly of cockles and periwinkles.” He 
remarks subsequently, ** This river is not mentioned in any 
Sanscrit book that I ever saw, but I take it to be the Sambus 
of Megasthenes.” 

SAELt. — A town in the territory of Nagpoor, 61 miles S. by 
E. from Euttunpoor, and 110 miles W. from Sumbulpoor. tidar.com 
Lat. 21° 30', long. 82° 20'. 

884 


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r63lp3tid3r.com SAE— SAJ 3 

SAENUQUEHs^ in the territory of PunDa, in Bundelcund, 
a town on the route from Banda to Jubbulpoorj 69 mtles® N* 
of the latter. The garhi, or little fort here, “ coosiets^ of four 
stone houses, connected by a wall, very capable of defence if 
not attacked by artillery,*’ Lat, 23^ 65', long. SO® 20^, 

SAPAPOOB, — A town in the dominions of Gholab Bingh, 
the ruler of Cashmere, 14 miles N.W. by N, from Sirinagur. 
Eat, 34® 14', long. 74® 49', 

S AFTIB ABEE, — A town io the British district of Bungpore, 
presidency of Bengal, 14 miles N,E, by N, of Bungpore, Lat, 
25® 51', long. 89® 22'. 

SAGGOUB. — A town in the native state of Booei, on the 
south-west frontier of Bengal, 86 miles E.N,E, from Sumbul- 
poor, and 110 miles N.N.W, from Cuttack, Eat, 21® 55', long. 
85® 15'. 

SAGOB,^ in the territory of Indore, or possessions of 
Holkar’s family, a small town on the route from the British 
cantonment of Mow to Baroda, 12 miles® W. of former. 
Elevation above the sea 1,932 feet,® Lat. 22® 36', long. 76® 40', 
SAHANQUBBEE, — A town in the territory of Kagpoor, 

60 miles E, by S. from Nagpoor, and 78 miles S. by B. from 
Seuni. Lat, 20® 59', long. 80® 3', 

SAHAPOOB, in the British district of Moradabad, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on 
the route from the town of Meerut to that of Moradabad, and 
36 miles S,E. of the former place. Lat, 28® Siy, long. 78® 18', 
SAILDUBEE,^ — A town in the Bajpoot state of Oodeypoor, 

61 miles E.B.E. from Oodeypoor, and 23 miles W. by S. from 
Neemuch. Lat, 24® 21', long. 74® 33', 

SAHDDBEE. — A town in the Bajpoot state of Oodeypoor, 

62 miles E.S.E, from Oodeypoor, and 13 miles S.W. by W. 
from Neemuch. Lat, 24® 20', long, 74® 43'. 

SAHEB GUNJ. — A town in the British district of Tirhoot, 
presidency of Bengal, 30 miles W.N.W. of Mozufferpoor. 
Lat, 26® 14', long. 86®, 

SAHEEWAL, in the Jetch Dooab division of the Punjab, a 
town situated on the left bank of the Jhelnm river, 119 miles 
W. by N, of the town of Lahore, Lat, 31® 58', long. 72® 21'. 

SAJHGANJ, or SAEGANJ, in the district of Pachhamrat, 
territory of Oude, a town three miles S,W- of the right bank 

2 A 2 ^ 


I EXC, Md, Doo, 

■ Ourd«n, Tabisi 
of Houtrt, 77. 

■ Pj.ttcl4reDCtf|. 
Joum, 71. 


B.I.C. M*. Doe, 


* £, r.C, Ms. Dog. 

* 0)ird«n, Tablet 
of Rou^, S40, 

^ Datig«rSetd, In 
Ajip. to Mftleolm, 
ContnL 
tU ^49, 


E4 C, Trtimi, 
Sufif, 

Gtitlet]^ Titilei of 
Uouln. ^235. 


E J.U, M«, IMie. 


EJ.O. 111. i>oc. 


e3lp3tid3r.com 

E.LC, Ui, Doc. 

Butter, Topo^. 
of Oudh, 133. 


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SAH— SAX. 


R.I.C. Ms. lh*c. 
B.l C. Trl*. S»inr. 
Llovd. Joiim to 

HImaUy*. 1^* 

P. Von 

Kasriimir. i 97. 

* B.I.C. Ms. Doc. 
K.I C. Triicon. 
8urv. 

* As Ros sir. 
»99^ — H<Mlcson 
and llerbfrt, 
Triffon Surrcj 
of litinalaja. 

* B.I.C. Als. Doc. 


• Topoarnphr of 
Oudh, 138. 


I B.I.C. Ms. Doc. 

* Garden, Tablaa 
of Routes, 29. 


B.X C. Ms. Doc. 
Garden, Tablet of 
Routes, 138. 


B.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


I K.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


* Carden, Tables 
of Routes, 8. 

* B.I.C Ms. Doe. 

* Garden, Tables 
of Routes, 288. 


■ S.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


of the Tone (North-eastern). It is aurrounded by two mud 
walls, one within the other, a ditch of six feet deep intervening. 

Distant S.E. of Lucknow 78 miles. Lat. 26° 37', long. 82° 2'. 

SAHl, in the hill state of Hindoor, a village and halting- 
place on the route from Subatlioo to Belaspoor, and 18 miles 
N.W. of the former. Lat. 31° 7 \ long. 76° 66'. 

SAIIINSPOOE,* a village in the British district of Debra 
Doon, is situate on the right bank of the Asun. It was a 
secondary station in the great trigonometrical survey of the 
Himalayas. Elevation above the sea 1,754 feet.* Lat. 30° 24', 
long. 77° 52'. 

SAH J ADPUR,* in the district of Aldemau, territory of Oude, 
a town a mile S. W. of the right bank of the river Tons (North- 
eastern), 100 miles E. of Lucknow. According to Butter,* the 
population is 3,000, of whom two-thirds are Mussulmans, prin- 
cipally weavers. Lat. 26° 26', long. 82° 28'. 

SAH KHAS,' in the British district of Futtebpoor, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town situate 
on the route from the town of Futtehpore to Banda, and seven* 
miles S.W. of the former. Lat. 25° 53', long. 80° 46'. 

SAHL A YD AN. — A town in the British territory of Pegu, 
situate on the right bank of the Irawaday river, and 16 miles 
S.W. by S. from Prome. Lat. 18° 35', long. 94° 54'. 

SAHUNPOOR, in the British district of Bijnour, lieute- 
nant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Moradabad to Hurdwar, and 64 miles N.W. of the 
former. Lat. 29° 38', long. 78° 23'. 

SAHUSPOOR. — A town in the British district of Sumbul- 
poor, south-west frontier of Bengal, 11 miles S.S.E. of Sumbul- 
poor. Lat. 21° 20', long. 84° 5'. 

SAIDABAD,* in the British district of Muttra, lieutenant- 
governorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the 
route from Agra to Aligurh, and 21 miles* N. of the former. 

Lat. 27° 26', long. 78° 6'. 

SAIGDRH,* in the territory of Oude, a village on the route 
from Lucknow cantonment to Pertabgurh, 80 miles* S.E. of 
the former, 30 N.W. of the latter. Water and supplies are 
plentiful; the road in this part of the route is good. Lat.. 

26° 18', long. 81° 30'. reaipatidar.com 

SAIN,^ in Sirmour, a range of mountains stretchiug in a 

8M 


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realpatidar.com SAI. 

direction from north-west to south-east, between the river 
Julal, flowing along its south-western, and the Giri, along its 
eastern base. It is entirely of limestone, the course of the 
Giri forming the bounding line between that formation and 
the slate ^ farther north. Fraser states that its height was 
usually conjectured to be about 8,000 feet, but he considers 
that amount too great, and adds that between 6,000 aud 7,000 
is more probable. The range stretches about twenty-five miles 
in length, between lat. 30° 37'— 30° 51', long. 77° 15'— 77° 29'. 

SAINJ, a river of Kuloo, rises in lat. 32° 2', long. 77° 40', 
and, flowing south-west for thirty-eight miles, falls into the 
Beas, in lat. 31° 43', long. 76° 16'. 

SAINT MAJBTIN ISLAND, off* the coast of Arracan, is 
formed of two divisions united by a dry ledge of rocks, near 
the east side of the island. There is anchorage in five or six 
fathoms, where ships may procure fresh water from the springs 
on the island.^ Lat. 20° 36', long. 02° 25'. 

SAINT THOMAS’S MOUNT,* in the British district of 
Chingleput, presidency of Madras, a military station at the 
foot of a hill, the most northern^ and least elevated of a small 
range running parallel to the Coromandel coast, and about five 
miles west of it. ** The cantonment is laid out at the base of 
the eastern and southern sides of the hill from which it takes 
its name, and occupies a surface of 750 acres.* The barracks 
and roost of the buildings have an eastern aspect, and are open 
to the genial influence of the sea-breeze.” It is the principal 
station and head-quarters of the Madras artillery. The Adyar 
river, which in the monsoon season has a considerable body of 
water, but is nearly dry at other times, is at the distance of a 
mile north of the cantonment, and there are numerous tanks 
scattered throughout the neighbouring country. The geological 
formation of the hill is syenite and greenstone, and its summit, 
340 feet above the level of the sea, is surmounted by a small 
range of buildings, including a Roman Catholic chapeH * and 
appropriate establishment, under the jurisdiction of the Portu- 
guese archbishop of Goa. According to tradition, the hill 
called Little Saint Thomas’s Mount was the scene of the 
martyrdom of Saint Thomas, whose apostolic toils are thought 

* According to Heber,' however, it belongs to ** those ArmeniAna who 
are united to the church of Home." 

347 


* Tours In Hlroe- 
lOS. 


* Horvburfh, 
Directory, 0. 

I E.t.C. Ms. Doe. 


• llorsburgh. 
East- 1 mil* Direc- 
tory. I. A03. 


* Report on Med. 
Topography and 
SiMtifttIce of 
Centre Division of 
Madras Army, 83. 


* Reiiort, ut 
supra, 8S. 


realpatidar.com 

* Narrat.of Joum. 

II. 878. 


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SAl— SAJ. 


• Heber, li. 277. 


* F. I.C. Ml. Doc. 
Honhurtcb KmiI- 
India Dlrtvlorj, 
1 . SM. 


• Roy. Aa. Soc. 
No. il. I72~ Swan* 
iton. on Priini* 
tUc Church of 
Malayala. 

* Hebor, Narrat. 
of Journey, ii. 277. 


* Ufe of Sir 
Thomas Munro, 
1. 28. 

B.l.C. Ms. Doc. 


I B.l.C. Ms. Doc. 


• Pltsdarenec. 
Joum. 5A, and 

Map. 

Prinacp. Transact, 
io India, U. 119. 


to have extended* thus far. The native population of Saint 
Thomas*8 Mount, exclusive of the military establishment, 
amounted in 1837, according to official statement, to 17,720 
persons ; 3,500 being Mussulmans. Distance from Madura, 
N.E., 252 miles; Tanjore, N., 170; Cuddalore, N., 95 ; Banga- 
lore, E., 178; Madras, S.W., 10. Lat. 13®, long. 80° 15'. 

ST. TIIOME,* in the British district of Chingleput, presi- 
dency of Madras, a town on the Coromandel coast, at the 
bottom of a small bay. From time immemorial, this town, 
called’-* by the natives Mailapur, is crowded every year with 
pilgrims from various parts of Asia, including Syria, Palestine, 
and Armenia, eager to visit the spot where, according to 
tradition, St. Thomas the apostle suffered* martyrdom. The 
generally alleged scene of the martyrdom is a small mount 
near the petty fort of St. Thome or Mailapur, and is now in- 
cluded within the suburbs of Madras, in consequence of the 
extension of the city in that direction. Others, however, 
maintain that the apostle was martyred at St. Thomas’s Mount, 
rising over the military cantonment of that name. According 
to the traditions of the native Christians, St. Thomas, having 
preached Christianity in Arabia, the island of Socotra, and 
Malabar, proceeded to the Coromandel coast, and having 
succeeded in making many proselytes at Mailapur, excited the 
violent jealousy and resentment of the Brahmins, at whose 
instigation he was stoned to death by the populace, and buried 
on the mount. The place was taken in the year 1647 by the 
Portuguese, who named it St. Thome, instead of Mailapur or 
“ City of Peacocks.” During the ascendancy of this nation in 
India, it became a place of considerable importance.^ Lat. 13° 2', 
long. 80° 18'. 

SAIPOOR, or SlIAHIPUR. — A town in the native state 
of Rewah. It is situate on the river Rhem, a tributary of the 
Sone, 90 miles S. of Benares, 170 W. of llazareebagh, 409 W. 
of Calcutta. Lat. 24° 3', long. 82° 45'. 

SAJ A POOR,* in the jaghire of Sumpter, in Bundelkund, a 
town 12 miles N.W. of the left bank of the river Betwa. 
Here, in Dec. 1817, the British army commanded by the 
Marquis of Hastings, Governor- General, encamped,* in course 
of its advance towards Gwalior, to intimidate Scindia. Distant^' 
S.W. of Calpee 75 miles. Lat. 25° 4G', long. 78° 53'. 

368 


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realpatidar.com SAK SAX 

SAKKEYMOUN. — A town in the British territory of Pegu, 
situate on the left bank of the Irawady riyer, and 62 miles 
S.S.E. from Prome. Lat. 18° 6', long. 95° 21'. 

SAuKOON. — A town in the Eajpoot state of Jeypoor, 
49 miles W.S.W. from Jeypoor, and 84 miles N.E. by E. from 
Ajmeer. Lat. 26° 42', long. 75° 11'. 

SAKOOB. — A town in the native state of Hyderabad, 72 
miles S. by E. from Ellichpoor, and 31 miles N.W. from 
Mahur. Lat. 20° 10', long. 77° 40'. 

8AKUM, in the Beech na Dooab division of the Punjab, a 
town situated 14 miles from the right bank of the Bavee, 18 
miles N.W. by N. of the town of Lahore. Lat. 31° 49', 
long. 74° 8'. 

SALAQBA. — See Gtoduck. 

SALAGBAM. — A town in the native state of Mysore, 32 
miles W.N.W. from Seringapatam, and 77 miles N.E. from 
Cannanore. Lat. 12° 35', long. 76° 18'. 

SALAON, or SALON, the principal town of the district of 
the same name, is situate close to the right bank of the river 
Saee. It belongs to a proprietor, who, though denominated 
fakir, has an annual income of 30,000 rupees ; out of which 
reserving 1,200 for his personal wants, he expends the re- 
mainder on the maintenance of Hindoo and Mussulman 
religious mendicants, without distinction of tenets. The 
population is estimated by Butter at 4,000, of whom 1,000 are 
Hindoo cultivators, the rest Mussulmans. Lat. 26° 2', long. 
81° 30'. 

8 ALBY,^ or SALBYE. — A town in the territory of Gwalior, 
or the possessions of Scindia’s family, 32 miles S.E. of the fort 
of Gwalior. Here, in 1782, was concluded a treaty^ between 
the Mahratta states and the British government, unfavourable 
on the whole to the latter, but making to them an unqualified 
transfer of Salsette and two or three islands of minor import- 
ance, as well as confirming a previous assignment of the 
Mahratta claims in regard to the city of Broach. Lat. 25° 50', 
long. 78° 16'. 

SALEEHATTA. — A town on the south-west frontier of 
Bengal, in the petty native state of Patna, situate on the left 
bank of the Aurag river, and 42 miles S.W. by S. from 
Sumbulpoor. Lat. 21°, long. 83° 39'. 

869 


E.I.C. Ms. Doe. 


E.T.C. Ms. Doe. 
Rutter, Topof. of 
Oudh. 180. 


I R.l.C. Mt. Doe. 


*TreetlMwith the 
Native Power*, 
881. 


realpatidar.com 


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realpatidar.com SALEM. 

> E.i.a Dw, SALEM,' a British district under the presidency of 
Madras, named from its principal place, is bounded on the 
north by Mysore and the northern diviaion of Arcot ; on the 
east by the northern and son them divisions of Arcot ; on the 
south and south-east by Trichinopoly ; on the south- west by 
Coimbatore ; and on the west by the last-named district and 
by Mysore. It lies between lat. 11'^ 2' — 12° 54', and long, 

* p»riiftmi-hur 7 77° 32'— 79° : the area is returned at 8,2CK> square miles,® 

The western part of the district, boraering on Mysore and the 
British district of Coimbatore, is very mountainous, and some 
of the ranges attain an elevation of between 5,000 and 6,000 

* Rrr«»rt nn mchl feet above the level of the sea. “ The Javenaddy* Mountains 

Topusrflpliv mid , , * 1 1 -n * i 1 ii 

suikiii'i fir are siluate on the eastern side of the Baramabal, the Sheevaroy 

Sftiem, near the town of Salem, the Patchamally in the talook of 

Ahtoor, and the Collemally and Shendamungalum range in tlie 
south-eastern corner of the district. AJl these hills are in- 
habited and extensively cultivated, and produce abundance of 
teak, sandal- wood, and black- wood.'* The river Cauvery 
touclies on this district at its north-western angle, and 
flowing first south-eastward, and subsequently southward, 
forms the western and south-western boundary of this district 
tow^ards Coimbatore for 140 miles. It passes into Trichino- 
poly, and ultimately fills into the Bay of Bengal. Tbe 
general drainage of the country is southward and southwest- 
ward into the river Cauvery ; and of the streams taking this 
course, the principal is the Tyroinany, flowing by the town of 
Salem. A few streams in the oiistern part of the district flow 
northward or north-eastward, and discharge themselves into 
the Palar, wliich flows through a portion of the northern part 
of the collectorate. There are no considerable lakes in tins 
district, but tanks or artificial pieces of water are very com- 
mon ; and during the rains, much of the country becomes 
swampy, and productive of malaria. Wells are very numerous, 
and water is generally found w'ithin a short distance of the 
surface ; but it is brackish and not perfectly w'holesome. The 
climate, owing to the great difference of elevations, varies 
considerably ; on tbe hills it is cold and bracing, and for a 
great part of the year very salubrious. The qualities of the 
differ much ; in the country immediately surrounding the 
town of Salem, a thin layer of calcareous and red loam 

WJO 



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generally prevailing, through which quartz rocks appear on the 
surface in many places. Native carbonate of magnesia^ is 
found in a stony barren plain about five miles to the north- 
west of Salem, and is used in forming an excellent cement, as 
well as in the preparation of sulphate of magnesia, and also in 
obtaining pure magnesia. In the southern part of the district 
there is much iron-ore, which, on reduction, yields sixty per 
cent, of the metal fit for castings. Cotton is the principal 
commercial crop, and comprises the indigenous, the Bourbon, 
the American, and the Nankin. CofiTee, indigo, sugar, and 
tobacco are also cultivated. An experiment, conducted by the 
authority of government in this district in 1843, for the im- 
provement of the manufacture of sugar from the cane, is stated 
to have been successful.^ The population^ is stated to amount 
to 1,195,377. 

SALEM.^ — The principal place of the British district of the 
same name, under the presidency of Madras. “ It lies in the 
lowest and narrowest part of a valley* about seven miles in 
width, formed by the Sheevaroy hills to the northward, and a 
smaller and undistinguished range to the southward. This 
valley is prolonged about five miles from Salem in an easterly 
direction, when, by the termination of the smaller hills, the 
country again becomes open. Westward, the country is 
generally open, the only exceptions being occasional small 
insulated hills.” 

The climate is somewhat fluctuating and uncertain, ** the* 
thermometer having been found to range in December from 
60° to 87°; in January from 68° to 82°; in February from 
60° to 91°; and in March from 66° to 96°: in the two suc- 
ceeding months the variation is less, being in April from 72° to 
95°, and in May from 75° to 96°. Early in June, the monsoon 
from the western coast generally extends to Salem in short 
but heavy and frequent showers, attended with thunder and 
lightning, continuing till late in September; by the end of 
October, rain begins to fall from the north-east monsoon, and 
showers recur with a very clouded sky till the middle of De- 
cember. Between June and December, the extremes of the 
thermometer are 68° and 90°.” A north-easterly w ind pre- 
vails pretty steadily at Salem from the beginning of November 
to the end of January or middle of February, which is for the 

.V>1 


* IJadraa R«venu« 
DUp. a Apr. 1837. 


* Id. 2S Jun«>, 
1844. 

* iladra* Oniut 
Itctiirn, Juljr, 

* E.I.C Mb. Doc. 


• Report on Med. 
Topofcniphj and 
Sialikiica of 
Salem, 3. 


^ Rrport, ot 
iuprm, 6. 


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first two months after it sets ki rather moist, cool, and agree- 
able ; but becomes more and more arid as the season advances, 
blowing from the mountains which bound Salem on the north. 

In January the wind becomes disagreeably cold in the morn- 
ing, and unpleasantly warm at noon, being dry and parching at 
both periods. It produces even in people in health an annoy- 
ing dryness of the skin, and exposure to it seems a frequent 
exciting cause of fever. After the middle or end of February, 
the wind, which is at times variable wnth frequent lulls, shifts 
round to the south and south-west, and blows from that 
quarter in hot puffs and with much uncertainty during April 
and May. Cooled by the rains of the south-west monsoon, 
this wind blows pretty freshly in June and July, and more 
moderately in the two following months. In October the 
wind becomes again variable, till the setting in of the north- 
east monsoon.” 

The river Tiro many, w-hich holds its course down the valley, 
sweeps along the north and west sides of the town, and is 
traversed by a substaiftial bridge of three arches. On the 
western bank of the river, and rather to the south of the town, 
stands the old mud fort of Salem, the ramparts of which have 
been partially thrown down and the ditch filled up. It is now 
inhabited chiefly by the peons, or local irregular infantry. The 
bouses of the few Europeans resident here are at some distance 
west of tlie fort. The old jail, situate on a slightly elevated 
rocky site on the right bank of the river, is a heavy bomb-proof 
building, with thick and strong walls of brick and chunam : 
the new jail is situate on the left bank of the river. There is 
a small military detachment stationed at this place. There are 
many handsome choultries or public lodges for travellers ; and 
Salem may be considered a well-built town for this part of 
India, there being two wide principal streets, which run from 
east to west. The number of houses is 8,821, the population 
< R«>T>ort, ut 19,021. Elevation above the sea 1,070 feet distance from 

.«pr«. 8 . Bangalore, S.E., 100 miles ; Madras, S.W., 170. Lat. 11° SO', 

long. 78° 12'. 

E.i.e. If*. Doc. SALHANA. — A town in the British district of Shikarpoor, 

province of Scinde, presidency of Bombay, 20 miles S. of 
Shikarpoor. Lat. 27° 44', long. 68° 37'. realpatidar.com 

I B.I.C. M*. Doc. SALIMPUR,* in the territory of Oude, a village on the 

SS3 


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route from Lucknow cantonment to Purtabgurh, 26 ^ miles ■ Garden, Tablet 
8.K of the former, 84 N.W. of the latter. Lat. 26° 46', long. ***• 

81° 4'. 

8 A LX YM ATJy , in the Beechna Dooab division of the e.ix;. ua. Doe. 

Punjab, a town situated on the left bank of the Chenaub, 

88 miles W. by S. of